Skip to main content

Full text of "Cornelli Taciti annalium"

See other formats


. 1 1; i\ 


I ■■ X \ ; 

:.nji;:,ij;;, '.iT.a.'j 



^i^vv^Ha/O ^^ ^ "^i^^AJ^X^" > 





OF henry' FURNEAUX, M.A., BY 




Oxford University Press 

London Edinburgh Glasgow Copenhagen 

New York Toronto Melbourne Cape Town 

Bo)nbay Calcutta Madras Shanghai 

Humphrey Mllford Publisher to the University 

\ ' ■-■■ '-' ! jT^ 

Impression of 1925 
First edition, igo4 

Printed in England 


This abridgement has been made under the belief that 
the interest of Tacitus' history of the reign of Nero makes 
it a suitable subject for school reading, and in the hope 
that such a book may serve the needs of students desiring 
a less copious and advanced commentary than Mr. Furneaux' 
large edition of the Annals. 

The text is that contained in the second volume of the 
larger work, and is mainly that of Halm (ed. 4, Leipzig, 
1883), from which it varies in places in the direction of 
retaining or approaching more closely to the readings of the 
Medicean MS. 

In the Introductions and Notes Mr. Furneaux' con- 
clusions are carefully followed, though occasionally slight 
verbal alterations are made in his renderings, and of some 
passages, left without comment in the large edition, I have 
inserted explanations or translations where these seemed 
appropriate to a less advanced work. In the Introduc- 
tion on Syntax I have followed the lines of that given in 
the abridged edition of Antials i-iv, supplying illustrations 
from Books xiii-xvi : sections in which I have ventured on 
certain extensions or modifications of the original treatment 
are §§ 3 b, 16, 20, 22, and the last two paragraphs of § 41. 

My best thanks are due to my friend and colleague. 
Professor F. Brooks, of University College, Bristol, for his 
kind help in the work of scrutinizing the proof-sheets for 
misprints or mis-statements. 

H. Pitman. 

University College, Bristol, 
Feb., 1904. 




I. Life of Tacitus v 

II. On the Syntax and Style of Tacitus . ix 

III. Historical Introduction to these Books xxvi 

IV. Life of Nero ...... xxxiv 

V. Affairs in the East .... xxxix 

VI. Genealogy of the family of Augustus 

and of the Claudian Caesars . xliii-iv 


Appendix to Book XVI. Summary of the 
principal events between the end of Book 
XVI and the death of Nero . . . i 

Notes on the text , . . . . ^-146 



§ I. Our knowledge of the chief facts and dates in the life of 
Tacitus rests mainly on allusions in his own writings and those 
of his friend the younger Pliny, who addresses several letters to 
him and often speaks of him in others. 

His praenomen is not mentioned in this correspondence, and 
is differently given by later authorities as Gaius or Publius. His 
family connexions are unknown ; but he would appear to have 
been the first of his name to attain senatorial rank, though of 
sufficient position to have begun his ' cursus honorum ' at the 
earliest, or almost the earliest, legal age ; as he can hardly have 
been born earlier than 52-54 A. D., and must have been quaestor 
not later than 79 A. D., by which time he had also received in 
marriage the daughter of Agricola, who was already a consular, 
and one of the first men in the State. 

His boyhood falls thus under the time of Nero ; his assumption 
of the ' toga virilis ' would coincide, or nearly so, with the terrible 
year of Galba, Otho, and Vitellius ; his early manhood was spent 
under Vespasian and Titus ; the prime of his life under Domitian ; 
the memory of whose tyranny is seen in all his historical writings, 
which were composed at various dates in the great time of Trajan. 

Most of his life may be supposed to have been spent in Rome, 
where he became one of the leaders of the Bar, and one of the 
best known literary names of Rome ; so that a stranger sitting 
next to him at the games, and finding him to be a man of letters, 
asked whether he was speaking to Tacitus or to Pliny ^ He is 
further known ^ as having been consul suffectus and in that 
capacity colleague with Nerva in 97 A. D., and as associated with 
Pliny in the prosecution of Marius Priscus, proconsul of Africa, in 
^ Plin. Etp. ix 23, 2. ^ lb. ii 1,6. 



looA.D. ' This is the last fact in his life definitely known, and 
there is no evidence that he outlived Trajan. 

§ 2. The Annals, more properly entitled ' Libri ab excessu divi 
Augusti,' comprising in sixteen Books the history of fifty-four 
years from the death of Augustus to that of Nero, are the latest 
in date of his writings, and are shown by an allusion to the 
Eastern conquests of Trajan (ii 6l, 2), to have been published 
at some date not earlier than 1 1 5 A. D., and probably before the 
retrocession of the Eastern frontier under Hadrian in 117 A. D. 
The first six Books, comprising the principate of Tiberius, rest on 
a single manuscript, called the First Medicean, written prob- 
ably in the tenth or eleventh century, and now preserved at 
Florence. The text of Books xiii-xvi, given in this volume, is 
based on a MS. known as the Second Medicean, which contains 
all that we have of Books xi-xvi, besides all the extant part of 
the Histories, with the exception of i 69-75 and i 86 — ii 2. It is 
known to have been sent from Florence to Rome in 1427 A. D., 
but it was shortly afterwards returned to Florence, where it passed 
to the Convent of St. Mark, and thence to the Laurentian Library, 
where it still remains. Other existing MSS. cannot be proved 
to be of earlier date, and are generally regarded as based, if not on 
the Medicean MS. itself, at any rate on the same source as that from 
which it was taken, their variations being either attempted emenda- 
tions or preserving the right text in places where the original letters of 
Med. have become illegible and been reproduced by a later hand. 

Materials available to Tacitus. 
§ 3. In xiii 17, 3 Tacitus refers to 'plerique eorum temporum 
scriptores.' Among those whose writings he consulted was C. Plinius 
Secundus (Pliny the Elder), who continued the history of Aufidius 
Bassus from the point where it ended, probably the reign of 
Claudius, to the fall of Jerusalem, and also wrote a separate 
history of Germany. His authority is definitely quoted, xiii 20, 3; 
XV 53, 4; and perhaps xiii 31, i contains a reference to him, 
but with the exception of the Natural History his works are lost 
to us. Other historians definitely quoted are M. Cluvius Rufus 
and Fabius Rusticus. The former (xiii 20, 3 ; xiv 2, i), who 

* Plin. Epp. ii 11, 2. 


was consul some time before the death of Gaius, a companion of 
Nero in Greece, legatus of Spain under Galba, and one of Vitellius' 
courtiers, is thought to have written a history covering the period 
from Gaius to ViteUius, which was perhaps used by Josephus in 
his account of Gaius' death, and consulted by Plutarch as well as 
Tacitus. Fabius Rusticus (quoted in the same passages as Cluvius) 
is described as too partial to Seneca, but as being in eloquence 
and brilliancy the Livy of his age {A^r. lo, 3) : he described 
Britain, so perhaps his history began with Claudius' reign, and there 
are no allusions to it with reference to events later than Nero's time. 
Tacitus also refers to Corbulo's memoirs (xv 16, i) in his account of 
affairs in the East, and may also have consulted those of Suetonius 
Paulinas (used by Pliny, A''. N.) for events in Britain. 

Other available materials would be biographies, such as those 
of Thrasea and Helvidius by Arulenus Rusticus and Herennius 
Senecio, funeral orations on famous men, and letters of public men 
collected and published like those of the younger Pliny. There 
were also the public records : ' acta ' or ' commentarii senatus ' 
had been kept since the first consulship of Julius Caesar, who at 
the same time also started the 'acta diurna urbis,' the daily 
gazette chronicling proceedings in the courts and chief events of 
public importance ; and Tacitus made use of both ; e.g. xv 74, 3 ; 
iii 3, 2, The events of which he wrote, too, were sufficiently near 
to his own day for a considerable amount of tradition about them 
to be still existing and worth recording, as the frequency of 
' ferunt,' 'traditur,' Sec, before stories cited by him indicates. 

Historical value of the Atifials. 
§ 4. As Dio complains, it was more difficult for historians to get 
at the truth under the Empire than under the Republic. Politics 
were no longer for the general public ; in jurisdiction, in the 
administration of the provinces, and in the conduct of war, much 
was done by the princeps and his private advisers that could only 
become known from official versions issued at the time, or from 
such reminiscences as generals or imperial officials cared to publish 
subsequently. Persons outside government circles remained at the 
mercy of the official version : reminiscences of a general might be 
mere gelf-glorification. Tacitus believed himself to be writing 
' vii 


impartially, and was a diligent student and compiler of materials, 
aiming at basing his narrative on a ' consensus auctorum.' But 
like other ancient historians he probably had little sense of the 
necessity of correctly estimating the intrinsic merits of the authors 
from whom he drew his material. And in the earlier part of the 
Attnals it is more than probable that his portrait of Tiberius is 
unfairly coloured, because he has drawn for his facts upon au- 
thorities violently prejudiced against that monarch. P"or such 
suspicions against the subject-matter of the four last books there is 
less foundation. The events there recorded took place in Tacitus' 
own childhood: as a young man he must have had frequent 
opportunity of meeting and talking with people who had lived 
under Nero, and in the light of what he heard from them he 
would be less likely to be misled by the writers whom he con- 
sulted, if they were guilty of misrepresentation. And these 
writers were certainly in a position to know the facts. 

Tacitus' conception of the /unction of history. 

§ 5. Tacitus' professed purpose in writing history is a moral 
one, 'to rescue virtue from oblivion, and that base words and 
deeds should have the fear of posthumous infamy' (iii 65, i) ; he 
wishes, in fact, to influence men in the right direction by holding 
up examples of noble conduct for imitation, of base conduct for 
avoidance. At the same time it is his aim to point out the right 
political conduct for the subjects of the principate ; ' how even 
under bad princes there can be good citizens' {Agr. 42, 5) ; that 
the best course is at the same time the safest, and is one of digni- 
fied moderation, such as that followed by Manius Lepidus under 
Tiberius, Memmius Regulus under Nero, and Agricola under 
Domitian, avoiding on the one hand the vile obsequiousness of 
the flatterers and tools, who after all were discarded by their master 
or punished by his successor, and on the other such truculent and 
ostentatious opposition as that of Helvidius Priscus, inviting and 
incurring destruction. 

This point of view gives his work a wider range than that of 

a mere biographer like Suetonius. To Tacitus the general working 

of the Roman system is interesting as a field for the display of 

character, and events are selected and represented in illustration 



of the motives of the agents. This outlook makes him careless 
about exact details of strategy, geography, and chronology, such 
as are expected of a modem historian, and brings him into line 
with the satirists, whom he further resembles in his bold charac- 
terization, his vivid contrasts and tendencies to exaggeration, and 
the epigrammatic style of his diction. 



Note — Most of what is here said is applicable to the writings of Tacitus 
as a whole, and especially to the Aiinah; but the instances given are 
almost wholly from the four Books contained in this volume. 

By the time of Tacitus, Latin prose composition had already 
departed much from the standard of Cicero or Caesar, through 
the frequent adoption of words and forms of expression from the 
great classic poets, who had by that time become textbooks in 
every grammar-school ; also through an increasing tolerance of 
Greek words and grammatical Graecisms, partly due to such 
study of Augustan poetry, partly to an increasing taste for what 
was Greek as such \ 

The special qualities of the style of Tacitus have been held to 
consist chiefly in rhetorical or poetical colouring, in the study of 
brevity, and in that of variety ; all of which characteristics are 
no doubt due mainly to his professional career ^ He has him- 
self told us that the pleader in his day could no longer expatiate 
like Cicerd, but was bound to be terse, epigrammatic, and 
striking, and to grace his style with poetic colouring from the 
treasury of Vergil and Horace, or even from more recent poets ^ 
In falling in with this fashion, Tacitus draws the poetic element 
in his style almost exclusively from Vergil, to whom he is re- 
peatedly and abundantly indebted ; while his chief prose models 
are Sallust and Livy, his great predecessors in the field of 

^ Jnvenal mentions (7, 226) the use of Horace and Vergil as school- 
books, and aho dwells at length (3, 61 foil.) on the extent to which the 
Rome of his day had become L.reek. 

' See Inlr. i, § i. ' Dial, de Oratoribus, 19, 20. 



history'. The effort at variety of expression, besides being part 
of the habitual skill of an orator, is further due to the historian's 
desire to relieve what he feels to be the oppressive monotony of 
his subject ", by saying the same thing with the utmost variety of 
expression, by often giving the sentence an unexpected turn, by 
inventing new words or new senses of words, or reviving such as 
had become somewhat obsolete. 

Of the various usages noted in the following sections, com- 
paratively few are altogether peculiar to Tacitus ; but many are 
new in prose, and all are so far Tacitean that they are used by 
him with more boldness and freedom than by earlier prose 


[The references in square brackets are to the paragraphs in the Introduction 
on Syntax, large edition, Vol. I] 

I. Substantives, Adjectives, and Pronouns. 

1 [i, 3]. Abstract nouns are used frequently in place of concrete, 
most commonly in the plural : dominationibus aliis fastiditus, 
xiii I, I ; a clientelis et servitiis Octaviae, xiv 61, 3; validam 
quoque et laudatam antiquitatem, xv 13, 3; imperatoriae iuventae, 
xiii 2, 2 (cf. pueritiae Neronis, xiv 3, 5) ; superbia nmliebris, 
xiii 14, I ; imbellis aetas, xiii 54, 2. 

Note also the adoption from poets of the adjectival use of sub- 
stantives in apposition ; as sidus cometes, xiv 22, i ; mare Hadria, 
XV 34, 2. 

2 [4,6]. A. Adjectives are used substantivally with much freedom ; 
(a) in masc, as equester, xiii 10, 3 ; militares, xiv 33, 4. (i) in 
neut., as triste . . . providum, xv 34, I ; breve et incertum, xiv 29, 3; 
secretum, xvi 25, 2 ; in incerto, xv 36, I ; imaginem honesti, 
xvi 32, 3 (cf. also scripto usum, xiii 23, 3). (c) neut. plur., 
suprema (= death), xvi 11, 3. 

B. Adjectives are often used adverbially, as secondary predi- 

* See below, § 08. * See iv 32 and 33. 


cates, as steterunt diversi, xvi 30, 4 ; fiequens adesse, xiii 35, 7 ; 
priores audere (piignam), xiii 36, I ; properi inferuntur, xvi 11, 4. 

3 [8]. (a) Pronouns belonging to the third person are often 
omitted, especially in the accus., even so as sometimes to involve 
harshness or obscurity: thus se is omitted in xiii 49, 5 ; xv 27, 3 ; 
XV 43, 2 ; eum, xiv 52, 3 ; eos, xv 52, 2. 

(d) The indefinite quis is not confined to subordinate clauses 
introduced by si, ne, &c. ; see xiii 57, 6; xiv 33, 6; xv 38, 3; 
xvi 19, 5. 

II. Cases. 
A- Accusath'e. 

4 [11]. The poetical or Greek accusative of the part concerned, 
rare in prose, is employed : praeriguisse manus, xiii 35, 6 ; frigidus 
artus, XV 64, 3 ; flexus genu, xvi 4, 3. 

5 [10]. The accusative of the place towards which motion takes 
place is used without preposition : Oceanum decurrerent, xiii 53, 3. 

6 [12]. Transitive accusatives are used 

{a) in apposition to the sentence, i.e. explanatory of an action 
described, not of a single substantive in the sentence; xiv 53, 4; 
xvi 8, I ; xvi 17, 4. 

(b) after verbs expressing mental feelings ; agmen pavescere, 
xiv 30, 2. 

{c) after compound verbs, where a dative or a repetition of the 
preposition with its proper case would be regular; malos prae- 
mineret, xv 34, 3; munimenta propugnabant, xv 13, 2; genua 
advolvi, XV 71, i. 

7 [14]. The use of adverbial accusatives, as id temporis, xiii 18, i, 
is extended, new forms being introduced, as idem aetatis, xiii 16, i. 

B. Dative. 

8 {a) [15]. After compound verbs expressing deprivation Tacitus 
follows poets and Livy in using dative where ablative with preposi- 
tion would be more usual: subtrahere oculis, xiii 17, 4 ; poenae 
eximere, xiv 40, 5 ; urbi detractum, xiv 24, 7 ; &c. 

{b) [21]. After compound verbs Tacitus follows poets in using 
dative, rather than ad or in, as oneri adhaerentes, "xUi.^ 35, 6; 


moenibus admovere, xiii 39, 4; balineis inferuntur, xvi 11, 4; 
rather than cum, licentiae permixtus, xiii 24, i ; Poppaeae con- 
iungitur, xiv 60, i. 

9 [17]. Dativus Commodi : (a) rebus conducere, xiv 61, 6, and 
the much bolder non referre dedecori, xv 65, 2, should be noted. 

[19]. (d) the dative of a noun, so closely connected with another 
that a genitive would be expected, is frequent in poets and also in 
Livy, and still more in Tacitus : cf. ministeria magistratibus et 
sacerdotibus, xiii 27, 2 ; flagitiis et sceleribus velamenta, xiii 47, i ; 
vulneribus ligamenta, xv 54, 4. 

10 [18]. The Dative of Agent is used without restriction to the 
gerundive or adjectives in -bills, and without any prominence of 
the idea of the 'interest' of the agent: as Neroni trahebatur, 
xiii 20, i: cf. xv 35, i; sibi compertum, xiii 43, 4; Corbuloni 
audita, xv 3, i. To this case rather than ablative should be 
referred such phrases as cupita aliis, xiii 13, 5 ; suspecta maiori- 
bus, xiv 44, 4 ; sapientioribus deliberatum, xiv 44, I ; iter Lucullo 
penetratum, xv 27, l ; parta maioribus, xv 2, 3. See also § 16. 

11 [22]. The Dative of Purpose or Work contemplated is very 
frequent: the gerund or gerundive in this case may follow an adj., 
as dignam . . . suscipiendo . . . imperio, xiii 14, 3 ; or stand with 
a verb, as equivalent to a final clause, as testificando . . . vulgabat, 
xiii II, 2; subruendo vallo inducit, xiii 39, 4, and many other 
instances, e.g. contegendis, xiii 13, 2; supplendis, xiii 7, i ; firmando, 
xiii 41, 3 ; visendis, xv 10, 4. The same use of this case is 
extended to substantives : dux bello delectus, xiii 9, 6 ; venditioni 
exposita, xiii 25, i ; verberibus nianus intenderent, xiii 26, 2; see 
also ultioni, xiii 32, 1 ; viae, xiii 40, 2 ; sermoni, xiv 53, i ; colloquio, 
XV 28, I. 

12 [23]. This should be distinguished from 'predicative' datives 
showing that which a thing or person serves as or occasions, such 
as spectaculo, xiii 9, 4; crimini, xiii 10, 3; muneri, xiv 31, 3; 
irrisui, xiv 39, 3 ; documento, xv 27, 2 ; ostentui, xv 29, 7 ; indutui, 
xvi 4, 2 ; Usui, xvi 19, 5. 

C. Ablative. 

13 [24]. The Ablative of Place whence is used freely, without 
preposition, both of proper names, as Italia pellerentur, xiii 25, 4; 



Armenia abscessere, xiii 7, 2 ; Pontico mari . . . adventantes, xiii 39, 1 ; 
and of common names, as cubiculo prorumpit, xiii 44, 6 ; pellit 
sedibus xv 27, 4 ; often after compound verbs implying separation, 
as matrimonio depulsam, xiii 19, 2; sententia decessit, xiv 49, 5 ; 
demovet cura, xiii 14, i ; exuerent sedibus, xiii 39, 3 ; contuberniis 
extracti, xv 13, 2. 

14 [25]. The Ablative of Place at which is used, without preposi- 
tion, as freely as in poetry, as Cappadocia, xiii 8, 2 ; insula Pandateria, 
xiv 63, I ; tenere se munimentis, xiii 36, 2 ; curru . . . vehens, 
xiv 35, I ; foro ac templis, xiv 61, i ; foribus, xv 31, i ; sedilibus, 
xvi 5, 2. Note also medio, xv 18, i ; xv 29, 5. So too of the way 
by which, as Rhodano, xiii 53, 3 ; saltibus (co-ordinated with per 
lacus), xiii 54, 2. 

1 5 [26]. Time throughout which (a post- Augustan use), as reliquo 
noctis, xiv 10, i ; medio temporis, xiii 28, 3 ; triumphis, votis, 
XV 45, 2 ; triennio, xvi 22, i. On the other hand Tacitus some- 
times uses ' in ' to express time in the course of which, as in tribunatu 
plebis, xiv 48, i. 

16 [27], Instrumental Ablative is sometimes extended to persons 
(a poetical use), centurione comitatus, xiv 8, 5 ; Corbuloni certis 
nuntiis audita sunt, xv 3, i ; repentinis hostibus circumventi, xv 4, 4. 
The use of this case to describe the force with which military 
operations are conducted resembles such Greek constructions as 
(itpfii/ a-Tparca : see xv 7, 2 duabus legionibus Arm^niam intrat ; 
totis regni viribus advenisse, xv 13, 5 ; cf. also expeditis legionibus, 
xiii 41, I ; non infenso exercitu, xiv 23, i ; ipse legionibus citis, 
xiv 26, 1 ; which may be referred to this rather than ablative absolute. 

17 [28]. The Ablative of Manner or Modal Ablative is employed 
boldly without any adjective, as vigilatam convivio noctem, xiii 20, 5 ; 
see also ignavia, xiv 20, 3 ; impetu, xiv 32, 5 and xv 38, 4 ; cuneo, 
xiv 37, I. 

18 [29]. The Ablative of Quality is often used of persons 
without the addition of the verb ' esse ' or of a common name 
(cf, § 25), as Plautum magnis opibus, xiv 57, 5 ; habebatur . . . 
erudito luxu, xvi 18, i ; Eprium Marcellum acri eloquentia, 
xvi 22, 10. 

19 [30J. The Causal Ablative is used with much freedom in the 
Annuls, where a preposition, or ' causa ' or 'gratia ' with genitive, 



would be expected, both of subjective motives, as caritate suorum, 
^"^ 38, 7 ; spe, xvi 24, 2 ; pugnam iniperitia poscebant, xiii 36, 3 
(note also facinorum recordatione, xv 36, 3 ; inclinatione quadam 
hostiuni, xiii 9, 5) ; and of objective causes, as fervore aspernabatur, 
xiii 16, 3 ; magni nominis miseratione, xiv 58, 3. Both types are 
seen in xiv 31, 4, qua contumelia et metu graviorum. Note also 
non militate publica sed in saevitiam unius, xv 44, 8 ; publica 
fortuna, xiv II, 2; aequitate deum, xvi 33, i ; revolutus ad vitia 
seu vitiorum imitatione, xvi 18, 4. 

20. A very noticeable extension of this use is its frequent employ- 
ment as giving the ground of fame, good or bad, as multarum 
rerum experientia cognitos, xiii 6, 4 ; experientia probatos, xiii 29, 3 ; 
cognomento . . . non insigne, sed copia negotiatorum . . . celebre, 
xiv 33, I ; insignis genere fama lascivia, xiii 19, 2 ; celeberrimae 
luxu famaque, xv 37, 2 ; vita famaque laudatum, xv 50, 4 ; amicitiae 
fide et arte medicinae probatum, xv 64, 3 ; notum amore uxoris, 
XV 53, 5 ; Chaldaeorum arte famosum, xvi 14, i ; matrimonio 
senatoris baud ignota, xvi 20, i. (So too ex primoribus peritia 
legum, xiii 30, 3.) 

21 [31]. Ablative absolute: some characteristic uses should be 
noticed : 

(a) the participle sometimes stands in ablative neuter without 
noun or pronoun, multum disceptato, xv 14, 4 ; semel edito, xvi 16, 3. 

{d) the neuter ablative of the participle stands as predicate, with 
a sentence as subject, as satis comperto Vologesen attineri, xiii ;^7, 6 ; 
scripto . . . ut . . . ostenderet, xiii 56, 4 ; see also cognito, xiv 34, 2 ; 
praedicto, xvi 33, 3. (Such an ablative neuter participle may be 
sometimes understood from a participle previously used in another 
gender ; cf. xiv 33, 2 ; xv i, i.) 

(t) ablative absolute is sometimes used though the words might 
be brought into more direct construction with the verb of the 
sentence, as perfecto demum scelere magnitudo eius intellecta est, 
xiv 10, I ; cunctantibus (sc. coniuratis) . . . Epicharis . . . arguere 
coniuratos, xv 51, i ; hausto veneno, tarditatem eius perosus, 
xvi 14, 6. 

{(i) the ablative is thus used by itself without demonstrative or 
relative pronoun when the subject can easily be supplied from the 
sense ; as vulgantibus, xiii 7, i ; promittentibus, xiii 15, 8, 


(e) there is frequently an omission of the antecedent pronoun, 
where a relative clause follows participle or adjective ; adulantibus 
qui . . ., xiv 47, i; sociis .'. . quos, xiv 40, 4; apertis quae, 
XV 27, I, &c. 

22. It should be remembered that the ablative has the wide 
general function of expressing the circumstances attendant on an 
action. This explains 

(a) the frequent occurrence of a substantive and adjective in 
ablative not definitely referable to the categories 'absolute,' 
' causal,' &c., which are names for special developments of the 
general function. Besides ordinary 'absolute' ablatives like acri 
etiam turn libertate, xiii 50, 3 ; incolumi Agrippina, xiv i, i ; 
mediis decimanorum delectis, xiii 40, 3 ; there are many for which 
'ablative of attendant circumstance' would be a better name, as 
crebra vulgi fama, xiii i, 2; magnis patrum laudibus, xiii 11, i ; 
difficili effugio, xiv 27> 3 ; nulla palam causa, xiv 32, i ; see also 
XV 29, 4. Sometimes there is an approach to the ' causal ' use, as 
errore longo, xiii 56, 6 ; talibus Uteris, xv 25, I ; tali iam Britannici 
exitio, xiv 3, 3. In xv 54, i multo sermone, and xvi 31, i longo 
fletu et silentio, the ablatives have the form of ablative of ' descrip- 
tion,' but are co-ordinated with a past participle and accompanied 
with adverbs of time, showing that they are meant to indicate 
action, as though equivalent to past participles, i.e. = ablative 
absolute. This makes the strange ablative of description dux 
diversis artibus, xiv 23, 3, more intelligible. 

(d) the ablative of gerund or gerundive as equivalent to a present 
participle or temporal clause introduced by dum ; as trahen?, 
callidumque et simulatorem interpretando, xiii 47, I ; exercendo, 
xiv 20, 5 ; in edita assurgens et rursus inferiora populando, xv 38, 4 ; 
exturbabant . . . appellando, xiv 31, 5 ; explenda simulatione 
(causal, cf. § 19), xiv 4, 8 ; percursando, xv 8, 3; protegendo, xv 57, 3; 
alendo, xvi 30, i. 

D. Genitive. 

23 [32]. Partitive or quasi-partitive. Such are abundant, the 
partitive meaning being often lost sight of, and the construction 
being equivalent, as in poetry (e.g. ' strata viarum,' Lucr. Verg.), 
to a simple substantive and adjective. 



(a) after neut. sing., as reliquo noctis, xiv lo, i ; lubricum ado- 
lescentiae, xiv 56, 2 ; plus feminarum, xiv 36, i ; nihil hostium, 
xiv 34, 2 ; idem virium, xiv 52, i ; quidqiiid hoc in nobis auctori- 
tatis est, xiv 43, 2. 

(d) after neut. plur., as reliqua belli, xiv 38, I ; cuncta scelerum, 
xiv 60, I ; occulta coniurationis, xv 74, i. 

(c) after masc. or fem., also frequently, as with pauci, multi, &c. : 
and in expressions like obvii servorum, xiv 8, 3 ; praevalidi pro- 
vincialium, xv 20, i. 

{d) with adverbs, as eo contemptionis descensum, xv i, 2. 

(e) 'pensi habere,' xiii 15, 5, adopted from previous writers, is 
referred to this head by Madvig, but to the genitive (or locative) of 
price by Roby (11 86). 

24 [33]- Objective Genitive. 

(a) with verbs. The elliptical genitive, common with verbs of 
accusing and judging, is extended to new examples, as interrogare, 
xiii 14, 2 ; deferre, xiv 48, 2 ; aemulationis suspectos, xiii 9, 2. 

(i) with participles, frequently, as with cupiens, xvi 6, I ; patiens, 
XV 6, 6 ; and (according to one reading) retinens, xvi 5, i. 

(c) with adjectives, frequently ; the genitive sometimes expressing 
the direct object, where accusative with participle might be sub- 
stituted, as imminentium nescius, xv 9, 2 ; or a more remote object, 
where ablative with de would be usual, as certus eventus, xiv 
36, 5 ; incuriosum fratris, xv. 31, I ; oftenest expressing the thing 
in point of which a term is applied to a person, as procax otii et 
potestatis temperantior, xiii 46, 5 ; morum diversus, xiv 19 ; morum 
spernendus, xiv 40, 3 ; laborum segnes, xiv 33, 4 ; maeroris immo- 
dicus, XV 23, S ; occasionum haud segnis, xvi 14, i ; and mani- 
festus, with vanitatis, xiii 23, 2; criminum, xiii 26, 5 ; ambitionis, 
xiv 29, I ; pavoris, xv 66, 3 ; and coniurationis, xv 60, 3. So too 
'animi validus,' xv 53, 2 (a development of the locative ; Roby, 1 168). 

25 [34]. Quahtative genitive, arising from the meaning ' belong- 
ing to,' 'a mark of,' as impetus antiqui, xiii 54, 6; tui muneris, 
xiv 55, I ; sui muneris, xv 52, 4 ; used with the same brachylogy 
as the ablative of quality, cf. § 18, as semper Romanae ditionis, 
XV 13, 4. To this may be referred diurni quoque victus, xv 38, 7. 

26 [37]. The gerundive genitive. 

(a) This is much used as a defining genitive, as materiem 


arguendae sententiae, xiii 49, l ; interficiendi domini animum, 
xiv 44, I ; constantiam opperiendae mortis, xiv 59, 2. Sometimes 
it is epexegetic of a neuter adjective, as nee grave manu missis . . . 
retinendi libertatem, xiii 26, 4 (supply the idea of ' opus ') ; Vologesi 
vetus et penitus infixum erat arma Romana vitandi, xv 5, 3 (supply 
the idea of 'consilium'). So, perhaps, ostentandi, xv 21, 3, sup- 
plying ' ius ' from the context. 

(d) A remarkable use is iactandi ingenii, xiii il, 2, an imitation 
of the Greek genitive of infinitive expressing purpose, like to 
'KjjaTKov Kadrjpn, tov tus npoauSovs fxaWov levai avT(c (Thuc, i. 4). 

III. Verbs. 

27 [38, 39]. Tacitus uses more freedom than earlier classical 
writers in the omission of verbs of speaking, as in xiii 56, i ; xv 
17, 2, and many other passages ; motion, xiv 8, 4; see also teneri 
(sc. poterat), xiii 41, 3 ; and the elliptical expressions in xiv 7, 2. 

Parts of ' esse,' other than present indicative and infinitive, are 
omitted, especially in relative or dependent clauses, as quod 
peditum (sc. fuit), interfecit, xiv 32, 6 ; qua proximum . . . Armenios 
petivit, XV 12, I. The subjunctive of this verb is also freely 
omitted when another subjunctive follows, and in oratio obliqua, 
as xiii 55, 5. Note also omission of ' fuisse ' after a future participle, 
XV 16, I ; XV 24, 3 ; xv 67, i. 

28 [40]. Simple verbs are often used in place of compound, a 
poetical use ; as pressus for oppressus, xiv 5,2; for repressus, xiv 
64, 3 ; nosco for cognosce, xv 73, 3 ; haurio (or exhaurio, xvi 18, I ; 
egerat for coegerat, xvi 34, 2. Cf. also movetur, xiv 60, 5 ; solatus 
est, xvi 13, 5. 

29 [41]. Verbs usually transitive are used intransitively, as ago, 
xiii 24, I, iS:c. ; verto, xiii 37, 4, &c. ; flecto, xv6i,6 ; moveo, xv 46, 3. 

30 [42]. The personal passives regnantur, xiii 54, 2, and dubi- 
taretur, xiv 7, i, are peculiar. 

IV. Moods and Tenses. 
A. Infinitive. 

31 [43]. Verbs of commanding, entreating, and advising, and 
those expressing effort and compulsion, which in earlier classical 

PITMAN xvii B 


prose are usually followed by ut or ne with subjunctive, occur in 
great numbers in Tacitus followed by infinitive, as orabant cavcre, 
xiii 13, 4 ; mori adactus est, xiii 25, 2 ; perpulit suscipere, xiii 54, 3; 
abire subegit, xiv 26, I ; see also the infinitives after mandavit, 
XV 2, 5 ; monebat, xv 12, 3 ; placuit, xv 14, 5 ; scribitur, xv 25, 6; 
imperavit, xv 28, 3 ; hortarentur, xv 59, i ; suadenti, xvi 9, 3. 

32 [44]. The use of the accusative and infinitive is extended so 
as to follow accusare, xiv 18, i, and dubitare negatived, xv j^, 3. 

33 [45]- The infinitive depending on a verb in a personal con- 
struction is used in some cases where an impersonal construction 
would be usual in earlier classical prose, as deferuntur consensisse, 
xiii 23, I ; baud creditus sufficere, xiii 30, 3 ; adnotatus . . . praeri- 
guisse, xiii 35, 6 ; adventare audiebatur, xv 6, 4. 

34 [46]. The historic infinitive is very frequent in lively descrip- 
tions, as xiii 13, I and following; xiii 27, i; "Src. ; and is even used 
in temporal clauses when the time at which a state of things began 
has already been specified by a finite verb ; thus with cum, xiv 5, 2 ; 
donee, xiii 57, 6. 

35 [47]. The epexegetic infinitive, a Graecism common in Horace, 
is employed, as factus . . . et exercitus . . . velare, xiv 56, 5. 

B. Indicative. 

36 [48]. The historic present is very common : it is so far treated 
as a past tense as to be sometimes joined with a perfect, as in 
xv 10, 5 ; and to have a subjunctive dependent upon it in the 
imperfect tense, as ut omitteret maritum emercatur, xiii 44, i ; cf. 
also XV 9, 2. 

37 [49]. Parenthetical or explanatory clauses in the indicative 
are inserted in the midst of oratio obliqua, as with dum, xiii 15, 7, 
&c. ; quoties, xiv 64, 5 ; and relative, xv 61, 6. 

38 [50]. The indicative is used rhetorically in place of subjunctive 
in the apodosis of conditional clauses, stating what might have 
happened as though it had actually occurred ; as exstimula- 
verant . . . nisi impunitatis cupido retinuisset, xv 50, 7; or an in- 
complete action or tendency, showing vividly what was on the 
point of happening, as ibatur in caedes, nisi . . . obviam issent, 
xiii 2, I ; or what would have been, in contrast to what did happen, 



as si . . . ponte transgrederentur, sub ictum dabantur, xiii 39, 8, 
See also xv 6, 6 ; xv 10, i } xv 8, 2. 

C. Subjtttictive. 

39 [si]' The potential subjunctive is frequently employed; in 
the imperfect, as requireies, xiii 3, 6 ; crederes, xvi 4,4: in the 
perfect, as nee facile memoraverim, xv 49, i ; haud promptum 
fuerit, XV 41, i ; neque . . . crediderim, xvi 6, i. 

40 [53]. The subjunctive is used, denoting a fact, with quamquam, 
xiv 36, I ; with quamvis, xv 51,6; and with donee, even when no 
idea of purpose or expectation is implied, xiii 13, I ; xiv 8, 3. 

41 [52]. The subjunctive of cases frequently occurring is comrnsjn 
in Tacitus in subordinate clauses : with unde, xiii 45, 3 ; qua, 
xiv 13, 2 ; ubi, xv 58, 3 ; so too perhaps quae . . . incusaret, 
xiv I, I (though this may also be explained as causal). 

Non quantum inimici cuperent demissus, xiii 42, i,may be referred 
to such limitative uses of subjunctive with relative as the phrase 
'nihil quod sciam'; so also nulla caeli intemperie quae ocuJis 
occur reret, xvi 13, i. 

Notice the use of imperfect subjunctive retaining its past con- 
ditional force though following consecutive ut, in xvi 14, 5 ; adeo 
ut . . . nemo obsignaret nisi Tigellinus auctor exstitisset (for obsi- 
gnaturus fuerit). 

V. Participles. 
Cf. also § 21. 

42 [54]. The aoristic use of the present participle should be noticed 
{n) in ablative absolute, initium faciente Cossutiano, xvi 28, i ; {b) as 
equivalent to a relative clause with a past tense, vincentium, xiv 36, 2. 

43 [54]- The future participle is used expressing Purpose, op- 
pressura, xiii 57, 7 ; elusurus, xiv 41, 2, &c. 

44. A participle takes the place of protasis to a conditional 
sentence, as nee . . . defuissent . . . agenti, xiv 55,4; placabilioreir 
fore . . . rebatur nulla sollicitudine turbatum, xiv 59, i. 

45 [55]- A participial expression is preferred to the use of an 
abstract noun followed by a genitive ; captarum pecuniarum crimina, 
xiii 52, I ; receptae Armeniae decus, xiv 29, 2 ; pudore deprehensi 
sceleris, xiv 7, 7 ; evulgatus pudor, xiv 14, 5. 


VI. Prepositions. 
Cf. also for their omission §§ 5, 8, 13, 14, 19; anastrophe, § 55. 

46 [56-63]. The following are some of the most characteristic 
usages in Tacitus : — 

Apud is much used with names of places and countries as well as 
with common names, in place of locative or in with ablative ; as 
apud urbem, xiv 26, i ; apud Aegeas, xiii 8, 4 ; see also xiii 8, i ; 
xiv 14, 2 ; xvi 15, i. 

Circa=' concerning' (a meaning originating with Seneca and 
Pliny mai.), xvi 8, 3. 

In (a) with accusative, much used in expressing the effect in- 
tended or resulting, like «Vt or nfio?, as in deterius, xiii 14, i ; in 
mains, xiii 8, i ; in mollius, xiv 39, 4 ; in subsidium, xiii 18, 3. 

(d) with ablative of a neuter adjective, as alternative to em- 
ploying the adjective attributively, as in integro, xv 2, 4 ; in 
obscuro, XV 16, 3 ; in incerto, xv 36, 7. 

luxta is used metaphorically as an adverb in the sense of 
'pariter,' xiii 32, l. 

Per has frequently the force of a simple ablative, or ablative with 
ex or in: as per noctem = noctu, xiii 38, 6; crebris crimina- 
tionibus, aliquando per facetias, xiv i, i ; cf xvi 18, i. 

Super is used equivalent to de, xiv 43, i ; xv 5, 5, &c. 

The following are rare, and in no earlier prose : — 

Abusque (Verg.), xiii 47, 2 ; xv 37, 5. 

Adusque (Verg., Horace, Ovid), xiv 58, 4. 

VII. Adverbs and Conjunctions. 

47 [64]. Comparative sentences are often abbreviated — 

(a) by supplying ' magis ' or ' potius ' before ' quam ' (as in Greek 
liaXXov before rj) ; libens quam coactus acciret dominani, xiv 61, 6 ; 

{^) by the use of a positive with ' quanto,' without the addition 
of magis ; quanto inopina tanto maiora i 68, 5. 

(t) by omission of tanto in apodosis ; i 74) 7 ! xiii 13, I. 

(d) Note also such ' compendious ' expressions of comparison as 
clara et antiquis victoriis par . . . laus parta, xiv 37, 5 ; artibus tuis 
pares xiv 55, 6. 

48 [65]. The omission of conjunctions (asyndeton) is frequent, 
owing to Tacitus' rhetorical tendencies; in lively narration, xiv 61, 1 ; 



in enumerations, often leading up to a climax, villas arva vicos, xiii 
57, 5 ; ratione consilio praeceptis, xiv 55, 4 ; senatores eques miles 
feminae etiam, xv 48, I ; and in antitheses, plana edita xv 27, 4. 

49 [66]. Adverbs are used as adjectives, attributively, as in Greek, 
honestis an secus amicis, xiii 6, 6 ; [cuncta extra, xiii 41, 4] ; nulla 
palam causa, xiv 32, i ; cuncta circum, xv 39, i ; cf. circum, xvi 
3, 2 ; predicatively as dicta inpune erant, i 72, 3 ; id . . . inpune 
. . . vertit, xiii 32, 5. 

50 [67]. Tamquam, quasi, and (less frequently) velut are used— 
(a) of something falsely pretended or alleged as reason for the 

action described, quasi subsidium . . . oraret . . . genibus principis 
accidens, xv 53, 2 ; ficta valetudine quasi aeger nervis, xv 45, 5 ; 
tamquam Naxum deveheretur Ostiam amotus, xvi 9, 2 : 

(d) but often the reason alleged may be taken as the real one, or 
at any rate believed in by the person alleging it ; intercessit . . . 
tamquam satis expleta ultione, xiii 43, 7 ; so xiv 41, i ; xv 59, 7 ; 
Neapolim quasi Graecam urbem delegit, xv 33, 2 ; gestabat velut 
. . , sacrum, xv 53, 3 : 

{c) and in some passages these particles simply introduce a 
reported speech or thought ; vulgi opinio est tamquam mutationem 
regis portendat, xiv 22, i ; so after ' nuntios,' xiv 59, 2 ; after 
' rumore,' xv 73, 2 ; vulgato . . . quasi, xiv 8, i ; conscientia quasi, 
xiv 10, 5. 

Note also xiv 52, 2, where 'tamquam' and 'quasi' are co- 
ordinated with and used as variants for ' quod.' 

Other references are, for 'tamquam,' xiii 28, 5 ; xiii 33, 4; xiv 
33, 6 : for 'quasi,' xiii 18, 3 ; xiii 38, 6; xiv 65, i ; xv 50, 4 ; and 
for ' velut,' xvi 2, i. 

I. Innovations in Vocabulary. 

51 [69, 70]. Tacitus constantly prefers unusual forms, as claritudo, 
tirmitudo, to the in -as ; cognomentum to the form in -men ; 
medicamen, tegumen, to the forms in -mentum ; besides introducing 
words not previously found, or found only in poets. 

The following are some of the most noticeable : 
(a) New verbal substantives, expressing (i) Agent, concertator, 
xiv 29, 2; patrator, xiv 62, 3; profligator, xvi 18, i : (2) Action, 


aeimilatus, xiii 46, 5 ; escensus, xiii 39, 6; relatus (perhaps), xv 22, 1 ; 
subvectus, XV 4, 4. 

{b) new negative adjective ; inturbidus, xiv 22, 5. 

{c) new intensive forms ; perornare, xvi 26, 3 ; persimplex, 
XV 45, 6; perseverus, xv 48, 5; praerigescere, xiii 35, 6; praeum- 
brare, xiv 47, i ; praecalidus, xiii 16, 3. 

(d) frequentative forms are preferred to simple ; mansito, xiv 
42, 2 ; occulto, xiv 44, 2 ; factito, xiv 48, i. 

Other new words are deprecabundus, xv 53, 2 ; infensare, 
xiii 37, I ; professorius, xiii 14, 5 ; properato, xiii I, 4; sesquiplaga, 
XV 67, 8: used in new sense, amovere = banish, xiv 57, i ; in- 
troduced from poets, adolere = kindle, xiv 30, 3; ambedere, xv 5, 4; 
breve = shallow water (from ' brevia,' Verg.), xiv 29, 3 ; indefessus, 
xvi 22, I ; livere, xiii 42, 4; mersare, xv 69, 3; notescere, xiv 16, I ; 
reclinis, xiii 16, 5 ; transmovere, xiii 35, 2. So too ignarus, xv 62, 3, 
and nescius, xvi 14, 3, are used, as in poets, with passive meaning: the 
passive use of ' gnarus,' as in xv 61, 3, is almost peculiar to Tacitus. 

Besides these words, many of the syntactical usages already 
mentioned are innovations of Tacitus. 

II. Rhetorical and Poetical Colouring. 
To this head belong many syntactical usages already mentioned. 

52 [74]. Among the most noticeable metaphorical expressions in 
these books are the following ; {a) verbs, vergente iam die, xiii 38, 7 ; 
exueret magistrum, xiv 52, 6; in mucronem ardescere, xv 54, i ; 
libertas Thrascae servitium aliorum rupit, xiv 49, I ; corrumpere = 
nullify, XV 71, 4; volvere = ponder, xiv 53, 5 ; provolvere = degrade, 
xiv 2, 4; haurire = destroy, waste, xiii 42, 7; xvi 18, I ; nos prima 
imperii spatia ingredimur, xiv 56, I : {b) substantives, moles, 
xiv 65, 2; XV 2, 5; locorum facies, xiv 10, 5: {c) adjectives, 
lubricus, xiii 2, 2; turbidus, xiv 59, 5: {d) adverb, colles clementer 
adsurgentes, xiii 38, 5. 

53 [75]- Personification is employed to render expressions 
forcible: nox eadem necem Britannici ct rogum coniunxit, xiii 17, i ; 
so dies, xiv 41, i ; annus, xiii 33, i : cf. also venia, xiii 35, 9 ; Con- 
cordia, xiii 48, 3 ; licentia, xiv 50, 2 ; memoria, xiv 40, 5 ; miseri- 
cordia, xiv 45, 4. 

54 [76]. Hendiadys, the co-ordination of two words of which the 


one defines the other like an adjective or genitive, is used by 
Tacitus more frequently than by earlier prose authors : testamenta 
et orbos, xiii 42, 7 (cf. opibus et orbitate, xiii 19, 2) ; ingenium atque 
audacia, xv 42, i ; Stoicorum adrogantia sectaque, xiv 57, 5 ; cubi- 
culum ac sinum, xiii 13, 2, 

55 [77]- Anastrophe (a) of prepositions is frequent in the case of 
ab, ad, apud, ex, in and inter, but not found with circa, praeter, 
prope, sine, supra, and pro : note also abusque, xiii 47, 2 ; coram, 
XV 24, 3; extra, xiii 47,2; super, xvi 35, 2: following a genitive, 
cubiculum Caesaris iuxta, xiii 15, 8 ; so propter, xiv 9, 3 : between 
two substantives in apposition, Ferentino in oppido, xv 53, 3. 

(/>) of conjunctions ; si occurring fifth word, xiv 3, 3 ; quasi 
seventh, xiv 52, i ; see also quamquam, xiv 21, 7 ; ut, xv 14, i ; 
donee, xiii 33, i. 

56. Anaphora: qui,xiii 21, 7 ; quantum, xiii 28, 4; no.i, xiii 35, 3 ; 
sine, xiii 35, 3 ; &c. 

57. The following expressions may also be noticed here : — 

(a) instead of using a concrete substantive qualirted by adjective 
or partic, Tacitus often employs an abstract substantive coupled 
with a concrete in the 'defining' genitive: obiectus moliuni, for 
moles obiectas, xiv 8, 2 ; contrario sagittarum iactu, xv 9, i 
( = sagittis ex adverso iactis) ; communione parietum, xv 43, 4. 

(6) an adjective is sometimes used in agreement with a substan- 
tive to which it does not appear properly to belong, (' Hypaliage ') : 
novus nuntius contumeliae, xv i, 2 ; diros sacrorum ritus, xvi 8, 2. 
The idiom is common in Greek tragedy (e.g. velKos dvdpav ^vvcufAnv, 
Soph. Afi/. 793), and arises from regarding the substantive with its 
qualifying genitive as a single notion. 

III. Influence of the Study of Brevity. 

58 [80]. Ellipses. Many such have been already noted, as the 
omission of verbs, § 27, of prepositions, §§ 5, 8, 13, 14, 19, and other 
particles, § 48, as well as many usages adopted for conciseness of 

Note also the passage nee amplius quam &c., xiii 40,6 ; qui . . . 
cremabantur, xvi 13, 2 ; aspexeritne &c., xiv 9, i. 

59 [82]. Parenthetical remarks are sometimes expressed concisely 
by one or more words apparently in apposition in the nominative 



and equivalent to a relative clause ; see rarum, xiii 2, I ; incertum, 
xiv 7, 2. This is to be distinguished from the use noted in § 6, a. 

60 [82]- Zeugma is frequent ; cf. ostendere, xiii 35, 7 ; sumpsere, 
xiv 17, 2 ; exercendo, xiv 20, 5 ; accenderant, xv 4, 4; ardesceret, 
xvi 29, I. 

61 [84]. Pregnant constructions are adopted for conciseness : 
comitia . . . composuit, xiv 28, i ; cf. menses, xvi 12, 3 ; dies con- 
temptus, XV 57, 2. 

IV. Influence of the Study of Variety. 

62 [85]. To this may be ascribed variations in the form of 
Eastern names, as Artaxata, varying between ist and 3rd declen- 
sions, ii 56, 3; xiii 41, 4; so also Tigranocerta, xiv 24, 6; xv 
4, 2 ; xiv 23, I ; xv 6, 2 : and Vologeses, varying between 2nd 
and 3rd, xiii 37, I ; xiii 7, 2. So too Tacitus uses both alioqui and 
alioquin ; balneae and balneum ; dein and deinde ; grates and 
gratias agere ; inermis and inermus; senecta and senectus, &c. 

63 [86J. Names often mentioned are varied ; cf. Paetus Thrasea, 
xiii 49, I, but Thrasea Paetus, xiv 12, 2 ; and in many other places 
simply Thrasea, as xvi 21, &c. : or the cognomen alone is used, 
when the name has been given more fully above. 

64 [87-91]. Changes in the form of the expression are often 
introduced in corresponding clauses, simply for the sake of variety ; 
some of the commonest are — 

(a) From one preposition to another of similar meaning; adversus 
. . . contra, xiii 35, I ; in . . . apud, xiv 14, 2. 

(d) from a simple case to a case with a preposition ; adversa 
pravitati ipsius, prospera ad fortunam referebat, xiv 38, 5. 

(t) from asyndeta to conjunctions, or from one conjunction to 


(Often however such changes mark different grades of connexion.) 
{d) change of case or of number, pedes equites, xiv 29, 4 ; 

senatores eques miles feminae, xv 48, i. 

(e) change of Voice : prorupisse rursum Parthos et rapi Arme- 
nian!, xiii 6, I ; trepidatur . . . diffugiunt, xiii 16, 4 ; ef. also xiv 24, 7. 

(/) from ablative to participle, pars mora, pars festinans, xv 38, 5 ; 
cf. inpunitate ... occultus, xiii 25, 4 ; familiaritate . . . adductus.xiv 4, 8 ; 
cupidine . . . metuenti, xv 36, 6 ; revolutus . . . imitatione, xvi 18, 4. 


(^) from participle to final or causal clause; sivc . . . suspectans 
. . sive ut . . . , xiii 39, i ; sive . . . incautus . . . sive ut . . ., 

xiii 46, I ; cf. also xv 69, 2 ; or from a noun to such a clause, fato 

quodam an quia praevalent inlicita, xiii 12, 2; supplicationes . .. 

utque, xiii 8, i ; statuae . . . utque, xiii 41, 5. 

(//) from gerundial ablative to participle, trahens . . . interpre- 

tando, xiii 47, i ; adsurgens . . . populando, xv 3S, 4. 

65 [93]- Tacitus further takes evident pains to vary the expression 
of facts that have to be stated often ; the great number of different 
phrases used by him for such events as death, suicide, banishment 
will be readily noticed on reading the text. 

V. Influence of Imitation. 

66 [95]. The Graecisms in Tacitus are chiefly such as had 
already become naturalized in Latin, and most have been noticed 
in previous paragraphs. To these may be added ut quisque 
audentiae habuisset, xv 53, 3 ; ut coniectare erat, xvi 34, 2. 

67 [96]. Archaic words revived by Tacitus are mercimonium, 
XV 38, 2 (Plautus), and perduellis, xiv 29, 2 (Ennius, Plautus, &c.). 

68 [97]. The debt of Tacitus to his chief predecessors in historical 
writing and to the great classical poets may here be illustrated by 
a few instances : others can be gathered from previous sections, cf. 
§ 51 {(I) ; and many others are pointed out in the notes on the text. 

(1) Sallust : Afuuils 

Cat. 25, 5 ingenium eius haut absurdum . . xiii 45, 2 
Jug. 4, 2 memet studium meum laudando ex- 


Cat. 2, 3 aequabilius atque constantius 

Fr. H. 2, 30 advorsa in pravitatem declinando 

Fr. //. 4, 31 volentia plebi facturus 

y^'g- 5) 3 pauca supra repetam 

(2) Livy: 
vii 37, 14 velut indagine .... 
vii 17, 3 sacerdotes eorum and foil, 

(3) Vergil: 

Aefi. ii 374 rapiunt ( = diripiunt) . 
„ x 532 belli commercia . . . 

„ iii 55 fas omne abrumpit 


XIV 43> 


XV 21, 


XV 26, 


XV 36, 


xvi 18, 


xiii 42, 


XIV 30, 


xiii 6, 


xiv 33, 


XV 2 





§ I. In the constitution solemnly inaugurated by his acceptance 
of the title of ' Augustus ' at the beginning of B. c. 27, Octavian 
was content to be designated not as 'king' or 'dictator,' but only 
as ' prince.' If this term is, as has been commonly supposed, 
shortened from ' princeps senatus,' it implied only that (as was 
no doubt the fact) his name stood first on the roll of senators, and 
would convey no idea of his relation to the stale. The fact, 
however, that he is always spoken of not as 'princeps senatus' but 
as simply ' princeps ' seems, together with many other considera- 
tions, to point to the conclusion that the term, if an abbreviation 
of any kind, is rather that of some such an expression as ' princeps 
civitatis,'and was intended to designate his general position as first 
citizen of the Republic, which he claimed to have in other respects 
restored in its entirety. 

Thus understood, the title conveys no monarchical idea, and 
does not even imply magistracy ; though certain powers always 
held with it made the princeps first magistrate of the state. 

§ 2. Of these, the first and most important was the ' imperium 
proconsulare,' whereby, in contrast to those holding a more 
limited 'imperium,' he was distinctively the sole 'imperator\' or 
'emperor,' of the Roman empire, and commander-in-chief of all 
its fleets and armies. Not only the ' legati ' of his own special 
provinces, but also the proconsuls of those left to the senate, 
ranked as his subordinates ; and all miiitary operations were held 
by a fiction to be conducted under his ' auspicia '^ ' ; while, by 
a further extension, this power was valid also in Italy and even 
within the walls of Rome, giving him not only the supreme 
command of the home army and police, but also power of life and 
death over all citizens, even of senatorial rank, and a special juris- 

1 The use of this title, as comitiemorative of victories (see on xiii 41, 
5), is distinct from its u^e to denote supreme command. 
" xiii 6, 5 ; xv 26, 3. 



diction, whereby he could either try in person criminal and civil 
charges of every description, or remit them, as he thought fit, to 
other tribunals. 

§ 3. Hardly less important was the ' tribunitia potestas.' In 
the later time of the Republic, the office of tribune had been 
generally the most powerful urban magistracy, as that of proconsul 
had been the chief title of military command ; and the princeps 
was as much above ordinary tribunes as above ordinary pro- 
consuls. He held office for life, was hampered by the veto of no 
colleague \ and was known to be able, if need be, to support any 
coercive action by military force. From this office he derived 
personal inviolability ; it was through it that he could summon the 
senate and propose questions to it, as well as intervene to forbid 
or modify any decree displeasing to him. Also, in this capacity, 
he seems to have so far represented the people, that the old civic 
right of ' provocatio ad populum' from the sentence of the magis- 
trate passes into an appeal to Caesar, and the whole prerogative 
of pardon is thus vested in him I 

§ 4. By a third power, that of the ' regimen legum et morum,' 
he retained to himself the most important powers belonging to the 
ancient censorship^, such as the revision of the lists of senators 
and knights, and the expulsion of unworthy members of those 

§ 5. Another office, regularly held by the princeps from and 
after B.C. 12, was that of 'pbntifex maximus,' whereby he became 
the supreme authority in many of the chief religious questions 
belonging to the state. 

§ 6. It will be seen that the form of the Roman Republic was 
preserved ; that the Caesars professedly derived their power from 
their tenure of republican magistracies or modifications of such, 
and were supreme by a combination of such offices, and by such 
extension of their functions as would not seem inconsistent with 

' The suggestion of a tribune, to veto a decision of the senate known to 
be in accordance with Nero's wishes, was scouted as futile, xvi 26, 6. 

' xiii 43, 7 ; xiv 48, 3, 

' The censorship itself was allowed to drop after K. c. 22, and was very 
rarely revived by subsequent emperors. 


their original idea. Not unfrequently the princeps also filled one 
of the consulships^, rather as a recognition of the dignity of the 
office than as deriving any additional power from it. Otherwise, 
the annual magistracies existed on their ancient footing, and dis- 
charged their usual duties of routine ; the most important being 
those of the consuls, as the regular presidents of the senate, and of 
the praetors, as presiding over and regulating the ' iudicia publica.' 
Side by side with them were important new officers directly ap- 
pointed by the princeps ; of whom the ' praefectus praetorlo ' and 
'praefectus vigilum' were his military and police vicegerents in 
Rome, while the ' praefectus urbi ' and ' praefectus annonae ' must 
have encroached on some functions of the republican magistrates ^ 

§ 7. Passing from the magistrates to the senate and the comitia, 
we find that one of the first acts of Tiberius was practically to 
annihilate the latter body, by transferring the election of magis- 
trates to the senate ^ The people may probably have felt that 
the substance of power had long since departed from them, and 
that only the shadow had now followed it : at any rate, the 
change took place without serious opposition, and the populace 
were left with nothing henceforth to care for but their bread and 
their amusements *. 

§ 8. With the senate ii was outwardly far otherwise. In place 
of the ' senatus populusque Romanus,' in whose name the acts of 
Rome used to run, this august body alone remained, with ap- 
parently still more than its ancient majesty. ' Affairs that con- 
cerned the state, and the most important affairs which concerned 
individuals^,' were still handled by it with apparent freedom; its 
decrees come to differ only in form from laws ; in choosing magis- 
trates, who by virtue of such magistracy tecome senators ^ it is 
formally a self-elective body ; in form even the right of choosing 
the princeps himself devolves upon it ^ ; the whole narrative of 

' xiii 1 1 ; xiii 31 ; xiii 34. 

^ An attempt to bring a criminal before a praetor rather than the 
praefectus urbi is noticed in xiv 41, 2. 

^ xiv 28. * ' Panem et circenses,' Juv. 10, 81. ' iv 6, 2. 

* As a rule, the senate was entered through the quacstorship. 

' Thus afier the death of Claudius the senate confiimed the soldiers' 
choice of Nero, xii 69, 3. 



Tacitus is full of its debates and decisions. As of old, it awards 
triumphal honours and other recognition of victories^, and sends 
its thanks or rewards to allied kings as representative of the state ; 
it decrees public funerals ^ and other honours to the dead ' ; it 
makes regulations to repress disorder*, and curb extravagance^ 
and immorality, and to deal stringently with the abuses of religious 
or superstitious practices ; while, abroad, all important questions 
appertaining to the administration of its own provinces are referred 
to it. Besides all this, the senate has supplanted the praetor's 
tribunal as the great high court of criminal justice, before which 
culprits of rank are almost always arraigned, especially on the 
constantly recurring charge of ' maiestas".' 

§ 9. Those, however, who could look below the surface knew 
well that, not the senate, but the emperor through the senate, 
governed ; and that it acted rather as representative of him than 
of the state. Every magistrate was really so far his nominee that 
only such candidates as had his recommendation, or at least his 
approval ''. could be chosen ; and as the entry to the senate itself 
was through magistracy " or by the direct nomination of the princeps', 
every senator must have felt that he owed his position to the 
emperor ; who, besides the powers formally conferred on him, had 
all the advantage arising from the general recognition that, who- 
ever was master of the legions, was master of as much else as he 
thought fit to claim. 

§ 10. If we look to the practical working of the imperial ad- 
ministration, the chief difference felt by the inhabitants of Rome 
must have consisted in the greater maintenance of order. Seven 
thousand ' vigiles ' were distributed over the city ; a more distinctly 

^ xiii 8 ; xiii 41 ; xv 18, i. ^ xiii 2, 6. ' xv 23, 4. * xiv 17, 4. 

' xiii 5, I. ^ xiii 42, 43 ; xvi 22, 9. 

' The princeps ' commended ' two out of the twenty quaestors annually 
elecled, four out of the twelve praetors, and ' nominated ' the consuls. The 
consulship was rarely held for a full year : the two consuls who gave their 
name to the year retired after a few months, and were succeeded by 
' consules suffecti.' Two months eventually became the ordinary length of 
tenure of this office, so that there were twelve consuls per annum. 

' i. e. by the quaestorship (see above, § 8). 

' Some senators are styled 'adlecti a principe,' 


military police force of three urban cohorts, each a thousand strong, 
enforced the summary jurisdiction of the city praefect ; and nine 
praetorian cohorts of similar strength were at hand, if needed. 
This security must have been in itself no small boon to trade and 
industry ; and even the poorest class must have found their gain 
in the more systematic regulation of the corn supply. 

§ II. In the empire outside, the most important change to 
notice is the division of provinces made in B. c. 27 between 
Augustus and the senate, whereby only the more peaceful were 
retained by the latter ; those lately acquired, or otherwise needing 
the presence of military force, being taken over by the emperor. 

§ 12. Of the senatorial provinces, the two chief were Asia and 
Africa. The former, comprising a large triangular tract with its 
base on the western coast of Asia Minor, included generally Mysia, 
Lydia, Caria, and nearly all Phrygia, with most of the islands in 
the Aegean, and had its metropolis and seat of government at 
Ephesus. The latter would coincide in modern geography with 
the western part of Tripoli, the whole of Tunis, and a considerable 
portion of Algeria, its chief cities being Utica and the new Julian 
colony of Carthage. 

§ 13. For the proconsulshi^j of these two great provinces lots 
were drawn annually by the two senior consulars who had not 
previously held either. The other senatorial provinces, eight or 
nine in number', were similarly allotted to annual governors, also 
styled proconsuls, though usually only of praetorian rank. Their 
duties, as a rule, were civil only, nor are any soldiers, except a few 
by way of police, to be found generally in these provinces ''■. Besides 
the assistance of one or more legati of high senatorial rank, each 
proconsul was attended by a quaestor, who received all sums due 
to the aerarium. 

§ 14. The Caesarian provinces, whose revenues formed the 
main support of the fiscus, comprised all those fronting the enemies 

' Those usually .-o reckoned were .Sicily, Sardinia (with Corsica), 
HispaniaBaetica, Gallia Narbonensis, Macedonia, Achaia, Bithynia, Cyprus, 
and Crete (with Cyrene) ; but some of these were at times given over to 

' Afiica formed an exccjition to this rule, having a regular force of one 



of the empire, and many other important countries. Their 
governors, appointed directly by the princeps, held office during 
his pleasure, usually for from three to five years, but often for much 
longer periods ', and, like proconsuls of senatorial provinces, had 
the assistance of 'Icgati,' as also of a 'procurator fisci,' whose 
duties answered to those of the quaestor. Holding often the com- 
mand of large armies, and having much fuller power of life and 
death -, these governors were in a far higher real position than that 
of a senatorial proconsul; although, in recognition of the sole 
' proconsulare imperium ' of the emperor, none had a higher title 
than that of ' lega'.us Augusti propraetore.' 

§ 15. To the greatest provinces, in which large forces were 
stationed, legati of consular rank were always sent \ Foremost 
among these are Upper and Lower Germany and Syria, each with 
its garrison of four legions, those of the German armies full/ 
organized and trained by war against the unsubdued tribes beyond 
the Rhine, and those of Syria charged with maintaining the prestige 
of Rome against Parthia. 

§ 16. Another class, corresponding to the second class of 
senatorial provinces, comprised those in which only a single legion, 
or even a smaller force, was stationed. In these the legatus was 
usually only of praetorian rank, but had otherwise the same status 
as in the greater provinces. As an example of such may be taken 
the three divisions of Gaul, Gallia Belgica, Lugdunensis, and 
Aquitania, for all of which insignificant forces seem ordinarily to 
have sufficed, with the German legions in reserve in case of a rising. 

§ 17. In a third class of provinces of still less importance, the 
procurator, of only equestrian rank, instead of being placed under 
a legatus, is himself the acting governor, perhaps usually in some 
subordination to the legatus of a neighbouring province. One well- 
known instance of such a government in the time of Tiberius, that 

' See note on Poppaeus Sabinus, xiii 45, i ; and note the length of 
Corbulo's appointment in the East. 

* Senatorial proconsuls coukl not (except in Africa) execute a soldier; and 
any citizen, under a capital charge, could appeal from any governor to 
Caesar. A well-known instance is that of St. Paul (Acts xxv. 11). 

'■' Besides those here mentioned, Ilispania Tarraconensis, Moesia, 
Pannonia, and Dalmatia, belonged to this class. 


of Pontius Pilatus in Judaea, shows that an officer even of this r?nk 
might have command of at least a cohort '. 

§ 18. Egypt, as the great granary of Rome, had an exceptional 
position, and, though held by a considerable force, was entrusted 
to no legatus, but jealously retained by the princeps under his own 
control, with a vicegerent of equestrian rank styled ' praefectus.' 

§ 19. All governors of provinces had fixed salaries from the 
treasury ; and cruelty and extortion, though by no means things of 
the past, enjoyed far less impunity than such as collusive accusers, 
or judges interested in connivance, had often secured for the 
culprit in former times. From this cause, probably also from the 
more equitable assessment of tribute through a systematic census, 
the provinces are admitted to have been gainers by the fall of the 
Republic, and there is evidence that those placed under the 
emperor were more economically governed than the senatorial. 

§ 20. Several states and kingdoms not formally reduced to 
provinces, but left semi-independent under native rulers, helped 
to strengthen the empire against hostile nations ^ 

§ 21. The great mihtary force of the empire was massed along 
its north-eastern frontier, formed, roughly speaking, by the Rhine, 
Danube, and Euphrates. The eight legions of Germany and the 
four of Syria have been already mentioned ; the line of the Danube 
was secured by five in Moesia and Pannonia, supported by two 
more in Dalmatia ; to these are to be added two in Egypt, one in 
Africa, and three in Spain, making- up the whole standing force of 
twenty-five legions. Italy had no other garrison than the prae- 
torian and urban cohorts (whose head quarters were in Rome), and 
the fleets of Misenum and Ravenna. 

§ 22. The legion, commanded by a legatus of senatorial, often 
even of praetorian rank, consisted of ten cohorts, each subdivided 
into three maniples, each of which contained two centuries. All 
its soldiers, though recruited freely from all parts of the empire, 
were Roman citizens ; but a large auxiliary or non-citizen force 
was always attached to it, supplementing it chiefly with light troops 
and cavalry : the whole corps being thus made up to a strength of 
about 1 0,000 of all arms and descriptions. The main armies may 

St. Malt, x.xvii 27, i<;c. ^ xiii 7 ; xiv 26, 3. 


thus be rated in the aggregate at about 250,000 men ; to which 
perhaps 100,000 may be added for the troops of Italy, the marines of 
the fleets, and the detached bodies stationed in peaceful provinces. 
§ 23. This organization as a whole dates from Augustus, and 
was maintained by Tiberius as he found it, without other change 
of importance than the transference of the election of magistrates to 
the senate, and the concentration of the praetorian guard in Rome. 

On alterations under Claudius and Nero. 

§ 24. Under Claudius more and more of the work of the State 
passed out of the hands of the senate and its magistrates ; and 
knights or freedmen, as ministers of the emperor, responsible to 
him alone, were appointed over new departments of administration 
at home and abroad. Nero professed to restore to the senate and 
law-courts functions that had been usurped by his predecessor's 
creatures (xiii 4, 3). But this restoration, even if sincerely intended 
at the outset, was out of harmony with the natural trend of events : 
the old-fashioned, cumbrous machinery of the senate made it a 
hindrance rather than a help in the work of government. Again, 
from its quasi-independent status, the senate was, in the emperor's 
eyes, a perpetual source of possible rebellion. And so in the course 
of his reign Nero's original attitude of professed respect for the 
senate changed to one of fear and suspicion. He exterminated its 
noblest and most eminent members, and it is recorded that he even 
threatened at one time to abolish the whole order and govern solely 
through knights and freedmen (Suet. Ner. 37). 

§ 25. As the breach between the emperor and the aristocracy 
continually widened, he was brought into closer relation with the 
populace. The transference of the cost of the corn dole from the 
aerarium to the fiscus, whether actually the work of Claudius or 
Nero, seems to have borne its chief fruit under the latter. The 
mass, who now thus, in the most direct way, looked to the princeps 
for their food, dispensed in his name and by his officers, and supple- 
mented by gifts of various kinds and by constant and gratuitous 
amusements, formed a vast and increasing 'clientela Caesaris,' in 
comparison with which the adherents of the shattered and im- 
poverished aristocratic houses could have been no more than a 

piTMAS xxxiii C 



§ I. He was born in December, 37 a.d. About two years later his 
father, Cn. Domitius, died, and his mother Agrippina, daughter of 
Germanicus, the favourite hero of both army and people, w^as 
banished on the discovery of Lentulus Gaetuiicus' plot against 
Gaius. She was however recalled by Claudius shortly after his 
accession, January 41, A.D., her son having meanwhile been under 
the charge of his aunt Domitia Lepida. In his early childhood he 
was exposed to the jealous dislike of Messalina, but, owing doubt- 
less to his descent from Germanicus, he was a favourite of the 
people, and in 47 A. D., at his appearance in the 'ludus Troiae ' in 
the ' ludi saeculares' together with Messalina's son Britannicus, he 
obtained a noticeable preponderance of applause. 

§ 2. On Messalina's overthrow, 48 a.d., Agrippina became wife 
of Claudius, and did not rest till she had secured her own son's 
preference over the head of Britannicus. In 49 A. D., he was 
betrothed to Octavia, daughter of Claudius, and in the next year 
v/as adopted by the emperor, a step recommended as likely to 
strengthen Britannicus' position ! He now laid aside the name of 
L. Domitius and took that of Ti. Claudius Nero Caesar, or, more 
fully, Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, and was soon 
enabled to supplant the 'brother' whom he was supposed to 
support. Being three years older than Britannicus, he now took 
precedence as Claudius' eldest son ; in 51 a.d. he assumed the 
toga virilis before the rightful age, received the title of princeps 
iuventutis, held proconsulare imperium except within the city, and 
was designated to hold the consulship in his twentieth year. These 
honours, and his appearance in the circus in the state dress of 
a Roman magistrate where Britannicus was simultaneously seen 
in mere boy's 'praetexta' sufficiently indicated which of the two 
was designed to be Claudius' successor. The powerful freedman 
Narcissus attempted to secure a reaction against Agrippina's in- 
fluence and to ensure the succession for Britannicus, but Agrippina 
removed the emperor by poison lest his vacillation might undo her 
schemes ; the praetorians were commanded by her nominee Burrus, 


and they and the legions had large rewards to expect for support- 
ing her ; a single sitting of the senate confirmed Nero in all the 
imperial powers and privileges, and he accordingly entered on his 
rule in October, 54 A. D., being now two months short of his seven- 
teenth year. 

§ 3. In the first five years of his reign, covered by Book xiii, the 
faults of Nero's character were not fatal to good government. The 
better influences around him were sufficiently strong to secure 
outwardly a period of improved administration, and this ' quin- 
quennium Neronis' was subsequently eulogized by Trajan as the 
best period of government since the foundation of the principate. 
It was his avowed aim to avoid the abuses of the late reign, in 
which public policy and the administration of justice had become 
matters of palace intrigue (xiii 4). The senate was encouraged to 
resume its executive functions, and passed numerous measures, 
some even in subversion of what Agrippina championed as 'acta 
Claudii' (chs. 5, 26, 28, 32) ; as chief criminal court, it dealt with 
corrupt practices under the late reign (chs. 42, 43), as well as with 
provincial misgovernment, of which twelve cases were tried between 
the years 54 and 61 A.D., a large number for a period of that length. 
Foreign policy was vigorously conducted : the crisis in the East 
was met by the judicious appointment of Corbulo ; in Germany, 
encroachments previously overlooked were checked by a new legatus 
(ch. 54) ; provincial governors were deprived of one of their methods 
of evading the legal consequences of maladministration (ch. 31,5). 
As regards theprinceps' own share in government, Pallas, Claudius' 
favourite, was dismissed from the control of the emperor's privy 
purse, and apart from direct bids for populari-y, such as the largesses 
given at the beginning of his reign, the withdrawal of the guard 
from the theatre (ch. 24), and the erection of a new amphitheatre 
in Rome (ch. 31), we may trace a genuine desire for the benefit of 
his subjects in his regulations against the extortions of the publicani 
(ch. 51), in his chimerical scheme to abolish the vectigalia through- 
out the empire and derive the state revenues solely from the tributa 
from which citizens were exempt (ch. 50), and in his assignment of 
lands to veterans to recruit the dwindling population of Italian 
towns (xiv 27). But the responsibilities of government did not 
have the effect of drawing out the better qualities of Nero's 



character, as was often the case with Romans even of profligate 
life (of. the case of Otho, ch. 46, and Petronius, xvi 18). His 
vicious tendencies were merely disguised, or for the present 
repressed, and even at this time his brutal rioting at night and 
in the theatre (ch. 25), his murder of Britannicus (chs. 15-17), 
his expulsion of Sulla (ch. 47), and his adultery with Poppaea 
(ch. 46), were ominous signs of what he was to become. 

§ 4. In the next Book (xiv), his wickedness reaches its culmination. 
The earlier chapters are occupied with his murder of his mother, 
a crime prompted by personal fear and dislike. While she lived, 
he dared not divorce Octavia, or gratify his vanity by publicly 
exhibiting his accomplishments as musician and charioteer. That 
there was any danger that Agrippina might head a movement for 
his overthrow is unlikely; though she could still count on the 
devotion of the army (ch. 7, 5), her previous assertion (xiii 21, 8) 
that she had more to lose than gain by the deposition of her son 
still represented her position ; and in the document sent to the 
senate to justify the murder, the charge of attempted assassination 
brought against her was so manifestly untenable that main emphasis 
was thrown upon the additional enumeration of charges relating to 
her previous life (crimina longius repetita, ch. 11), to prove that 
her existence in the state was undesirable on general grounds. 
Nothing however is so characteristic in Nero as his cowardice in 
the face of public opinion. Though he had obtained the servile 
acquiescence of all classes (publici servitii victor, ch. 13, 3) in the 
murder, he feared to be too precipitate in carrying out the designs 
which his mother's removal made easier to him. In exhibiting 
himself as a public performer, an act deemed horribly degrading 
to a Roman noble, and superlatively so to the princeps, he pro- 
ceeded tentatively, appearing first in his private grounds, and only 
gradually making the performances public. Nor did he venture on 
his next domestic crime, the divorce and murder of Octavia, till 
Burrus had been succeeded in the command of the praetorians by 
Tigellinus, and till he had found the execution of his possible rivals 
Sulla and Plautus (chs. 57-59) hailed with all the marks of approval 
by senate and people. 

§ 5. In Book XV the tyrant is seen at the height of his power, with 
Tigellinus and Poppaea as his secret and most influential advisers, 


His depraved lusts have full play and Rome becomes a scene of 
gross licentiousness. He exhibits himself on the public stage at 
Naples and meditates a tour of artistic triumph among the cities of 
Greece. But his power was declining, as the conspiracy recounted 
in the latter part of the book shows. With the army, his credit had 
been impaired by a reverse in Britain (xiv 32, 33), followed by a 
disgraceful surrender in Armenia (xv 14, 15), and many soldiers 
were imbued with the characteristically Roman view that bracketed 
Nero's performances in theatre and arena with his worst crimes 
(xv 65, 2 ; 67, 3). The affection of the people, already shaken by 
the insistence on the harsh sentence against the household of 
Pedanius Secundus {xW 42, 45) and by the disregard of popular 
sympathy with Octavia, was further weakened by a widespread 
rumour that he was accountable for the great fire (xv 44, 2) ; and 
his fiendish cruelty to the Christians, on whom he fastened the 
blame, ended by moving compassion for the victims. The upper 
classes saw that high birth, uprightness, popularity, and in fact 
eminence of any kind, were dangerous : Burrus, it was believed, 
had been poisoned ; Seneca had sought safety in retirement ; the 
use of the statute dealing with 'maiestas' had been revived and 
might soon be turned against fresh victims ; Thrasea had received 
direct notice of the emperor's disfavour (xv 23, 5). Under these 
conditions there was ample prospect that a change of ruler would 
be generally welcomed, and when the better of the two prefects of 
the praetorians, Faenius Rufus, joined the conspiracy, it seemed to 
have every chance of success. But both Piso, who was to take 
Nero's place, and Faenius Rufus alike behaved with fatal 
pusillanimity at the critical moment when information of the plot 
had reached Nero ; they dropped their plans without striking 
a blow ; and Nero was able to follow up his detection of the plot 
with a very reign of terror, striking down not only those whose 
complicity could be proved or suspected, but others whom he feared 
or disliked on other grounds. Thus fell C. Cassius and L. Silanus, 
and the other victims enumerated in Book xvi, of whom the most 
prominent are Thrasea and Soranus. Against the former there is 
no direct charge of conspiracy, but his abstention from public life, 
an attitude adopted shortly after the emperor's renunciation of his 
friendship, formed the basis of the charge against him (xvi 22) ; 


and the way in which his friends were dragged into the same 
prosecution on the flimsiest grounds shows that he was held to 
be dangerous to the principate, as being the head of a coterie pro- 
fessing Stoicism and holding a republican ideal of government, as 
antagonistic in fact to Nero as Cato had been to Julius Caesar. 
There is perhaps the same motive to repress Stoicism to be found 
in the attack on Soranus, Rubellius Plautus' friend and fellow Stoic, 
as the nominal charges against him deal with matters long past, 
and are evidently mere pretexts for his destruction (xvi 23). 

§ 6. At this point the narrative of the Annals breaks off, and our 
knowledge of the last two years of Nero's life^ is derived from 
other sources. To his previous crimes he added the murder of his 
sister Antonia and his stepson Rufrius Crispinus ; his jealous fear 
of the commanders of the legions caused him to execute Corbulo, 
as well as the brothers Scribonius Rufus and Proculus, the legati 
of the two German provinces; and he filled his purse by executing 
and seizing the property of many wealthy Greeks and the six rich 
possessors of half the province of Africa. And that ' delation ' and 
execution went on busily in Rome during this period is indicated 
by the numerous references in the Histories to informers under 
Nero, whose careers seem hardly to have begun when the Annals 
break off. 

§ 7. For our knowledge of Nero's overthrow it is much to be 
regretted that we have not an account from Tacitus, to throw 
light on the real aims of Vindex and his relations with Galba and 
Verginius, and to show how it was that the armies of three such 
dissimilar provinces as Gaul, Germany, and Spain combined for 
Nero"s deposition. Doubtless the leaders of the movement saw, 
from the execution of other legati, that there was no safety for 
them under the existing regime ; as for the soldiers, such standing 
grounds of discontent as had caused the mutiny on the death of 
Augustus would have been aggravated at this time by news of the 
piinceps' conduct in Greece and elsewhere, and by jealousy at the 
gifts lavished on the praetorians (xv 72, i), especially if, as 
Suetonius says, their own pay was in arrears. 

In Rome itself, the praetorians were naturally disposed to remain 

* for chief events see Appendix to Book xvi. 



loyal to Nero : but the latter showed himself helpless and cowardly 
in the crisis, while Tigellinus, incapacitated by debauchery and 
disease, had lost his power over the troops, so that his colleague 
Nymphidius was enabled to win them over to Galba's support by 
promise of a large donative. 

§ 8. It is a curious fact that after Nero's death there still remained 
people who viewed his memory with affection and long continued 
to deck his grave with flowers ; while the secrecy of his end made 
it possible for many to believe that he still lived and would one 
day return to resume his power, and pretenders to his name ap- 
peared not only soon after his death but even some twenty years later. 

§ 9. Tacitus' description of Nero conveys to us the impression of 
a character without interest in the practical side of life, but caring 
only for art and amusements, sinking through unrestrained and 
unnatural indulgence to the condition of a monster in whom all 
sense of right and wrong was lost. And though misrepresentation 
is a common characteristic of the historians of the period of the 
early empire, making caution necessary in our final estimate of 
Tiberius and Claudius, in the case of Nero accounts are in the 
main consistent and credible, and it seems unlikely that further 
knowledge would give a more favourable picture than Tacitus has 
left us. For one who was responsible for the death of every near 
relation he had in the world and of so many of the highest and 
best of his contemporaries, there is small possibility of e.xtenuation. 


§ I. The disturbances in Armenia, leading to the hostilities 
with that country and Parthia, had originated in Claudius' reign. 
Mithridates, an Iberian prince, who became king of Armenia with 
Tiberius' support in 35 A. D., was assassinated by his son-in-law 
Rhadamistus, at the instigation of the Iberian king Pharasmanes. 
in 52 A.D., and the Roman troops who were in Armenia at the 
time, ostensibly for Mithridates' support, allowed the murder to 
pass, and apparently withdrew leaving Rhadamistus in possession 
of the kingdom, 



Vologeses, king of Parthia, now took the opportunity to support 
his brother Tiridates in claiming the kingdom in place of Rhada- 
mistus, and occupied the chief cities of Armenia without resistance. 
But the Parthian troops withdrawing in the same winter (53 A.D.), 
Rhadamistus returned and again made himself king, but governed 
with such cruelty that his subjects rebelled, and drove him in 
flight to Iberia, where for a while he kept up a desultory warfare 
against Tiridates. The latter however had the support of the 
Parthians, and at the opening of Nero's reign was master of the 
situation in Armenia. 

§ 2. It was the standing policy of the early emperors that 
Armenia should be under a king owning the suzerainty of Rome, 
and vigorous measures were now taken to assert Roman prestige 
in the East against the encroachment of Parthia. To Tiridates 
personally it seems there was no insuperable objection, in default 
of other more desirable candidates for the throne of Armenia : the 
kingdom must however in the eyes of the world come to him from 
Rome and not from Parthia. It was, then, to secure this point 
rather than enforce Roman domination over Armenia that war was 
now undertaken : the more ambitious policy announced at a sub- 
sequent stage by Caesennius Paetus (xv 6, 6) did not receive the 
serious support of the home government : and that the aims of 
Rome were throughout limited to securing Tiridates' homage for 
his kingdom seems likely from the account of the delay in com- 
mencing hostilities, the overtures repeatedly made to the enemy 
(xiii 37, 6 ; XV 5 ; xv 27, 1-3), and the reluctance of Corbulo to 
hold and use the advantages secured by his overwhelming military 
superiority (xv 6). 

§ 3. In his account of the war Tacitus has devoted himself 
principally to giving a lively character-sketch of Corbulo, depicting 
him as an able reformer of a disorganized army and an efficient 
commander in contrast to his futile rival Paetus. The vagueness 
of geographical and chronological details supplied leaves much to 
be desired. The narrative often leaves it uncertain whether a 
series of events belongs to more than a single campaign, and 
where a winter is mentioned its proper year is often a matter 
of dispute. The following are the considerations from which 
the chronological summary of the chief events of the war, given 


below, is conjecturally pieced out. The events of Book xv fall 
within the years 61-63 A.D., since the close of the events described 
in Book xiv chs. 23-26 is referred to the same year as the affairs 
of xiv 27, viz. 60 A.D. As for the events in Book xiv, the long 
break between ch. 23 and the last mention of Armenian affairs 
in Book xiii 41 makes it natural to regard the campaigns described 
in passages so far apart as belonging to different years. Now the 
capture of Artaxata (xiii 41) is, by the opening words of xiii 42,- 
to be referred to the same year as the trial of SuiJlius, viz. 58 A.D. ; 
so that we get the two years 59-60 A.D. for the events of xiv 23-26. 
Tigranocerta was captured after the gathering of harvest (xiv 24, 3), 
and a sufficient number of important events happened after it; 
capture to justify attributing it to the first of the two years covered 
by xiv 23-26. Then, as Artaxata was taken in 58 A.D., the winter 
(xiii 35, s) spent by Corbulo in Arrffcnia prior to its capture will 
be that of 57-58 A.D., and this leaves an interval of three years 
between Corbulo's appointment and his actual commencement of 
hostilities, the greater part of which we may conjecture was 
occupied by him in reorganizing his troops (xiii 35), while active 
operations were rendered for the time unnecessary owing to 
Vologeses' withdrawal from Armenia (xiii 7, 2). 

§ 4. We get accordingly the following scheme of events : 
55-56 A.D. Reorganization of troops by Corbulo. 

57 A. D. Advance of Roman troops into Armenia : their winter- 
quarters in Armenia (xiii 35). 

58 A.D. Campaign of Corbulo in the north of Armenia against 
Tiridates; march upon and capture of Artaxata (xiii 35-41)- 

59 A.D. Corbulo's march from Artaxata, past the Mardi, round 
the foot of Mounts Ararat and Niphates, to Melazgerd ; sufferings 
from heat and famine ; crops obtained in Melazgerd ; march 
continued through Tauraunitium to Tigranocerta; capture of 
Tigranocerta, followed by that of Legerda (xiv 23-25). 

60 A.D. Change of policy, perhaps owing to Corbulo's conquest 
of Armenia and the complete expulsion of Tiridates ; the Romanized 
prince Tigranes appointed king of Armenia ; measures to safe- 
guard him (xiv 26, 3) ; retirement of Corbulo to Syria. 

61 A.D. Fresh efforts on the part of Vologeses to restore 
Tiridates; Tigranocerta successfully defended by Tigranes; 


arrangement made between Corbulo and Vologeses that Tigranes 
should evacuate Armenia, while a Parthian embassy should apply 
to Rome for the settlement of the Armenian question (xv 1-5). 

62 A. D. Rejection of Parthian proposals : arrival of Caesennius 
Paetus professing a commission to make Armenia a province ; his 
campaign in Armenia and premature withdrawal into winter 
quarters ; sudden attack of Vologeses on Paetus and disgraceful 
surrender of the latter, followed by panic flight of the Roman army 
from Armenia, Tiridates and Vologeses being left in possession 
(xv 7-17). 

63 A.D. Rejection of offer that Tiridates should do homage to 
Nero's efifigy in Syria or Cappadocia ; great extension of authority 
to Corbulo ; invasion of Armenia by Corbulo, and Tiridates' sub- 
mission (xv 24-31)'. 

Nero received Tiridates' homage at Rome in 66 a.d. (xvi 24), 
and the arrangement thus made with Armenia lasted on without 
disturbance till the time of Trajan. 

' The student will find a valuable contribution on the chronology of 
this Armenian war, by Mr. B. W. Henderson, in The Classical Review, 
vol. XV nos. 3, 4, and 5 


Col- ■■Z '^ 





















S -s 


^ £ 

C o 

■ .Q 

ft ^ 




•F3 ^ 

— 5 =1^ 

-6 ^.| :£ 




o o 

^ o 

s < 
i I 


C .r, 

5 3 

Q 5 



O -2 


« o- 

, 0.5 

— o 



-i "E ^ <• . 

^ s 


c o . 
n! c "> 

' O ^ ^ = C S 

C^ s;^. 






1. Prima novo principatu mors lunii Silani proconsulis 
Asiae ignaro Nerone per dolum Agrippinae paratur, non quia 
ingenii violentia exitium inritaverat, segnis et dominalionibu s 
aliis fastiditus, adeo ut Gaius Caesar pecudem auream eum 

5 appellare solitus sit : verum Agrippina fratri eius L. Silano 2 
necem molita ultorem metuebat, crebra vulgi fama ante-i 
ponendum esse vixdum pueritiam egresso Neroni et imperium' 1 
per scelus adepto yirum-aetote. composita. insontem, nobilem/ 
et, quod tunc sp£ ctaretur, e Caesarum posteris : quippe et 

10 Silanus divi August! abnepos erat. haec causa necis. ministri 3 
fuere P. Celer eques Romanus et Helius libertus, rei familiari 
principis in Asia inpositi. ab his proconsuli venenum inter 
epulas datum est aperlius quam ut fallerent. nee minus 4 
properato Narcissus Claudii libertus, de cuius iurgiis adversus 

15 Agrippinam rettuli, aspera custodia et necessitate extrema 
ad mortem adigitur, invito principe, cuius abditis adhuc 
vitiis per avaritiam ac prodigentiam mire congruebat. 

2. Iba^ur^ue in caedes, nisi Afranius Burrus et Annaeus 
Seneca obviam issent. hi rectores imperatoriae iuventae et, 2 

2o rarum in societate potentiae, Concordes, diversa arte ex aequo 
poUebant, Burrus miiitaribus curis et severitate morum, Seneca 
praeceptis eloquentiae et comitate honesta, iuvantes in vicem, 
quo facilius lubricam principis aetatem, si virtutem asper-- 
naretur, voluptatibus concessis retinerent. certamen 'utrique 3 

25 unum erat contra ferociam Agrippinae, quae cunctis malae 
dominationis cupidinibus flagrans habebat in partibus Pai- 
lantem, quo auctore Claudius nuptiis incestis et adoptione 
exitiosa semet perverterat. sed neque Neroni infra servos 4 
ingenium, et Pallas trisli adrogantia modum liberti egressus 

A.D. 54-] rJBER XIII. CAP. 1-4. 

5 taedium. sui moverat. propalam tamen omnes in earn honores 
cumulabantur, signumque more militiae petenti tribuno dcdit 

6 optimae matris. decreti et a senatu duo lictores, flamonium 
Claudiale, simul Claudio censorium funus et mox consecralio. 

3. Die funeris laudationem eius princeps exorsus est, 5 
dum antiquitatem generis, consulatus ac triumphos maiorum 
enumerabat, intentus ipse et ceteri; liberalium quoque 
artium commemoratlo et nihil regente eo triste rei publicae 

2 ab externis accidisse pronis animis audita : postquam ad 
providentiam sapientiamque flexit, nemo risui temperare, 10 
quamquam oratio a Seneca composita multum cultus prae- 
ferret, ut fuit illi viro ingenium amoenum et temporis eius 

3 auribus adcommodatum. adnotabant seniores, quibus otiosum 
est Vetera et praesentia contendere, primum ex iis qui rerum 

4 potili essent Neronem alienae facundiae eguisse. nam dictator 15 
Caesar summis oratoribus aemulus ; et Augusto prompta ac 

5 profluens quaeque deceret principem eloquentia fuit. Tiberius 
artem quoque callehat, qua verba expenderet, turn v alid u s,. 

fl/sensibus aut consulto ambiguus. etiam Gai Caesaris turbata 
"" mens vim dicendi non c6ffupit. nee, in Claudio, quoliens 20 

7 meditata dissereret, elegantiam requ]reres. Nero puerilibus ^;^ 
statim annis vividum afiimum in alia detorsit : caelare, j ! 
pingere, cantus aut regimen equorum exercere ; et ali- ! \ 
quando carminibus pangendis inesse sibi elementa doctrinae 
ostendebat. _ 25 

4. Celerum peractis tristitiae imitaroentis curiam ingressus 
et de aucteritate patrum et consensu militum praefatus, consilia 
sibi et exempla capessendi egregie imperii memoravit, neque 
luventam armis civilibus aut domesticis discordiis inbutam ; 
nulla odia, nullas iniurias nee cupidinem ultionis adferre. 

2 turn formam futuri principatus praescripsit, ea maxime de- 
clinans, quorum recens flagrabat invidia. non enim se ne- 
gotiorum omnium iudicem fore, ul clausis unam intra domum 


accusatoribus et reis paucorum potentia g rassare tyx ; nihil in 
penatibus suis venale aut ambitioni pervium; discretam domum 
et rem publicam. teneret antiqua munia senatus, consulum 3 
tribunalibus Italia et publicae provinciae adsisterent : illi patrum 
5 aditum praeberent, se mandatis exercitibus co nsultu rum. 

5. Nee defuil fides, multaque ai;bilxio senatus conslituta 
sunt : ne quis ad causam orandam mercede aut donis emeretur, 
ne designatis quaestoribus edendi gladiatores necessitas esset. 
quod quidem adversante Agrippina, tamquam acta Claudii 2 

10 subverterentur, ' obtinuere paties, qui in Palatium ob id 
vocabantur, ut adstaret additis a tergo foribus velo discreta, 
quod visum arceiet, auditus non adimeiet. quin et legatis 3 
Armeniorum causam gends apud Neronem orantibus esce>^ 
dere suggestum imperatoiis et piaesidere simul parabat, nisi 

15 ceteris pavore defixis Seneca admonuisset, venienti matri 
occurreret. Ita specie pietatis obviam itum dedecorill 

6. Fine anni turbidis rumoribus prorupisse rursum rarthos 
et rapi Armeniam adlatum est, pulso Radamisto, qui saepe 
regni eius potitus, dein profugus, turn quoque bellum dese- 

30 ruerat. igilur in urbe sermonum avida, quern ad modum 2 
princeps vix septemdecim annos egressus su scip,e re earn 
molem aut propulsare posset, quod subsidium in eo qui 
a femina regeretur, num proelia quoque et obpugnaliones 
urbium et cetera belli per magistros administrari possent, 

35 anquirebant. contra alii melius evenisse disserunt, quam si 3 
invalidus senecta et ignavia Claudius militiae ad labores 
vocaretur, servilibus iussis obtemperat urus. Burrum tamen et 4 
Senecam multarum rerum experientia cognitos ; et imperatori \ 
quantum ad robur deesse, cum octavo decumo aetatis anno I 

30 Cn. Pompeius, nono decumo Caesar Octavianus civilia bella ' 
sustinuerint ? pleraque in summa fortuna auspiciis et consiliis 5 
quam telis et manibus geri. daturum plane documentlim, Q 
honestis an secus aniicis ulgret^r, si ducem amota invidia 


A.D. 5-).] LIBER XI 11. CAP. 4-9. 

egregium, quam si pecuniosum et gratia subnixum peril 
ambitum. deligeret. ' I 

7. Haec atque talia vulgantibus, Nero et iuventutem proxi- 
mas per provincias quaesUam supplendis Orientis legionibus 
admovere legionesque ipsas propius Armeniam collocari iubet, 5 
duosque veteres rcges Agrippam et Antiochum expedire 
copias, quis ParthorUm fines ultro iiitrarent, simul pontes per 

2 amnem Euphraten iungi ; et minorem Armeniam Aristobulo, 
regionem Sophenen Sohaemo cum insignibus regiis mandat. 
exortusque in tempore aemulus Vologesi filius Vardanes ; et 10 
abscessere Armenia Parthi, tamquam differrent bellum. 

8. Sed apud senatum omnia in mains celebrata sunt 
•^ sententiis^eGMmm, qui supplicationes et diebus supplicationum 

vestem^ principi triumphalem, utque ovans urbem iniret, 
^figistTique eius pari magnitudine ac Martis Ultoris eodem 15 
in templo censuere, praeter suetam adulationem laeti, quod / .L^ 
Domitium Corbulonem retinendae Armeniae praeposuerat ' ' 
I ( 2 videbatui^que locus virtutibus patefactus. ' copiae Orientis ita 
dividuntur, ut pars auxiliarium cum duabus legionibus apud 
provinciam Suriam et legatu'm eius Quadratum Ummidium 20 
remaneret, par civium sociorumque numerus Corbuloni esset, 
additis cohortibus alisque, quae in Cappadocia hiemabant. 
,3 socii reges, prout bello conduceret, parere iussi : sed studia„r\ 
4 eorum in Corbulonem promptiora erant,» qui ut instarel^-^ 
famae, quae in novis coeptis validissima est, itinera propere 25 
confecto apud Aegeas civitatem Ciliciae obvium Quadratum 
habuit, illuc progressum, ne, si ad accipiendas copias Suriam 
intravisset Corbulo, omnium ora in se verteret, corpore ingens, 
verbis magnificis et super experientiam sapientiamque etiam 
Uspecie inanium validus. 30 

9. Ceterum uterque ad Vologesen regem nuntiis mone- 
bant, pacem quam bellum mallet datisque obsidibus solitam 
prioribui revereniiam in populum Romanum continuaret. 




et Vologeses, quo bellum ex commodo pararet, an ut 2 
aemulatioiife suspeclos per nomen obsidum aiiioveret, tradic 
nobilissimos ex familia Arsacidarum. accepitque eos centurio 3 
Insteius ab Ummidio missus, forte prior ea de causa adito 
S rege. quod postquam Corbuloni cognilum est, irepiae- 
fectum cohortis Arrium Varum et reciperare ybbsides iubet. 
hinc orlura inter praefectum et centurionem iurgium ne 4 
diutius externis spectaculo esset, arbilriuxa. rei obsidibus 
legatisque, qui eos ducebant, permissum. atque illi per 5 

10 recentem gloriam et inclinatione quadam etiam hostium 
Corbulonem p raetule re. unde discordia inter duceSj querentjC )3 ■, 
Ummidio praerepta quae suis consiliis patravisset, testanie'' 
contra Corbulone non prius cbnversum regem ad ofiferendos 
obsides quam ipse dux bello delectus spes ejus ad metum 

15 mutaret. Nero quo componeret diversos, sic ^vulgari iussit: 7 
ob res a Quadrato et Corbulone prospere gestas laurum , 
fascibus imperatoriis addi. quae in alios consoles egfffesSa -' 

10. Eodem anno Caesar effigiem Cn. Domitio patri et 
20 cpnsularia insignia Asconio Labeoni, quo tutore usus erat, U 

petivit a senatu ; sibique statuas argento vel auro^oHdas_ad=-- 
versusoflferentes prohibuit. et quamquam censuissent patres, 2 
ut principium anni inciperet ^pense Decembri, quo ortus erat ^l-— "^ 
Nero, veterem religionemlialendarum lanuariarum i ric^oan dp/^ 
25 anno retinuit. neque recepti sunt inter reos Carrinas Celer 3 , 
senator, servo accusante, aut lulius Densus equester, cui [/ 
favor in Britannicum crimini dabalur. 

11. Claudio Nerone L. Antislio consulibus cum in acta 
principum iurarentmagistratus, in sua acta coUegam Antistium 

30 iurare prohibuit, magnis patrum laudibus, ut iuvenilis animus 
levium quoque rerum gloria s ubla tus maiores continuaret. 
secutaque lenita s in Plautium Lateranum, quern ob adulterium 2 
Messalinae ordine deWotum reddidit scnatui, clementiam suam 


A.n. 55.] LIBER Xin. CAT. 9-13. 

obstringens crebris oiationibus, quas Seneca, lestificando 
1 1 quam hqnesta praeciperet, vel iacfandi ingenii, voce piincipis 

12. Ceterum infracta paulatim potentia matris delapso 

Nerone in amorem libertae, cui vocabulum Acta fuit, simul 5 

adsuraptis in conscientiam M. Othone et Claudio Senecione, 

^ y "^ kdulescentulis decoris, quorum Otho familia consulari, Senecio 

\\2ljbert0 Caesaris patre genitus. ignara matre, dein fiustra 

^^^'^'''■''^nitente, penitus inrepserat per luxum et ambigua secreta, 

ne senioribus quidem principis amicis adversantibus, niulifijj^io 

cula nulla cuiusquam iniuria cupidines principis explente, 
quando uxore ab Octavia, nobili quiderg^ probitatis spectatae, 
fcito quodam, an quia praevalent i nlicita , abhorrebat, metue- 
baturque, ne in stupra' reminarum inlustrium prorumperet, si 
ilia libidine prohiberetur. 15. v 

13. Sed Agrippina libertam aemulam, nurnm ancijjaip 
aliaque eundem in modum rnuliebriter f rem e re, neque paeni- / ' ;' 
. tentiam filii aut satietatem opperiri, quantoque foediora /''"' ""^ ■ 

1 expj;oBra]Dat, ac)?ius;^accendere, donee vi amoris subactus ^rv^-^^^-"^ 
exueret obseq^uium in matrem seque Senecae permitteret, 20 
ex cuius familiaribus Annaeus Serenus simulatione amoris • ^ ... 
adversus eandem libertam primas adulescentis cupidines 
velaverat praebueratque nomen, ut quae princeps fuilTm 

2 mulierculae tribuebat, ille palam largiretur. turn Agrippina 
versis artibus per blandimenta iuvenem aclgredi, suum potius 25 
cubiculum ac sinum offerre contegendis quae prima aetas^^ ;• 

3 summa fortuna expeterent : quin et fatebatur interfipestivam"T 
severitatem et suarum opum, quae baud procul imperatoriis 
aberant'/copias tradebat, ut nfmia nuper coercendo filio, ita 

4 rursum irifemperanrer'demissa. quae mutatio neque Neronem 30 
fefellit, et proximi amicorum metuebant orabantque cavere 

5 insidias mulieris semper aii'o'cis, tum et falsae. forte illis 
diebus Caesar inspecto ornatu, quo principum coniuges ac 


parentes effiilserant, deligit vestem et gemmas misitque 
donum matri nulla parsimonia, cum praecipua et cupita aliis 
prior deferret. sed Agrippina non his instrui cultus suos, sed 6 
ceteris avceri proclamat et dividere filium, quae cuncta ex 
5 ipsa haberet, 

14. Nee defuere qui in deterius referrent. et Nero infensus 
lis, quibus superbia muliebris innitebatur, demovet Pallantem 
cura rerum, quisa-a Claudio impositus velut arbitrium regni 
agebat ; ferebaturque degrediente eo magna prosequentium 

10 multitudine non absm'de dixisse, ire Pallantem ut eiuraret. 
sane pepigerat Pallas ne cuius facti in praeteritum interro- 2 
garetur paresque rationes cum re publica haberet. praeceps 3 
posthac Agrippina ruere ad terrorem et minas, neque principis 
auribus abstinere, quo minus testaretur adultum iam esse 

15 Britannicum, ve;am dignamque stirpem suscipiendo patris 
imperio, quod msitus et adoplivus per iniurias matris exer- 
ceret. non abnucre se quin cuncta infelicis domus mala 4 
patefierent, suae in primis nuptiae, suum veneficium : id 
solum dis et sibi provisum, quod viveret privignus. ituram 5 

20 cum illo in castra ; audiretur hinc Germanici filia, inde debilis 
\ \rursus Burrus et exul Seneca^^trunjca scilicet manu et profes- 
I koria lingua generis humani regime^, expostulantes. simul 6 
,' uitendere manus, aggerere probra, consecratum Claudium, 
infernos Silanorum manes invocare et tot iiirjta^facinora. 

35 15. Turbalus his Nero et propinquo die, quo quarlum 
dectimum aetajis annum Britannicus expTet/kt, volutare secum 
modo matris violcntiam', modo ipsius indolem, levi quidem 
experimento nuper cognitam, quo tamen lavorem late quaesi- ^ 
visset. festis Saturno diebus inter alia aequalium ludkia-2— 

30 regnum lusu sortientium evenerat ea sors Neroni. igitur 3 

\lceteris diyersa- nee ruborem adiatura- ubi Britannico iussit 

exsurgeret progressusque in medium cantum aliquem inciperet, 

inrisum ex eo sperans pueri sobrios quoque comdctus,-»edum 

65-] LIBER XIII. CAP. 13-16. 

temulenlos ignorantis, illexonslantfiiLCXorsiis est carmen, quo \ 
evolutum eum sede palria rebusque ^iimmis significabalur. 
unde orta miseiatio manifestior, quia dissimulationem nox et 

4 lascivia exemeiat.y^Nero intellecta invidia odium intendit; 
uiguentibusque Agiippinae minis, quia nullum crimen neque 5 
iubere caedem fratris palam audebat, occulta molitur parari- 
quevenenum iubet, ministro Pollione lulio praetoriae cohortis^ 
tribuno, cuius cura attinebatur damnata veneficii nomine 

5 Locusta multa scelerum fama. nam ut proximus quisque 
Britannico neque fas neque fidem pensi haberet, olim pro- 10 

6 visum erat. primum venenum ab ipsis^d^ucatoribus accepit, 
tramisitque exsoluta alvo parum validum, sive temperamentum 

7 inerat, ne statim saeviret. sed Nero lenti sceleris inpatiens 
minitari tribuno, iubere supplicium veneficae, quod, dum 
rumorem respiciunt, dum parant defensiones, securitatem 15 

8 morarentur. promittentibus dein tam praecipitem necem 
quam si ferro urgueretur, cubiculum Caesaris iuxta decoquitur 
virus cognitis antea venenis rapidum. 

16. Mos habebatur principum liberos cum ceteris idem 

aetatis nobilibus sedentes vesci in aspectu propinquorum 20 

»prjQpua^_el_pai:ciQxe_ineiasa. illic epulante Britannico, quia 

cibos potusque eius delectus ex ministris gustu explorabat, ne 

omitteretur institutum aut utriusque morte proderetur scelus, 

3 talis dolus reperlus est. innoxia adhuc ac praecalida et 
libata gustu potio Iraditur Britannico ; dein, postquam fervore 25 
aspernabatur, frigida in aqua adfunditur venenum, quod ita 
cunctos eius artus pervasit, ut vox paritei; et spiritus rape- 

4 rentur. trepidatur a circumsedentibus, diffugiunt inprudentes : 
at quibus altior intellectus, resistunt defixi et Neronem in- 

5 tuentes, ille ut erat reclinis et nescio similis, solitum ita ait 3° 
I / per comitia lpm morhinri, qnn prima ab infantia adflictaretur 

6 Britannicus, et redituros paulatim visus sensusque. at Agrip- 
pinae is paver, ea consternatio mentis, quamvis vultu pre- 


merelur, en tic\i it, ut perinde ignaram fuisse alque Octaviam 

soi"or«m Biitaiinici coi]stiterit : fluippe sibi supremum auxilium 

, ereplum el parricidii eKempfum intellegebat. Ocla\ia quoque, 7 

/ I quamvis rudibus annis, dolorem, caritalem, omnis adfeclus 

5 abscondere didiceiat. ita post breve silentium repetita 

convivii laetitia. ' ^T" - --^ '^- 

17. Nox ea^em necem Britannici et rogum coajjaiisit, 
proviso ante funeljii "paratu, qui m(!^eus tuit. in campo 2 
tanien Marlis sepullus est adeo turbidis imbribus, ut vulgus 
10 iram deum portendi crediderit adversus facinus, cui plerique 
j 'ti''' etiam hominurn ignoscebant, antiquas fratrum d iscordias et 
^,Jt^^ insociabile regnum aeslimantes. tradunt plerique eorum 3 -r 

temporum scriptores, crebris ante exitium diebus iljiisuia isse 
pueritiae Britannici Neronem, ut iam non praemalura neque 
15 saeva mors videri queat, quamvis inter sacra mensae, ne 
tempore quidem ad complexum sororum dato, ante oculos 
inimici properata sit in ilium supremum Claudiorum san- 
guinem/stUpfo"'"prius quam veneno poUutum. festinationem 4 
exsequiarum edicto Caesar defendit, ita maioribus instilulum 
20 referens, sublrahere oculis acerba funera neque laudationibus 
aut pbmpi detinere. ceterum et sibi amisso fratris auxilio 5 
reliquas spes in re publica sitas, et tanto magis fovendum 
palribus populoquej)rincipem, qui unus superesset e familia 
summum ad fastigiuiVi^^enita. 
1 1 25 18. Eximji*largitione potissimos amicorum auxit. nee 
// defuere qui arguerent viros gravilatem adseverantes, quod 
' domos villas id, jtemporis quasi praedam divisissent. alii 2 
necessilatem adhititam credebant a principe, sceleris sibi 
conscio et veniam sperante, si la rgitionib us. validissirnum 
30 quemque obstrinxisset. at matris ira nulla nnmincehiia Icnlri'. 3 

sed ampleciji, Octaviam, crebra cum amicis secreta habere, 

( I super ingenitam avaritiam undique pecunias quasi in subsi- 

dium corripiens, tribunos et ceniuriones co mitet. exciii£ie, 

A.D. 55-] LIBER XIII, CAP. 16-20. 

nomina et virtutes nobilium, qui etiam turn supererant, in 

4 honore habere, quasi quaereret ducem et partes, cognitum 

id Neroni, exCu]b1asque militares, quae ut coniugi imperatoris \ : 
olim, turn ut matri servabantur, et Germanos nuper eundem 

5 in honorem custodes additos degredi iubet. ac ne coetu 5 
salutanlium frequentaretur, separat domum matremque trg,n§- 
fert in earn quae Antoniae fuerat, quotiens ipse illuc verititaret, 
saeptus turba centurionum et post breve osculum digrediens. . 

19. Nihil rerum mortalium tarn in^bile ac fluxuni est quam |i 
fama potentiae non sua vi nixae. statim relictum Agrippinae 10 
limen : nemo solan, nemo adire praeter paucas feminas, 

2 amore an odio incertas. ex quibus erat lunia Silana, quam 
matrimonio C. Sili a Messalina depulsam supra rettuli, 
insignisge nere forma lasciv ia, et Agrippinae diu percara, mox 

^ occullis inter eas offensionibus, quia Sextium Africanum 15 
nobilem iuvenem a nuptiis Silanae deterruerat Agrippina, 
inpudicam et vgigentem annis dictilans, non ut Africanum 
sibi seponeret, sed ne opib us et orbiiate S ilanae marilus 

3 poteretur. ilia spe ultionis oblata parat accusatores ex 
clientibus suis, Iturium et Calvisium, non Vetera et saepius 20 
iam audita deferens, quod Britannici mortem lugeret aut 
Octaviae iniurias evul^aret, sed destinavisse earn Rubellium 
Plautum, per miferiiam originem parfac Nero gradu a divo | \ 
Augusto, ad res novas extollerg cpniugioque eius et iam 

4 imperio rem publicam rursus -iitva^e. haec Iturius et 25 
Calvisius Atimeto, Domitiae Neronis amitae liberto, aperiunt. 
qui laetus oblatis (quippe inter Agrippinam et Domiliam 
iiifknsa aerndatio exercebatur) Paridem histrionem, libertum 

et ipsum Domitiae, -impulit ire propere crimenque atrociter 
deferre, 3c 

20. Provecta nox erat et Neroni per vinolentiam trahebatur, 
cum ingreditur Paris, solitus alioquin id temporis luxus prin- 
cipis intendere, sed tunc compositus ad maestitiam, exposi- 


toque indicii ordine ita audientem exteiret, ut non tanlum 
matrem Plautumque interficeie, sed Burium etiam demovere 
praefectura destinaret tamquam Agrippinae gratia provectiii^i 
et vicem reddentem. Fabius Euslicus auctor est, scriptos 2 

5 esse ad Caecinam Tuscum couicifios, mandata ei praetoriaium 
cohortium cura, sed ope Senecae dignationem Burro relenlam: 
Plinius et Cluvius nihil dubitatum de fide praefecti referunt ; 3 
sane Fabius inclinat ad laudes Senecae, cuius amicitia floruit, 
nos consensum auctorum secuturi, si qui diversa prodiderint, 4 

o sub nominibus ipsorum trademus. Nero trepidus et inter- 5 
ficiendae matris 3>\iid,us non prius differri potuit, quam 
Burrus necem eius promitteret, si facinoris coargueretur : sed 
cuicumque, nedum parenti defensionem tribuendam; nee 
accusatores adesse, sed vocem unius ex inimica domo adferri : 
reputaret tenebras et vigilatam convivio nocteni omniaque 
temeritati et insciliae propiora. 

21. Sic lenito principis metu et luce orta itur ad Agrip- 
pinam, ut nosceret obiecta dissolveretque vel poenas lueret. 
Burrus iis mandatis Seneca coram fungebatur ; aderant et ex 2 

20 libertis arbitri sermonis. deinde a Burro, postquam crimina 
et auctores exposuit, ''"injdla fi^''"!! '"^'^ Agrippina ferociae 3 

[Imemor 'non mirbr' inquit"' Silanam, numquam edito partu, 

\ matrum adfectus ignotos habere ; neque enim proinde a 
parentibus liberi quam ab inpudica adulteri mutantur. nee si 4 

25 Iturius et Calvisius adesis omnibus fortunis novissimam sus-Vi 
cipiendae accusationis operam anui rependunt, ideo aut mihi * 
infamia parricidii aut Caesari conscientiasubeunda est. nam 5 
Domitiae inimicitiis gratias agerem, si benevplentia mecum in 
Neronem meum certaret : nunc per c bncu^i num Atimetum 

30 et histrionem Paridem quasi scaenae fabulas componit. 
Baiarum suarum piscinas cxlollebat, cummeis consiliisadoptio e 
et proconsulare ius et designatio consulatus et cetera apiscendo I 
imperio praepararentur. aut_exsistat qui cohortes in urbe 7 

A.D. 55.] LIBER XIII. CAP. 20-24. 

tcmptatas, qui proviiiciarum fidem .labefactatam^ denique ser- 

8 vos vel libertos ad scelus coitiij2|os aiguat. vivere ego Britan- 
iiico potiente rcrum poteram ? ac si Plaulus aut quis alius rem 
publicam iudicaturus oblinuciit, desunt scilicet inihi accusa- 

/ytores, qui non verba impatienlia caritatis aliquando incauta, sed 5 
ea crimina obiciant, quibus nisi a filio absolvi non possim.'i 

9 commotis qui aderant uUroque spiritus eius mitigantibus, [ li 
onloquium filii exposcit, ubi nihil pro innoceptia, quasi! I 

diffideret, nee de beneficiis, quasi exprobraret, diSser'uit, sed ' 
ultionem in'^elatores'et praemia amicis obtinuit. /^ 10 

22. Praefe ctura annonae Faenio Rufo, cura ludorum, qui 
a Caesare parabantur, Arruntio Stellae, Aegyptus Ti. Balbillo 

2 permittunlur. Suria P. Anteio desCinata. sed variis mox 

3 artibus elusus, ad postremum in urbe retentus est. at Silana 

in exilium acta; Calvisius quoque et Iturius rele gantu r ; de 15 
Atimeto supplicium sumptum, validiore apud libidines priu- 
cipis Paride quam ut poena adficeretur. Plautus ad praesens 
silentio transmissus est. 

23. E*e]erunfu/ dehinc consensi^se Pallas a9_.Burrus, ut 
Cornelius Sulla crajitumne pfeneris' et aofinTfate Claudii, cui 20 


per nuptias Antoniae gener erat, ad imperium vocarelur. 
eius accusationis auctor extitit Paetus quidam, exercendis 
apud aerarium sectionibus famosus et turn ' vanitatis mani- 
festus. nee lam ^ ]jra^ "" Pallantis innocentia quam gravis 
superbia fiiit : quippe nominatis libertis eius, quos conscios 25 
haberet, respondit nihil umquam se dorni nisi nutu aut manu 
significasse, vcl si plufa demonstranda essent, scripto usum, 
:onsociii£l. Burrus quamvis reus inter iudices 

4 ne vocem cc 

sententiam dixit, exiliumque accusatori inrogatum et tabulae y^'\ 
'exuslae sunt, quibus oblittgjala aerarii ngmina retraheb at. '^^ 30 

24. Fine anni statio cohortis adsidere ludis solita de- 
movetur, quo maior species libertatis esset, utque miles 
theatrali licenli^e non perniixtus i ncorrap ji^r ageret et plebes 


darct expcrimentum, an amotis custodibus m odeslja m 
retineret. urbem princcps lustra vit ex responso ha ruspic um. 2 
quod lovis ac Mincrvae aedes de caelo tactae tx'imi.iy^^-ii^i 
25. Q. Volusio P. Scipione consulibus/ oliun) fnii s, foeda 
5 domi lascivia, qua Nero itinera urbis et luganaiia et deverti- 
cula veste servili in dissimulationem sui compositus pererr^bat, 
comitantibus qui raperent venditioni exposita et obviis vulnera 
inferrent/i adversus ignaros adeo, ut ipse quoque exciperet 
ictus et 'pre praeferret. deinde ubi Caesarem esse qui 2 
/y grassaretur pernotuit augebanturque iniuriae adversus viros 
f ' feminasque insignes, et quidam pciTOissa semel licentia sub 
nomine Neronis inulti propriis cum gfobls eadem exercebant, 
I J in modum captivitatis nox agebatur; Tuliusque Montanus 
senatorii ordinis, sed qui nondum honorem capessisset, 
15 coh'gr'e^sus forte per tenebras cum principe, quia vi atlemp- 
tantem acriter reppulerat, deinde adgnitum oraverat, quasi 
exprobrasset, mori adaclus est. Nero tamen metuentior in 3 
poslerum milites sibi et plerosque gladiatores circumdedit, 
qui rixarum initia modica et quasi privata sinerent : si a laesis 
20 validius ageretur, aima inferebant. ludicram quoque licentiam 4 
et fautores histrionum velut in proelia convertit inpunitate et 
praemus atque ipse occultus et plerumque coram prospectans, 
donee discordi populo et gravioris motus terrore non aliud 
remedium repertum est, quam ut liistriones Italia pellerentur 
25 milesque theatro rursum adsideret. 

26. Per idem tempus actum in senatu de fr^udibusjiber- 
torum, efflagltatumque ut adversus male meritos revocandae 
libertatis ius patropis daretur. nee deerant qui censerent, 2 
sed consules 1-elationem incipere non ausi ignaro principe, 
30 perscripsere tamen ei consensum senatus. ille an auctor 
constitutionis fieret consultavit inter paucos et sentenUae 
diversos, quibusdam coalitam libertate inreverentiam eo 
prorupisse frenienlibus, id vine an aequo cum patronis iure 

A.D. 56.] LIBER XIII. CAP. 24-28. 

ageient, t sententiam eorum consultartnt ac verbeiibus manus 
uliro intendercnt, impudenter vel poenam suam ipsi suadentes. 

3 quid enim aliud laeso paliono concessum quam ut centesimum 
ultra lapidem in oram Campaniae libertum releget ? ceteias 
ariioTj^^g ttfomiiifflri f't^ pares esse : tribuendum aliquod telum 5 

4 quod sperni nequeat. nee grave manu missis per idem 
/•j 5 obsequium retinendi libertatem, per quod adsecuti sint : at 

° criminum manifestos merito ad servilutem retrahi, ut metu 

coerceantur quos beneficia non mutavissent. 

27. Disserebatur contra : paucorum culpam ipsis exitiosam 10 
esse debere, nihiHinwer§otuiii iiiri deT0ga:ndum ; quippe late 

2 fusum id corpus, hinc plerumque tribus, decurias, ministeria 

magistratibus et sacerdotibus, cohorles etiam in urbe con- 

^riptas ; et plurimis equitum, plerisque senatoribus non 

^'«r^yi^unde originem trahi : si separarentur libertini, manifestam 15 

^ ^^»^ ioxt penuriam ingenuorum. non frustra maiores, cum digni- 

>^ tatem ordinum dividerent, libertatem in communi posuisse. 

4 quin et manu mitlendi duas species institutas, ut relinqueretur 
paenitentiae aut novo beneficio locus, quos vindicta patronus 

5 non liberaverit, velut vinclo servitutis attineri. dispiceret 20 
quisque merita tardeque concederet quod datum non adi- 

6 meretur. haec sententia valuit, scripsitque Caesar senatui, 
pdvatim expenderent causam libertorum, quotiens a patronis 

7 arguerentur : in commune nihil derogarent. nee multo post 
ereptus amitae libertus Paris quasi iure civili, non sine infamia 25 
principis, cuius iussu perpetratum ingenuitatis indicium erat. 

28. Manebat nihilo minus quaedam imago rei publicae. 
nam inter Vibullium praetorem et plebei tribunum Antistium 
ortum cerlamen, quod inmodestos fautores. histrionum et 

2 a praetore in vincla ductos tribunus omitti iussisset. con- 30 
probavere patres, incusata Antistii licentia. simul prohibili 
tribuni ius praelorum et consulum praeripere aut vocare ex 

3 Italia cum quibus lege a^ ppgsfit. addidit L. Piso designaius 


consul, nc quid intra domum pro potestate advcrterent, neve 
multam ab iis diptam quaestores aerarii in publicas tabujas 
ante quattuor menses referrent ; medio lemj)oris coi^t(a 
dicere liceret, deque eo consules statuerent. cohibita artius 4 
5 et aedilium potestas statutumque quantum curules, quantum 
plebei pignoris caperent vel poenae inrogarent. et Helvidius 5 
Priscus tribunus plebei adversus Obultronium Sabinum 
aerarii quaestorem contenliones proprias exercuit, tamquam 
ius hastae adversus inopes inclementer augeret. dein princeps 
10 curam tabularum publicarum a quaestoribus ad praefectos 

29. Varie habita ac saepe mutata eius rei forma, nam 
Augustus senatui permisit deligere praefectos; deinde ambitu 
suffragiorum suspecto, sorte ducebantur ex numero praetorum 

15 qui praeessent. neque id diu mansit, quia sors deerrabat ad 2 
parum idoneos. tunc Claudius quaestores rursum imposuit, 
iisque, ne metu offensionum segnius consulerent, extra' 
ordinem honores promisit: sed deerat robur aetatis eum 
primum magislratum capessentibus. igitur Nero praetura 3 

20 perfunctos et experientia probatos delegit. 

30. Damnatus isdem consulibus Vipsanius Laenas ob 
Sardiniam provinciam avare habilam. atsolulus Ccstius 
Proculus repetundarum, Crelensibus_ accusantibus. Clodius 2 
Quirinalis, quod praefeclus remigum^ qui Ravennae habe- 

25 rentur, velut infimam nationum Italiam luxuria saevitia^ue___ 
adflictavisset, veneno damhationem anteiit. Caninius Rebilus, 3 
ex primoribus peritia legum et pecuniae magnitudine, 
cruciatus aegrae Sjeneftae emisso .per venas sanguine cflfugit, 
U baud creditus suffi'cere ad cohstantiam sumendae mortis, ob 
30 libidines muliebriter infamis. at L. Volusius egregia fama 4 
concessit, cui tres et nonaginta anni spatium vivendi prae- 
cipuaeque opes bonis arlibus inoffensa tot imperatorum 
malilia fuerunt. 

A.D. 57.] LIBER XIII. CAP. 28-33. 

31. Nerone iterum L. Pisone consulibus pauca memoiia 
digna ^-enere) nisi cui libeat laudandis fundamentis et 
trabibus, quis molem amphithcatri apud campum Martis 
Caesar extruxerat, volumina implere, cum ex dignitate populi 
Romani repeitum sit res inlustres annalibus, talia diurnis urbis 5 

2 actis mandare. ceterum coloniae Capua atque Nuceria 
y^ ' additis veteranis firmatae sunt, plebeique congiarium quad- 

ringeni nummi viritim dati, et sestertium quadringentiens 

3 aerario inlalum est ad retinendam populi fidem. vectigal 
quoque quintae let vicensimae venalium mancipiorum re- 10 
missurri, specife magis quam vi, quia cum venditor pendere 

4 iuberetur, in partem pretii emptoribus adcrescebat. edixit 
.Caesar, ne quis magistratus aut procurator in provincia 

'^quam obtir^eret spectaculum gladiatorum aut ferarumaut quod 

5 aliud ludicrum ederet, nam ante non minus tali largitione 15 
quam corripiendis pecuniis subiectos adfligebant, dum quae 
libidine deliquerant, ambitu propugnant. 

32. Factum et senatus consultum ultioni iuxta et securitati, 
ut si quis a suis servis interfectus esset, ii quoque, qui testa- 
mento manu missi sub eodem tecto mansissent, inter servos 20 

'2 supplicia penderent. redditur ordini Lurius Varus consularis, 

*^ Isavaritiae criminibus olim perculsus. et Pomponia Graecina 

insignis femina, A. Plautio, quem ovasse de Britannis retluli, 

nupta ac superstitionis externae rea, mariti iudicio permissa. 

4 isque prisco institulo propinquis coram de capita famaque 25 
coniugis cbgnovit et insontem pronuntiavit, longa huic 

5 Pomponiae aetas et cOTtinua tristitia fuit. nam post luliam 
Drusi filiam dolo Messalinae interfectam per quadraginta 
annos non cultu nisi lugubri, non animo nisi maesto egit; 
idque illi imperitante Claudio inpune, mox ad gloriam vertit. 30 

1^^^^ ,,^£^.^Idem annus plurVs reos habuit, quorum P. Celerem 

^ accusante Asia, quia absolvere nequibat Caesar, traxit, 

2 senecta donee mortem obiret ; nam Celer interfecto, ut 



meinoravi, Silano pro consule magnitudine sceleris cetera 

flagitia obtegebat. Cossutianum Capitonem Cilices detulerant 

/^''■^'^"'^ ,maculosum"fbedumque et idem ius audaciae in provincia 

.../w^^*^ ''ratum quod in urbe exercuerat ; sed pefvicaci accusatione 

6 conflictatus postremo defensionem omisit ac lege repetundarum 

damnatus est. pro Eprio Marcello, a quo Lycii res repetcbant, 4 

CO usque ambitus praevaluit, ut quidam accusatorum eius 

exilio niultarentur, tamquam insonti periculum fecissent. 

34. Nerone tertium consule simul iniit consulatum Valerius 
10 INIessalla, cuius proavum, oratorem Corvinum, divo Augusto, 

abavo Neronis, collegam in eo magistratu fuisse pauci iam 
senum meminerant.. sed r^bili fa:miliae honor auctus est 2 
oblatis in singulos apnos quingenig sestprtiis, quibus Messalla 
paupertatem innoxiam sustentai-tet. Aurelio quoque Cottae 3 

15 et Haterio Anlonino arjnuam pecuniam statuit princeps, 
quamvis per luxum avitas opes dissipassent. 

Eius anni principio mollibus adhuc initiis prolatatum inter 4 
Parthos Romanosque de obtinenda Armenia bellum acriter 
resumitur, quia nee Vologeses sinebat fratrem Tiridaten 

30 dati a se regni expertem esse aut alienae id potentiae donum 
habere, et Corbulo dignum magnitudine populi Romani 
rebatur parta olim a Lucullo Pompeioque recipere. ad hoc 5 
Armenii ambigua fide utraque arma invitabant, situ terrarum, 
similitudine morum Parthis propiofes conubiisque permixti 

25 ac libertate ignota illud magis ad servitium inclinantes. 

35. Sed Corbuloni plus molis adversus ignaviam mililum 
quam contra perndiam hostium erat : quippe Suria transmotae 2 
legiones, pace longa segnes,' munu castrorum aegerrime 
tolerabant. satis constitit fuisse in eo exercitu veteranos, qui 3 

30 non stationem, non vigilias inissent, vallum fossamque quasi 
nova et mira viserent, sine galeis, sine loricis, hitidi et quaes- ' 
tuosi, militia per oppida expleta. igitur dimissis quibus 4 
senectus aut valotudo advcrsa erat, supplementum petivit. 

A.D. 58.] LIBER XIII. CAP. 33-37- 

et 'haliiti per Galatiam Cappadociamque dilectus, adiectaque 
ex Germania, legio cum equitibus alariis etpeditatu cohor- 

5 tium. ret^rituSque "oranis exercitus sub pellibus, quamvis 
hieme saeva adeo, ut obducta glacie nisi effbssa humus 

6 tentoriis locum non praeberet. ambusti.muUorum artus vis 
frigoris et quidam inter ^excubias exanimati sunt, adnota-^ / 
tusque miles, qui fascem lignorurn gestabat, ita praerigui^se^, ^ ).. 
manus, ut oneri adhaerentes iruncis brachiis deciderent. ' '' 

7 ipse cultii_Ievi, capite intecto, in agmine, in laboribus fre- 
quens adesse, laudem slrenuis, solacium invalidis, exemplum 10 

8 omnibus ostendere. dehinc quia duritiam caeli militiaeque 
mulli abhuebant deserebantque,remedium severitate quaesitura 

9 est. nee enim, ut in aliis exercilibus, primum. alterumque 
^r delictum venia prosequebatur, sed qui signa reliquerat, stalim 

10 capite poenas luebat. idque /usu salubre et misericordia 15 
melius apparuit : quippe pauciores ilia castra deseruere quam - 
ea in quibus ignoscebatur. .., > 

36. Interim Corbulo legionibus intra castra habitis, donee 
ver adolesceret, dispc/siiTsque per idoneos Ipcos ^ohortibus 
auxiliariis, ne pugnam priores auderent praedicit : curam 20 
praesidiorum Paccio Orfito primi pili honore perfuncto 

2 mandat. is quamquam incautos barbaros et bene gerendae 
rei casum offerri scripSerat'; tenere se munimentis et maiores 

3 copias opperiH iubetur. sed rupto imperio, postquam paucae „ ^f'- 
e pioximis castellis turmae advenerant pugnamque imperilia 25 .^ 

4 poscebant, congressus cum hoste funditur. et damno eius 
exterrii,! qui subsidium fcrre debuerant, sua quisque in 

5 castra trepida fuga rediere. quod graviter Corbulo accepit^^ .<t.-^'' 
increpitumque Paccium et praefectos militesqjue tendere extra 
vallum iussit ; inque ea contumelia detenti nee nisi precibus 30 
universi exercitus exsoluti sunt. , , 

37. At Tiridates super proprias clieritelas ope Vologesi 
fratris adiutus, non furtim iam sed palam bello infensare 



Armeniam, quosque fidos nobis rebatur, depopulari, et si 
copiae contra ducerentur, eludere hucque et illuc volitans 
plura fama quam pugna exterrerCi igitur Corbulo quaesito 2 
diu pi^oelio frustra habitus et exemplo hostium circumfene 
5 bellum coactus, dispertit vires, ut legati praefectique diversos 
locos pariter invaderent ; simul regem Antiochum monct 
proximas sibi praefccluras petere. nam Pharasmanes inter- 3 
fecto filio Radamisto quasi proditore, quo fidem in nos 
testarelur, vetus adversus Armenios odium promptlus exercQ- 

lo bat. tuncque primum inlecti Moschi, gens ante alias socia 4 
Romanis, avia Armeniae incursavit. ita consilia Tiridati in 

' ' ' contrarium vertebant, mittebatque ofaTores qui suo Partho- 
rumque nomine expostularent, cur datis nuper obsidibus 
redintegrataque amicitia, quae novis quoque beneficiis locum 

15 aperiret, vetere Armeniae possessione depelleretur. idco 5 
nondum ipsum Vologesen commotum, quia causa quam vi 
agere mallent: sin perstaretur in bello, non defore Arsacidis 
virtutem fortunamque saepius iam clade Romana expertam. 

f i ad ea Corbulo, satis comperto Vologesen defectione Hyrcaniae 6 

20 altineri, suadet Tiridati precibus Caesarem adgre'di -.^ posse 
illi regnum stabile et res incruentas contingere, si omisra 
spe longinqua et sera pfaesentem potioremque sequeretur. 

38. Placitum dehinc, quia commeantibus in vicem r^untiis 
nihil in summam pacis proficiebatur, conloquio ipso'rum 

25 tempus locumque deslinari. mille equitum praesidium Tiri- 2 
dates adfore sibi dicebat : quantum Corbuloni cuiusque 
generis militum adsisteret, non statuere, dum positis loricis 
et galeis in f^ciem' pacis veniretur. cuicumque mortalium, 3 
nedum veteri et provido duci, barbarae astutiae patuissent : 

30 ideo artum inde numerum finiri et hinc maiorem offerri, ut 
dolus pararetur ; nam equiti sagittarum usu exercito si detecta 
corpora obicerentur, nihil profuturam inultitudinem. dis- 4 
simulato tamen intellectu rectius de iis quae in publicum 

A.D. 5?-] LIBER XI I I. C^i". 37-39. 

consulerentur tolis exercitibus coram dissertaturos respondit. 

5 locumque delegit, cuius pars altera colles erant clemehter 
adsurgentes accipiendis peditum ordinibus, pars in planitiem 

6 porrigebatur ad explicandas equitum turmas. dieque pacto 
prior Corbulo socias cohortes et auxilia regum pro cornibus, 5 
medio sextam legionem constituit, cui acci'ta per noclem aliis 

ex caslris tria milia tertianorum perrriisciierat, una cum jw**''^ 

7 aquila, quasi eadem legio spectaretur. Tiridates vergente 
iam die procul adstitit, unde videri magis quam audiri posset, 
ita sine congressu dux Romanus abscedere militem sua 10 
quemque in castra iubet. 

39. Rex sive fraudem suspectans, quia plura simul in loca 
ibalur, sive ut commeatus nostros Pontico mari et Trapezunte 

2 oppido adventantes interciperet, propere discedit. sed'neque 
commeatibus vim facere potuit, quia per monies ducebantur 15 
praesidiis nostris ihsessps,' et Corbulo, ne inritum bellum 
traheretur utque Armenios ad sua defendenda cogeret, ex- 
cindere parat castella, sibique quod validissimum in ea 
praefectura, cognomento Volandum, sumit; minora Cornelio 
Flacco legato et Insteio Capitoni castrorum praefecto mandat. 20 

3 turn circumspeclis munimentis et quae expugnationi idonea 
provisis, hortatur milites ut hostem vagum neque paci aut 
prn^lio paratum, sed perfidiam et ignaviam fuga confitentem 

exuerent sedibus gloriaeque pariter et praedae consulerent. .^i 

4 turn quadripertito exercitu hos in testudinem conglobatos 25 / 
subruendo_.YalJo inducit, alios scalas moenibus admovere, 

5 multos tormentis faces et hastas incutere iubet. libritoribus 
funditoribusque attributus locus, unde eminus glandes tor- 
querent, ne qua pars subsidium laborantibus ferret pari 

6 undique metu. tantus inde ardor certantis exercitus fuit, 30 
ut intra tertiam diei partem nudati propugnatoribus muri, 
obices portatum subversi, capta escensu munimenta oni- 
■nesque puberes trucidati sint, nullo milite amisso, paucis 



admodum vulneratis, et inbelle vulgus sub corona venunda- 7 
turn, reliqua praeda victoribus cessit. pari fortuna legatus 
ac praefectus usi sunt, tribusque una die caslellis expugnalis 
cetera terrore et alia sponte incolarum in deditionem venic- 
5 bant, unde orta fiducia caput gentis Artaxata adgrediendi. 
nee tamen proximo itinere ductae legiones, quae si amnem 8 
A.raxen, qui moenia adluit, ponte transgrederentur, sub ictum 
dabantur : procul et latioribus vadis transiere. 
^^0. At Tiridates pudore et metu, ne, si concessisset obsi- j 

10 dioni, nihil opis in ipso videretur, si prohiberet, inpedilis loci? f 
seque et equestres copias inligaret, statuit postremo ostendere ; 
aciem et dato die proelium incipere vel simulatione fugae 

\ locum fraudi parare. igitur repente agmen Romanum cir- 2 
cumfundit, non ignaro duce nostro, qui viae pariter et pugnae 

15 composuerat exercitum. latere dextro tertia legio, sinistro 3 
sexta incedebat, mediis decumanorum delectis ; recepta inter 
ordines impedimenta, et tergum mille equites tuebantur, 
quibus iusserat ut instantibus comminus resisterent, refugos 
non sequerentur. in cornibus pedes Sagittarius et cetera 4 

20 manus equilum ibat, productiore [cornu] sinistro per ima 
collium, ut, si hostis intravisset, fronte simul et sinu excipe- 
retur. adsultare ex diverso Tiridates, non usque ad ictum 5 
teli, sed turn minitans, tum specie trepidantis, si laxare ordines 
et diversos consectari posset, ubi nihil temeritate solutum, e 

25 nee amplius quam decurio equitum audentius progressus et 
sagittis confixus ceteros ad obsequium exemplo firmaverat, 
■propinquis iam tenebris abscessit. 

41. Et Corbulo castra in loco metatus, an expeditis legioni- 
bus nocte Artaxata pergeret obsidioque circumdaret agitavit, 

30 concessisse illuc Tiridaten ratus. dein postquam exploratores 2 
attulere longinquum re^'iter et Medi an Albani peterentur 
incertum, lucem opperitur, praemissaque levis armatura, quae 
muros interim ambiret oppugnationemque eminus inciperet. 

A.D. 58-] UBER XIII. CAP. 39-42. 

3 sed oppidani portis sponte patefactis se suaque Romanis 
permisere, quod salutem ipsis tulit : Artaxatis ignis inmissus 
deletaque et solo aequata sunt, quia nee teneri poterant sine 
valido praesidio ob magnitudinem moenium, nee id nobis 
virium erat, quod firmando praesidio et capessendo bello 5 
divideretur, vel si integra et incustodita relinquerentur, nulla 

4 in eo utilitas aut gloria quod capta essent. adicitur miraculum 
velut numine oblatum : najn cuncta Artaxatis tenus sole 
inlustria fuere ; quod moenibus cingebatur, repente ita atra 
nube coopertum fulguribusque discretum est, ut quasi infen- 10 

6 santibus dels exitio tradi crederetur. ob haec consalutatus 
imperator Nero, et senatus consultp supplication es habilae, 
statuaeque et arcus et continiii consulaius principi, 
utque inter fg,stos referretur dies, quo p atrata victoria, 
quo nuntiata, quo relatum de ea esset, aliaque in eandem 15 
formam decernuntur, adeo modum egressa, ut C. Cassius de 
ceteris honoribus acisensus, si pro benignitate fortunae dis 
grates agerentur, ne totum quidem annum supplicationibus 
sufficere disseruerit, eoque oportere dividi sacros et nego- ^ 
tiosos dies, quis divina cblerent non impedirent. '^o 

42. Variis deinde casibus iactatus et multorum odia 
meritus reus, baud tamen sine invidia Senecae damnatur. is 
fuit P. Suillius, imperUante Claudio terribilis ac venalis et 
mutatione temporum non quantum inimici cuperent dernigsus 

2 quique se nocentem videri quam supplicem mallet, eius 25 
opprimendi ^tia repetitum credebatur senatus consultum 
poenaque Cinciae legis adversum eos qui pretio causas 

8 oravissenti/ nee Suillius questu aut exprobratione abstinebat, 
praeter ferociam animi extrema senecta liber et Senecam 
increpans infensum amicis Claudii, sub quo iustissimum 30 

4 exilium pertulisset. simul studiis inertibus et iuvenum in- 

■ peritiae suetum livere iis, qui vividam et incorruptam eloquen- 
(■. tiam tuendis civibus exercerent. se quaestorem Germanici, 


ilium domus eius adulterum fuisse. an gravius aestimandum 5 
spoil te liligatoiis praemium honestae operae adsequi, quam 
corrumpere cubicula principum feminarum ? qua sapientia, q 
quibus philosophorum praeceptis intra quadriennium regiae 

6 amicitiae ter miliens sestertium paravisset ? Romae testa- 7 
menta et orbos velut indagine eius capi, Italiam et provincias 
inmenso faenore hauriri : at sibi labore quaesitam et modicam 
pecuniam esse, crimen, periculum, omnia potius toleraturum 8 
quam veterem ac domi partam dignationem subitae felicitati 

10 submilteret. 

43. Nee deerant qui haec isdem verbis aut versa in deterius 
Senecae deferrent. repertique accusatores direptos socios, 
cum Suillius provinciam Asiam regeret, ac publicae pecuniae 
peculatum detulerunt. mox, quia inquisitionem annuam 2 

15 impetraverant, brevius visum urbana crimina incipi, quorum 
obvii testes erant. ii acerbitate accusationis Q. Pomponium 3 
ad necessitatem belli civilis detrusum, luliam Drusi filiam 
Sabinamque Poppaeam ad mortem actas et Valerium Asiati- 
cum, Lusium Saturninum, Cornelium Lupum circumventos, 

20 iam equitum Romanorum agmina damnata omnemque 
Claudii saevitiam Suillio obiectabant. ille nihil ex his sponte 4 
susceptum, sed principi paruisse defendebat, donee earn 
orationem Caesar cohibuit, compertum sibi referens ex 
coinmentariis patris sui nullam cuiusquam accusationem ab 

35 eo coactam. tum iussa Messalinae praelendi et labare 5 
defensio: cur enim neminem alium delectum qui saevienti 
impudicae vocem praeberet ? puniendos rcrum atrocium 
ministros, ubi prelia scelerum adepti scelera ipsa aliis dele^ent. 
igitur adempla bonorum parte (nam filio et nepti pars conce- 6 

30 debatur eximebanturque etiam quae testamento matris aut 
aviae acceperant) in insulas Baleares pellitur, non in ipso 
discrimine, non post damnationem fractus animo ; fereba- 
turque copiosa et molli vita secrelum illud toleravisse. filium 7 

A.D. 58.] LIBER XIII. CAP. 42-45. 

eius Neiullinum adgressis accusaloiibus per invidiam patris 
et ciimina repetundarum, inlercessit princeps tamquam satis 
'^xpleta ullione. 

44. Per idem tempus Octavius Sagilta plebei tribunus, 
Pontiae mulieris nuptae amore vaecors, ingentibus donis 5 

/ ,aduUerium et mox, ut omitteret maritum, emercatur, suum 

"'2 matrimonium promittens ac nuptias eius pactus. sed ubi 

mulier vacua fuit, nectere moras, adversam patris voluntatem 

causari repertaque spe ditioris coniugis promissa exuere. 

3 Octavius contra modo conqueri, modo minitari, famam per- 10 
ditam, pecuniam exhaustam obtestans, denique salutem, quae 

4 sola reliqua esset, arbitrio eius permittens. ac postquam 
spernebatur, noctem unam ad solaciuni poscit, qua delenitus 

6 modum in posterum adhiberet. statuitur nox et Pontia 
consciae ancillae custodiam cubiculi mandat. ille uno cum 15 

6 liberto ferrum veste occullum jnfert. turn, ut adsolet in 
amore et ira, iurgia^ preces, exprobratio satisfactio et pars 
tenebrarum libidini seposita; ex qua quasi incensus nihil 
metuentem ferro transverberat et accurrentem ancillam vulnere 

7 absterret cubiculoque prorumpit. postera die manifesta 20 
caedes, baud ambiguus percussor; quippe mansitasse una 
convincebalur, sed libertus suum illud facinus profiteri, se 

8 patroni iniurias ultum isse. commoveratque quosdam magni- 
tudine exempli, donee ancilla ex vulnere refecta verum 

9 aperuit. postulatusque apud consules a patre interfectae, 25 
postquam tribunatu abierat, sententia patrum et lege de 
sicariis condemnatur. 

45. Non minus insignis eo anno inpu^icitia magnorum rei 
publicae malorum initium fecit, erat in civitale Sabina Pop- 
paea, T. Ollio palre genita, sed nomen avi materni sumpserat, ,;o 

' inlustri memoria Poppaei Sabini, consulari et triumphali decore 

praefu]gentis ; nam Ollium honoribus nondum functunj^ 

2 amicitia Seiani pervertit. huic mulieri cuncta alia fuere praeter 


honestum animum. quippe mater eius, aetatis suae feminas 
pulcliiitudine supergressa, gloriam pariter et formam dederat ; , . 
opes clariludini generis ^sufficiebant. s^rmo comis nee absur- 
dum ingenium : modestiam praeferre et lascivia iiti. rarus in 
5 publicum egressus, idque velata parte oris, ne satiaret aspeclum, 
vel quia sic decebat. famae numquam pepercit, maritos et 3 
adulteros non "distingueng ; neque adfectui suo aut alieno 
obnoxia, unde utilitas ostenderetur, illuc libidinem transferebat. 
igitur agentem eam in matrimonio Rufri Crispini equitis 4 

lo Romani, ex quo filium genuerat, Otho pellexit iuventa ac 
luxu et quia flagrantissimus in amicitia Neronis habebatur: 
nee mora quin adulterio matrimonium iungeretur. 

46. Otho sive amore incaulus laudare formam elegantiam- 
que uxoris apud principem, sive ut accenderet ac, si eadem 

15 fcmina poterentur id quoque vinculum potentiam ei adiceret. 
saepe auditus est consurgens e convivio Caesaris, se quidem 2 
ire ad illam, sibi concessam dictitans nobilitatem, pulchri- 
tudinem, vota omnium et gaudia felicium. his atque 3 
talibus inrilamentis non longa cunctatio interponitur. sed 

20 accepto aditu Poppaea primum per blandimenta et artes 
valescere, imparem cupidini se et forma Neronis captam 
simulans; mox acri iam principis amore ad superbiam 
vertens, si ultra unam alteramque noctem attineretur, 
nuptam esse se dictitans, nee posse matrimonium amittere, 

25 devinctam Othoni per genus vitae, quod nemo adaequaret : 
ilium animo et cultu magnificum ; ibi se summa fortuna 4 
digna visere: at Neronem, paelice ancilla et adsuetydine 
Actes devinctum, nihil e contubernio servili nisi abiectum 
et sordidum traxisse. deicitur familiaritate sueta, post 5 

30 congressu et comitalu Otho, et ad postremum, ne in urbe 
aemulatus ageret, provinciae Lusitaniae praeficitur ; ubi 
usque ad civilia arma non ex priore infamia sed intcgre 
sancteque egit, procax otii et potestatis temperantior. 



A.D. 58.] L/B/lR Kill. CAP. 45-49. 

47. Hactenus Nero flagitiis et sceleribus velamenta quae- 
sivit. suspectabat maxime Cornelium Sullam, socors inge- 
nium eius in conlrarium trahcns callidumque et simulatorem 

2 interpretando. quern metum Graptus ex libertis Caesaris, usu 
et senecta Tiberio abusque domum principum edoctus tali 5 ,,^ J; 

mendacio intendit, pons Mulvius in eo tempore Celebris 
nocturnis inlecebris erat ; ventilabatque illuc Nero, quo 

;3 solulius urbem extra lasciviret. igitur regredienti per viam 
Flaminiam compositas insidias fatoque evitalas, quoniam 
diverse itinera Sallustianos in hortos remeaverit, auctoremque 10 
eius doli Sullam ementitur, quia forte redeuntibus ministris 
principis quidam per iuvenilem licentiam, quae tunc passim 

4 exercebatur, inanem metum fecerant. neque servorum quis- 
quam neque clientium Sullae adgnitus, maximeque despecta 
et nullius ausi capax natura eius a crimine abhorrebat: proinde 15 
tamen quasi convictus esset, cedere patria et Massiliensium 
moenibus coerceri iubetur. 

48. Isdem consulibus auditae Puteolanorum legationes, 
quas diversas ordo plebs ad senatum miserant, illi vim multi- 
tudinis, hi magistratuum et primi cuiusque avaritiam incre- 20 

2 pantes. eaque sedilio ad saxa et minas ignium progressa ne 
caedera et arma proliceret, C. Cassius adhibendo remedio 

3 delectus, quia severitatem eius non tolerabant, precante ipso 
ad Scribonios fratres ea cura transfertur, data cohorte 
praetoria, cuius terrore et paucorum supplicio rediit oppi- 25 
danis concordia. 

49. Non referrem vulgarissimum senatus consultum, quo 
civitati Syracusanorum egredi numerum edendis gladiatoribus 
finitum permittebatur, nisi Paetus Thrasea contra dixisset 
praebuissetque maleriem obtrectatoribus arguendae senten- 30 

2 tiae. cur enim, si rem publicam egere libertate senatoria 
crederet, tam levia consectaretur ? quin de bello aut pace, de 
vectigalibus et legibus, quibusque aliis res Romana contine- ' 




redir, suaderet dissuaderetve ? liccre patribus, quoliens ius 
diccndae scntentiae accepissent, quae vellcnt expiomcre 
relationemque in ea poslulare. an solum emendation'e 3 
dignum, ne Syracusis spectacula largius ederentur : cetera 

6 per omnes imperii partes perinde egregia, quam si non 
Nero sed Tiirasea regimen eorum teneret? quod si summa 4 
dissimulatione transmitterentur, quanto magis iiianibus absti- 
nendum ? Thrasea contra, rationem poscentibus amicis, non 5 
praesentium ignarum respondebat eius modi consulta corri- 

o gere, sed patrum honori dare, ut manifestum fieret magnarum 
rerum curam non dissimulaturos, qui animum etiam levissimis 

50. Eodem anno crebris populi flagitationibus, inmodestiam 
publicanorum arguentis, dubitavit Nero, an gincta vectigalia 

15 omitti iuberet idque pulchcrrimum donum generi mortalium 
daret. sed impetum eius, multum prius laudata magnitudine 2 
animi, attinuere senatores, dissolutionem imperii docendo, si 
fructus quibus res publica sustineretur deminuerentur : quippe 
sublatis'portoriis sequens ut tributorum abolitio expostularetur. 

20 plerasque vectigalium societates a consulibus et tribunis plebei 3 
conslitutas acri etiam turn populi Romani libertate ; reliqua '^ 
mox ita provisa, ut ratio quaestuum et necessitas erogaliouum 
inter se congrueret. temperandas plane publicanorum cupi- 4 
dines, ne per tot annos sine querella tolerata novis acerbltati- 

25 bus ad invidiam verterent. 

51. Ergo edixit princeps, ut leges cuiusqiie public!, occultae 
ad id tempus, proscriberentur ; omissas petitiones non ultra 
annum resumerent ; Romae praetor, per provincias qui pro 

y^j^'^ , praetore aut console essent iura adversus publicanos extra or- 

r' ' 30 dinem redderent ; militibus immunitas servaretur, nisi in iis 
quae veno exercerent ; aliaque admodum aequa, quae brevi 
servata, dein frustra habila sunt. manet tamen abolitio 2 
quadragensimae quinquagensimaeque et qua alia exactionibus 

A.D. 58.] LIBER Kill. CAP. 49-54. 

3 inlicitis nomina publican! invenciant. tempeiata apud trans- 
marinas provincias friimenli subveclio, et ne censibus ne- 
golialorum naves adscriberentur IribiUumque pro illis pen- 
derent, constitutum. 

52. Reos ex provincia Africa, qui proconsulare imperium 5 
illic habuerant, Sulpicium Camerinum et Pompeium Silvanum 
absolvit Caesar, Camerinum adversus privates et paucos, 
saevitiae magis quam captarum pecuniarum crimina obicientes. 

2 Silvanum magna vis accusatorum circumsteterat poscebatque 
tempus evocandorum testium: reus ilico defendi postulabat. 10 

3 valuitque pecuniosa orbitate et senecta, quam ultra vilam 
eorum produxit, quorum ambitu evaserat. ■./■-' 

53. Quietae ad id tempus res in Germania fuerant, ingenio 
ducum, qui pervulgalis triumphi insignibus mains ex eo decus 

2 sperabant, si pacem continuavissent. Paulinus Pompeius et 15 

3 L. Vetus ea tempestate exercitui praeerant. ne tamen segnem 
militem attinerent, ille inchoatum ante tres et sexaginta annos 
a Druso aggerem coercendo Rheno absolvit, Vetus Mosellam 
atque Ararim facta inter utrumque fossa conectere parabat, 
ut copiae per mare, dein Rhodano et Arare subvectae per 20 
eam fossam, mox fiuvio Mosella in Rhenum, exim Oceanum 
decurrerent, sublatisque ilineris difficultatibus navigabilia inter 

4 se Occidentis Septentrionisque litora fierent. invidit operi 
Aelius Gracilis Belgicae legatus, deterrendo Veterem ne A/' 
legiones alienae provinciae inferret studiaque Galliarum 25 
adfectaret, formidolosum id imperatori dictitans, quo plerum- 

que prohibentur conalus honesti. . - 

54. Ceterum continuo exercituum otio fama incessit 

2 ereptum ius legalis ducendi in hostem. eoque Frisii 
iuventutem saltibus aut paludibus, inbellem aetatem per lacus 33 
admovere ripae agrosque vacuos et militum usui sepositos 
insedere, auctore Verrito et Malorige, qui nationem eam 

3 regebant, in quanluni Germani regnantur. iamque fixerant 


domos,semina aivis intulerant iitque patrium solum exercebant, 
cum Dubius Avitus, accepta a Paulino provincia, minitando 
vim Romanam, nisi abscederent Fiisii veteres in locos aut 
novam sedem a Caesare inpetrarent, perpulit Verritum et 
5 Malorigem preces suscipeie. profectique Romam dum aliis 4 
curis intenlum Neronem opperiuntur, inter ea quae barbaris 
ostentantur intravere Pompei theatrum, quo magnitudinem 
populi viserent. illic per otium (neque enim ludicris ignari 5 
oblectabantur) dum consessum caveae, discrimina ordinum, 

10 quis eques, ubi senatus percontantur, advertere quosdam 
cultu externo in sedibus senatorum ; et quinam forent 
rogitantes, postquam audiveiant earum gentium legatis id 
honoris datum, quae virtute et amicitia Romana praecellerent, 
nullos mortalium armis aut fide ante Germanos esse exclamant 

15 degrediunturque et inter patres considunt. quod comiter 6 
a visentibus exceptum, quasi impetus antiqui et bona 
aemulatio. Nero civitate Romana ambos donavit, Frisios 
decedere agris iussit. atque illis iispernantibus auxiliaris 7 
eques repente immissus necessitatem atlulit, captis caesisve 

20 qui pervicacius restiterant. 

55. Eosdem agros Ampsivarii occupavere, validior gens 
non modo sua copia, sed adiacentium populorum misera- 
tione, quia pulsi a Chaucis et sedis inopes tutum exilium 
orabant. aderatque lis clarus per illas gentes et nobis 2 

25 quoque fidus, nomine Boiocalus, vinctum se rebellione 
Cherusca iussu Arminii referens, mox Tiberio, Germanico 
ducibus stipendia meruisse, et quinquaginta annorum ob- 
sequio id quoque adiungere, quod gentem suam dicioni 
nostrae subiceret. quo tantam partem campi iacere, in 3 

30 quam peeora et armenta militum aliquando transmitterentur? 
servarent sane receptus gregibus inter hominum famem, 4 
modo ne vastitatem et solitudinem mallent quam amicos 
populos. Chamavorum quondam ea arva, mox Tubantum 5 

A.D. 58.] LIBER XIII. CAP. 54-57- 

et post Usiporum fuisse. sicuti caelum dels, ita terras generi 

6 mortalium dalas ; quaeque vacuae, eas publicas esse, solem 

. inde suspiciens et cetera sidera vocans quasi coram inter- 

rogabat, vellentne contueri inane solum : potius mare 

superfunderent adversus terrarum ereptores. 5 

56. Et commotus his Avitus : patienda meliorum imperia ; 
id dis quos inplorarent placitum, ut arbitrium penes Romanes 
maneret, quid darent quid adimerent, neque alios indices 

2 quam se ipsos paterentur. haec in publicum Ampsivariis 
respondit, ipsi Boiocalo ob memoriam amiciuae daturum 10 

3 agros. quod ille ut proditionis pretium aspernatus addidit 
'deesse nobis terra in vilam, in qua moriamur, non potest:' 

4 atque ita infensis utrimque animis discessum, illi Bructeros, 
Tencteros, ulteriores etiam nationes socias bello vocabant : 
Avitus scripto ad Curtilium Manciam superioris exercitus 15 
legatum, ut Rhenum transgressus arma a tergo ostenderet, 
ipse legiones in agrum Tenclerum induxit, excidium minitans, 

5 ni causam suam dissociarent. igitur absistentibus his pari 
metu exterrili Bructeri ; et ceteris quoque aliena pericula 
deserentibus sola Ampsivariorum gens retro ad Usipos et 20 

6 Tubantes concessit, quorum terris exacti cum Chattos, 
dein Cheruscos petissent, errore longo hospites, egeni, hostes, 
in alieno quod iuventutis erat caeduntur, inbellis aetas in 
praedam divisa est. 

57. Eadem aestate inter Hermunduros Chattosque cer- 25 
tatum magno proelio, dum flumen gignendo sale fecundum 

et conlerminum vi trahunt, super libidinem cuncta armis 
agendi religione insita, eos maxime locos propinquare caelo 

2 precesque mortalium a deis nusquam propius audiri. inde 
indulgenlia numinum illo in amne illisque silvis salem 30 
provenire, non ut alias apud gentes eluvie maris arescente 
unda, sed super ardentem arborum struem fusa ex contrariis 

3 inter se dementis, igne atque aquis, concretum. sed bellum 


Hermunduiis prosperum, Chatlis exitiosius fuit, quia victores 
diversam aciem Marti ac Rlercuiio sacraveie, quo voto equi 
viri, cuncta viva occidioni danlur. ct minae quidem hostiles 4 
in ipsos vertebant. sed civitas Ubioium socia nobis malo 
5 inproviso adflicta est. nam ignes terra editi villas arva 5 
vicos passim corripiebant ferebanturque in ipsa conditae 
nuper coloniae moenia. neque extingui poterant, non si 6 
imbies caderent, non fluvialibus aquis aut quo alio humore, 
donee inopia remediorum et ira cladis agrestcs quidam 

lo eminus saxa iacere, dein resistentibus flammis propius 
suggressi ictu fustium aliisque verberibus ut feras abster- 
rebant : postremo tegmina corpori derepta iniciunt, quanto 7 
magis profana et usu polluta, tanto magis oppressura ignes. 
58. Eodem anno Ruminalem arborem in comiLio, quae 

15 oclingenlos et triginta ante annos Remi Romulique infanliam 
lexerat, mortuis ramalibus et arescente trunco deminulam 
prodigii loco habitum est, donee in novos fetus revivesceret. 

A.D. 59. LIBER XIV. CAP. I. 


1. Gaio Vipstano C. Fonteio consulibus diu meditatum 
scelus non ultra Nero distulit, vetustate imperii coalita 
audacia et flagrantior in dies amore Poppaeae, quae sibi 
matrimonium et discidium Octaviae incolumi Agrippina 
haud sperans, crebris criminalionibus, aliquando per facetias 5 
incusaret principem et pupillum vocaret, qui iussis alienis 
obnoxius non modo imperii sed libertatis etiam indigeret. 

2 cur enim differri nuplias suas ? formam scilicet displicere 
et triumphales avos, an fecunditatem et verum animum? 

3 timeri nc uxor saltern iniurias patrum, iram populi adversus 10 

4 supeibiam avariliamque matris aperiat. quod si nurum 
Agrippina non nisi filio infestam ferre posset, redderetur ipsa 


Othonis coniugio : ituram quoquo terrarum, ubi audiret potius 
contumelias imperatoris quam viseret periculis eius inmixta. 
haec atque talia lacrimis et arte adulterae penetrantia 5 
nemo piohibebat, cupientibus cunctis infringi polcntiam 
5 matris et crcdente nullo usque ad caedem eius duraluiM 
filii odia. 

3. Igilur Nero vitare secretos eius congressus, abscedentem 
in hortos aut Tusculanum vel Anliatem in agrum laudare, 
quod otium capesseret. postremo, ubicumque haberetur, 2 

10 pracgiavem ratus inteificere conslituit, hactenus consultans, 
veneno an ferro vel qua alia vi. placuitque prime venenum. 3 
sed inter epulas principis si daretur, referri ad casum non 
poterat tali iam Britannici exitio ; et ministros temptare 
arduum videbatur mulieris usu scelerum adversus insidias 

15 intentae; atque ipsa praesumendo remedia munierat corpus, 
ferrum et caedes quonam modo occultarelur, nemo reperiebat; 4 
et ne quis illi tanto facinori delectus iussa sperneret metue- 
bant. obtulit ingenium Anicetus libertus, classi apud 5 
Misenum praefectus et pueritiae Neronis educator ac mutuis 

20 odiis Agrippinae invisus. ergo navem posse componi docet, 
cuius pars ipso in mari per artem soluta effunderet ignaram : 
nihil tam capax fortuitorum quam mare ; et si naufragio 7 
intercepta sit, quem adeo iniquum, ut sceleri adsignet quod 
venli et fluctus deliquerint ? additurum principem defunctae 

25 templum et aras et cetera ostentandae pietati. 

4. Placuit sollertia, tempore etiam iuta, quando Quin- 
quatruum festos dies apud Baias frequentabat. illuc matrem 2 
elicit, ferendas parentium iracundias et placandum animum 
dictitans, quo rumorem reconcilialionis efficeret acciperetque 

30 Agrippina, facili feminarum credulitate ad gaudia. venientem 3 
dehinc obvius in litora (nam Anlio adventabat) excepit manu 
et complexu ducitque Baulos. id villae nomen est quae 4 
promunturium Misenmn inter et Baianum lacum flexo mari 

A.D. 50.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 1-5. 

5 adluitur. stabat inter alias navis ornatior, tamquam id 
quoque honori matris darelur : quippe sueverat triremi et 

6 classiaiiorum remigio vehi. ac turn invitata ad epulas eiat, 
lit occultando facinori nox adhibeietur. satis constilit 
extiusse proditorem, et Agrippinam auditis insidiis, an 5 

7 crederet ambiguam, gestamine sellae Baias pervectam. ibi 
blandimentum sublevavit melum : comiter excepta superque 

8 ipsum collocata. iam pluribus sermonibus, modo familiaiitate 
iuvenili Nero et luisus adductus, quasi seria consociaiet, 
tracto in longum convictu, prosequitur abeuntem, artius oculis 10 
et pectori haerens, sive explenda simulatione, seu periturae 
matris supremus aspectus quamvis ferum animum retinebat. 

5. Noctem sideribus inliistrem et placido mari quietam 

2 quasi convincendum ad scelus di praebuere. nee multum 
erat progressa navis, duobus _e numero familiarium Agrip- 15 
pinam comitanlibus, ex quis Crepereius Gallus baud procul 
gubernaculis adstabat, Acerronia super pedes cubitantis 
reclinis paenitentiam filii et reciperatam matris gratiam 
per gaudium memorabat, cum dato signo ruere tectum 
loci multo plumbo grave, pressusque Crepereius et statim 20 

3 exanimatus est. Agrippina et Acerronia eminentibus lecti 
parietibus ac forte validioribus, quam ut oneri cederent, 

4 protectae sunt, nee dissolutio navigii sequebatur, turbatis 
omnibus et quod plerique ignari etiam conscios impediebant. 

5 visum dehine remigibus unum in latus inclinare atque ita 25 
navem submergere : sed neque ipsis promptus in rem 
subitam consensus, et alii contra nitentes dedere facultatem 

6 lenioris in mare iaclus. verum Acerronia, inprudentia dum 
se Agrippinam esse utque subvenirelur malri principis 
clamitat, contis et remis et quae fors obtulerat navalibus 30 

7 telis conficitur : Agrippina silens eoque minus adgnita 
(unum tamen vulnus umero excepit) nando, deinde occursu 
lenunculorum Lucrinum in lacum vecla villae suae infertur. 


0. Illic reputansideo se fallacibus litteris accitam et honore 
praecipuo habitam, quodque litus iuxta, non ventis acta, non 
saxis inpulsa navis summa sui parte veluli terrestre machina- 
mentum concidisset, observans etiam Acerroniae necem, 
5 simul suum vulnus aspiciens, solum insidiarum remedium 
esse sensit, si non intellegeientur ; misitque libertura 
Agerinum, qui nuntiaret filio benignilate deum et forluna 
eius evasisse gravem casum ; orare ut quamvis peiiculo 
matris exterritus visendi cuiam differret ; sibi ad piaesens 

10 quiete opus, atque interim securitate simulata medicamina 2 
vulneri et fomenta corpori adhibet ; testamentum Acerroniae 
requiri bonaque obsignari iubet, id tantum non per simula- 

7. At Neroni nunlios patrati facinoris opperienti adferlur 

15 evasisse ictu levi sauciam et hactenus adito discrimine, ne 
auctor dubitaretur. turn pavore exanimis et iam iamque 2 
adfore obtestans vindictae properam, sive servitia armaret 
vel militem accenderet, sive ad senatum et populum 
pervaderet, naufragium et vulnus et interfectos amicos 

20 obiciendo, quod contra subsidium sibi ? nisi quid Burrus 
et Seneca; quos expergens statim acciverat incertum an et 
ante gnaros. igitur longum utriusque silentium, ne inriti 3 
dissuaderent, an eo descensum credebant, ut, nisi prae- 
veniretur Agrippina, pereundum Neroni esset. post Seneca 4 

25 hactenus promptius, ut respiceret Burrum ac sciscitarelur, 
an militi imperanda caedes esset. ille praetorianos toti 5 
Caesarum domui obstrictos memoresque Germanici nihil 
adversus progeniem eius atrox ausuros respondit : perpetraret 
Anicetus promissa. qui nihil cunctatus poscit summam 

30 sceleris. ad eam vocem Nero illo sibi die dari imperium 6 
auctoremque tanti muneris libertum profitetur: iret propere 
duceretque promptissimos ad iussa. ipse audito venisse 7 
missu Agrippinae nuntium Agerinum, scaenam ultro criminis 

A.D. 59.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 6-9. 

parat, gladiuinque, diim mandata peifert, abicit inter pedes 
eius, turn quasi deprehenso vincla inici iubet, ut exitium 
principis molitam matrem et pudore deprehensi sceleris 
sponte mortem sumpsisse confingeret. 

8. Interim vulgato Agrippinae periculo quasi casu even- 5 

2 isset, ut quisque acceperat, decurrere ad litus. hi molium 
obiectus, hi proximas scaphas scandere ; alii, quantum corpus 
sinebat, vadere in mare; quidam manus protendere; 
questibus, votis, clamore diversa rogitantium aut incerta 
respondentium omnis era compleri ; adfluere ingens multitude 10 
cum luminibus, atque ubi incolumem esse pernotuit, ut ad 
gratandum sese expedire, donee aspectu armati et minitantis 

3 agminis disiecti sunt, Anicetus villam statione circumdat 
refractaque ianua obvios servorum abripit, donee ad fores 
cubiculi veniret ; cui pauci adstabant, ceteris terrore inrum- 15 

4 pentium exterritis. cubiculo modicum lumen inerat et 
ancillarum una, magis ac magis anxia Agrippina, quod nemo 
a filio ac ne Agerinus quidem : aliam fore laetae rei faciem ; 
nunc solitudinem ac repentinos strepitus et extremi mali 

5 indicia, abeunte dehinc ancilla ' tu quoque me deseris ' 20 
prolocuta respicit Anicetum, trierarcho Herculeio et Obarito 
centurione classiario comitatum : ac, si ad visendum venisset, 
refotam nuntiaret, sin facinus patraturus, nihil se de filio 

6 credere ; non imperatum parricidium. circumsistunt ledum 
percussores et prior trierarchus fusti caput eius adflixit. 25 
iam ill mortem centurioni ierrum destringenti protendens 
uterum ' ventrem feri ' exclamavit multisque vulneribus 
confecta est. 

9. Haec consensu produntur, aspexeritne matrem exani- 
mem Nero et formam corporis eius laudaverit, sunt qui 3° 

2 tradiderint, sunt qui abnuant. cremata est nocte eadem 
convivali lecto et exsequiis vilibus ; neque, dum Nero rerum 

3 potiebalur, congesta aut clausa humus, mox domesticorum 



ciira levem tumulum accepit, viam Miseni propter et villam 
Caesaris dictatoris, quae subiectos sinus editissima prospeclat. 
accenso rogo libertus eius cognomento IMnester se ipse 4 
ferro transegit, incertum caritate in patronam an metu exitii. 
5 hunc sui finem multos ante annos crediderat Agrippina 5 
conlempseratque. nam consulenti super Nerone responderunt 
Chaldaei fore ut imperaret matremque occideret ; atque ilia 
'occidat' inquit, ' dum imperet/ 

10. Sed a Cacsare perfecto demum scelere magniludo 
lo eius inlellecta est. reliquo noctis modo per silentium dcfixus, 

saepius pavore exsurgens et mentis inops lucem opperiebatur 
tamquam exitium adlaturam. atque eum auctore Burro 2 
prima centurionum tribunorumque adulatio ad spem firmavit, 
prensantium manum gratantiumque quod discrimen inpro- 

15 visum et matris facinus evasisset. amici dehinc adire templa, 3 
et coepto exemplo proxima Campaniae municipia victimis 
et legationibus laetitiam lestari : ipse diversa simulatione 4 
maeslus et quasi incolumitati suae infensus ac morti parentis 
inlacrimans. quia tamen non, ut hominum vultus, ila 5 

20 locorum facies mutantur, obversabaturque maris illius et 
litorum gravis aspectus (et erant qui crederent sonitum tubae 
coUibus circum editis planctusque tumulo matris audiri), 
Neapolim concessit litterasque ad senalum misit, quarum 
summa erat repertum cum ferro percussoiem Agerinum, 

as ex intimis Agrippinae libertis, et luisse eam poenas con- 
scientia, quasi scelus paravisset. 

11. Adiciebat crimina longius repetita, quod consortium 
imperii iuratiirasque in feminae verba praetorias cohortes 
idemque dedecus senatus et populi speravisset, ac postquam 

30 frustra habita sit, infensa militi patribusque et plebi dissua- 
sisset donativum et congiarium periculaque viris inlustribus 
struxisset. quanto suo labore perpetratum, ne inrumperet 2 
curiam, ne gentibus externis responsa daret. teniporum 

Jt.D. 59.] L/BER XIV. CAP. 9-13. 

quoque Claudianorum obliqua insectatione cuncta eius 
dominationis flagitia in matrem transtulit, publica fortuna 

3 exstinctam referens. namque et naufragium narrabat : quod 
fortuitum fuisse, quis adeo hebes inveniretur ut crederet? 
aut a mulicre naufraga missum cum telo unum, qui cohortes 5 

4 et classes imperatoris perfringeret ? ergo non iam Nero, cuius 
inmanitas omnium questus anteibat, sed Seneca adveiso 
rumore erat, quod oratione tali confessionem scripsisset. 

12. Miro tamen ceitamine procerum decernuntur supplica- 
tiones apud omnia pulvinaria, utque Quinquatrus, quibus 10 
apertae insidiae essent, ludis annuls celebrarentur ; aureum 
Minervae simulacrum in curia et iuxta principis imago 
statuerentur ; dies natalis Agrippinae inter nefastos esset. 

2 Thrasca Paetus silentio vel brevi adsensu priores adulationes 
transmittere solitus exiit tum senatu, ac sibi causam periculi 15 

3 fecit, ceteris libertatis initium non praebuit. prodigia quoque 
crebra et inrita intercessere. anguem enixa mulier, et alia 
in concubitu mariti fulmine exanimata : iam sol repente 
obscuratus et tactae de caelo quattuordecim urbis regiones. 

4 quae adeo sine cura deum eveniebant, ut multos post annos 20 

5 Nero imperium et scelera continuaverit. ceterum quo 
gravaret invidiam matris eaque demota auctam lenitatem 
suam testificaretur, feminas inlustres luniam et Calpurniam, 
praetura functos Valerium Capitonem et Licinium Gabolum 

6 sedibus patriis reddidit, ab Agrippina olim pulsos. etiam 25 
Lolliae Paulinae cineres reportari sepulcrumque exstrui 
permisit; quosque ipse nuper relegaverat, Iturium et Cal- 

7 visium poena exsolvit. nam Silana fato functa erat, longin- 
quo ab exilio Tarentum regressa labante iam Agrippina, 
cuius inimicitiis conciderat, vel mitigata. 30 

13. Tamen cunctari in oppidis Campaniae, quonam modo 
urbem ingrederetur, an obsequium senatus, an studia plebis 
reperiret anxius : contm deterrimus quisque, quorum non 


alia regia fecundior extitit, invisum Agrippinae nomen et 
morte eius accensum populi favorem disserunt: iret in- 
trepidus et venerationem sui coram experiretur ; simul 
praegredi exposcunt, et promptiora quam promiserant 2 
5 inveniunt, obvias tribus, festo cuitu senatum, coniugum ac 
liberorum agmina per sexum et aetatem disposita, exstructos, 
qua incederet, spectaculorum gradus, quo modo triumphi 
visuntur. hinc superbus ac publici servitii victor Capitolium 3 
adiit, grates exsolvit, seque in omnes libidines effudit, quas 
10 rnale coercitas qualiscumque matris reverentia tardaverat. 

14. Vetus illi cupido erat curriculo quadrigarum insistere, 
nee minus foedum studium cithara ludicrum in modum 
canere. concertare equis regium et anliquis ducibus facti- 
tatum memorabat, idque vatum laudibus celebre et deorum 

15 honori datum, enimvero cantus Apollini sacros, talique 2 
ornatu adstare non modo Graecis in urbibus sed Romana 
apud templa numen praecipuum et praescium, nee iam sisti 3 
poterat, cum Senecae ac Burro visum, ne utraque pervinceret, 
alterum concedere. clausumque valle Vaticana spatium, in 4 

20 quo equos regeret, haud promisco spectaculo. mox ultro 
vocari populus Romanus laudibusque cxtollere, ut est vulgus 
cupiens voluptatum et, si eodem princeps trahat, laelum. 
ceterum evulgatus pudor non satietatem, ut rebantur, sed 5 
incitamentum attulit. ratusque dedecus molliri, si plures 

25 foedasset, nobilium familiarum posteros egestate venales in 
scaenam deduxit ; quos fato perfunctos ne nominatim tradam, 
maioribus eorum tribuendum puto. nam et eius flagitium est, 
qui pecuniam ob delicta potius dedit quam ne delinquerent. 
notos quoque equites Romanos operas arenae promittere 6 

30 subegit donis ingentibus, nisi quod merces ab eo, qui iubere 
potest, vim necessitatis adfert. 

15. Ne tamen adhuc publico theatro dehonestaretur, in- 
stituit ludos luvenalium vocabulo, in quos passim nomina 

A.D. 59.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 13-17. 

2 data, non nobililas cuiquam, non aelas aut acti honores 
impedimento, quo minus Graeci Lalinive histrionis artem 

3 exercerent usque ad gestus modosque baud viriles. quin 
et feminae inlustres deformia meditari; exstructaque apud 
nemus, quod navali stagno circumposuit Augustus, con- 5 
venticula et cauponae et posita veno inritamenta luxui. 
dabanturque stipes, quas boni necessitate, intemperantes 

4 gloria consumerent. inde gliscere flagitia et infamia, nee 
ulla moribus olim corruptis plus libidinum circumdedit quam 

5 ilia conluvies. vix artibus honestis pudor retinetur, nedum 10 
inter certamina vitiorum pudicilia aut modestia aut quicquam 

6 probi moris reservaretur. postremum ipse scaenam incedit, 
multa cura temptans citharam et praemeditans adsistentibus 

7 phonascis. accesserat cohors militum, centuriones tribunique 

8 et maerens Burrus ac laudans. tuncque primum conscripti 15 
sunt equites Roman! cognomento Augustianorum, aetate ac 
robore conspicui, et pars ingenio procaces, alii in spem 

8 potentiae. ii dies ac noctes plausibus personare formam 
principis vocemque deum vocabulis appellantes; quasi per 
virtutem clari honoratique agere. 20 

16. Ne tamen ludicrae tantum imperatoris artes notes- 
cerent carminum quoque studium adfectavit, contractis quibus 

2 aliqua pangendi facultas necdum insignis erat. hi cenati 
considere simul, et adlatos vel ibidem repertos versus 
conectere atque ipsius verba quoquo mode prolata supplere, 25 
quod species ipsa carminum docet, non impetu et instinctu 

8 nee ore uno fluens. etiam sapientiae doctoribus tempus 
impertiebat post epulas, utque contraria adseverantium 
discordia frueretur. nee deerant qui ore vultuque tristi inter 
oblectamenta regia spectari cuperent. 30 

17. Sub idem tempus levi initio atrox caedes orta inter 
colonos Nucerinos Pompeianosque gladiatorio spectaculo, 
quod Livineius Regulus, quern motum senatu rettuli, edebat. 


quippe oppidana lascivia invicem incessenles probra, dcin 2 
saxa, postremo ferrum sumpsere, validiore Pompeianorum 
plebe, apud quos spectaculum edebatur. ergo deportati sunt 3 
in urbem multi e Nucerinis trunco per vulnera corpore, ac 
5 plerique liberorum aut parentum mortes deflebant. cuius rei 
iudicium princeps senatui, senatus consulibus permisit, et 4 
rursus re ad patres relata, prohibiti publice in decern annos 
eius modi coetu Pompeiani collegiaque, quae contra leges 
instituerant, dissoluta ; Livineius et qui alii seditionem con- 
lo civerant exilic multati sunt. 

18. Molus senatu et Pedius Blaesus, accusantibus Cyre- 
nensibus violatum ab eo thesaurum Aesculapii dilectumque 
militarem pretio et ambitione corruptum. idem Cyrenenses 2 
reum agebant Acilium Strabonem, praetoria potestate usum 

15 et missum disceptatorem a Claudio agrorum, quos regis 
Apionis quondam avitos et populo Romano cum regno 
relictos proximus quisque possessor invaserant, diutinaque 
licentia et iniuria quasi iure et aequo nitebantur. igitur 3 
abiudicatis agris orta adversus iudicem invidia; et senatus 

20 ignota sibi esse mandata Claudii et consulendum principem 
respondit. Nero probata Strabonis sententia, se nihilo minus 4 
subvenire sociis et usurpata concedere rescripsit. 

19. Sequuntur virorum inlustrium mortes, Domiiii Afri 
et M. Servilii, qui summis honoribus et multa eloquentia 

35 viguerant, ille orando causas, Servilius diu foro, mox tradendis 
rebus Romanis Celebris et elegantia vitae, quam clariorem 
effecit, ut par ingenio, ita morum diversus. 

20. Nerone quarlum Cornelio Cosso consulibus quin- 
quennale ludicrum Romae institutum est ad morem Graeci 

30 ccrtaminis, varia fama, ut cuncta ferme nova, quippe erant 2 
qui Gnaeum quoque Pompeium incusatum a senioribus 
ferrent, quod mansuram theatri sedem posuisset. nam antea 3 
subitariis gradibus et scaena in tempus structa ludos edi 

A.D. Co.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 1 7-2 1. 

solitos, vel si vetustiora repetas, stantem populum spectavisse, 
ne, si consideret theatre, dies totos ignavia continuaret. 

4 spectaculorum quidem antiquitas servaretur, quotiens prae- 
tores ederent, nulla cuiquam civium necessitate certandi. 

5 ceterum abolitos paulatim patrios mores funditus everti per 5 
accitam lasciviam, ut quod usquam corrumpi et corrumpere 
queat, in urbe visatur, degeneretque studiis externis iuventus, 
gymnasia et otia et turpes araores exercendo, principe et 
senatu auctoribus, qui non modo licentiam vitiis permiserint, 
sed vim adhibeant, ut proceres Romani specie orationum et 10 

6 carminum scaena polluantur. quid superesse, nisi ut corpora 
quoque nudent et caestus adsumant easque pugnas pro 

7 militia et armis meditentur ? an iustitiam auctum iri et 
decurias equitum egregium iudicandi munus melius exple- 
turas, si fractos sonos et dulcedinem vocum perite audissent? 15 

8 noctes quoque dedecori adiectas, ne quod tempus pudori 
relinquatur, sed coetu promisco, quod perditissimus quisque 
per diem concupiverit, per tenebras audeat. 

21. Pluribus ipsa licentia placebat, ac tamen hbnesta 

2 nomina praetendebant. maiores quoque non abhorruisse 20 
spectaculorum oblectamentis pro fortuna quae tum erat, 
eoque a Tuscis accilos histriones, a Thuriis equorum 
certamina ; et possessa Achaia Asiaque ludos curatius editos, 
nee quemquam Romae honesto loco ortum ad theatrales 
artes degeneravisse, ducentis iam annis a L. Mummii 25 
triumpho, qui primus id genus spectaculi in urbe praebuerit. 

3 sed et consuUum parsimoniae, quod perpetua sedes theatro 
locata sit polius, quam immenso sumptu singulos per annos 

4 consurgeret ac destrueretur. nee perinde magistralus rem 
familiarem exhausturos aut populo efflagitandi Graeca cer- 30 
tamina a magistratibus causam fore, cum eo sumptu res 

5 publica fungatur. oratorum ac vatum victorias incitamentum 
ingeniis adiaturas; nee cuiquam iudici grave aures studiis 


honeslis et voluptatibus concessis impertirc. laetiliae magis 6 
quam lasciviae dari paucas totius quinquennii noctes, quibus 
tanta luce ignium nihil inlicitum occultari queat. sane nullo 7 
insigni dehonestamento id spectaculum transiit. ac ne 
5 modica quidem studia plebis exarsere, quia redditi quam- 
quam scaenae pantomimi certaminibus saciis prohibebantur. 
eloquentiae primas nemo tulit, sed victorem esse Caesarem 8 
pronuntiatum. Graeci amictus, quis per eos dies plerique 
incesserant, turn exoleverunt. 

10 22. Inter quae et sidus cometes effulsit, de quo vulgi 
opinio est, tamquam mutationem regis portendat. igitur 
quasi iam depulso Nerone, quisnam deligeretur anquirebant. 
et omnium ore Rubellius Plautus celebratur, cui nobilitas per 2 
matrem ex lulia familia. ipse placita maiorum colebat, 3 

15 habitu severe, casta et secreta domo, quantoque metu 
occultior, tanto plus famae adeptus. auxit rumorem pari 4 
vanitate orta interpretatio fulguris. nam quia discumbentis 
Neronis apud Simbruina stagna in villa, cui Sublaqueum 
nomen est, ictae dapes mensaque disiecta erat, idque finibus 

2o Tiburtum acciderat, unde paterna Plauto origo, hunc ilium 
numine deum destinari credebant, fovebantque muUi, quibus 
nova et ancipitia praecolere avida et plerumque fallax 
ambitio est. ergo permotus his Nero componit ad Plautum 5 
litteras, consuleret quieti urbis seque prava diffamantibus 

25 subtraheret : esse illi per Asiam avitos agros, in quibus tula 
et inturbida iuventa frueretur. ita illuc cum coniuge Antistia 
et paucis familiarium concessit. 

Isdem diebus nimia luxus cupido infamiam et periculum 6 
Neroni tulit, quia fontem aquae Marciae ad urbem deductae 

30 nando incesserat ; videbatuique potus sacros et caerimoniam 
loci corpore loto polluisse. secutaque anceps valeludo iram 
deum adfirmavit. 

23. At Corbulo post deleta Artaxata utendum recenti 

A.D. 60.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 21-25. 

terrore ratus ad occupanda Tigranocerta, quibus excisis 
metum hostium intenderet vel, si pepeicisset, clementiae 
famam adipisceretur, illuc pergit, non infenso exercitu, ne 
spem veniae aufeiret, neque tamen remissa cura, gnarus 
facilem mutatu gentem, ut segnem ad pericula, ita infidam 5 

2 ad occasiones. barbari, pro ingenio quisque, alii preces 
offerre, quidam deserere vicos et in avia digredi; ac fuere 

3 qui se speluncis et carissima secum abderent. igitur dux 
Romanus diversis artibus, misericordia adversus supplices, 
celeritate adversus profugos, inmitis iis qui latebras insederant, 10 
ora et exitus specuum sarmentis virgultisque completos igni 

4 exurit. atque ilium fines suos praegredientem incursavere 
Mardi, latrociniis exerciti contraque inrumpentem montibus 
defensi ; quos Corbulo inmissis Hiberis vastavit hostilem- 
que audaciam externo sanguine ultus est. 15 

24. Ipse exercitusque ut nullis ex proelio damnis, ita per 
inopiam et labores fatiscebant, carne pecudum propulsare 

2 famem adacti. ad hoc penuria aquae, fervida aestas, lon- 
ginqua itinera sola ducis patientia mitigabantur, eadem 

3 pluraque gregario milile tolerantis. ventum dehinc in locos ao 
cultos demessaeque segetes, et ex duobus castellis, in quae 
confugerant Armenii, alterum impetu captum ; qui primam 

4 vim depulerant, obsidione coguntur. unde in regionem 
Tauraunitium transgressus inprovisum periculum vitavit. 

5 nam baud procul tentorio eius non ignobilis barbarus cum 25 
telo repertus ordinem insidiarum seque auctorem et socios 
per tormenta edidit, convictique et puniti sunt qui specie 

6 amicitiae dolum parabant. nee multo post legati Tigrano- 
certa missi patere moenia adferunt, intentos popular! s ad 
iussa : simul hospilale donum, coronam auream, tradebant. 30 

7 accepitque cum honore, nee quicquam urbi detraclum, quo 
promptius obsequium integri retinerent. 

25. At praesidium Legerda, quod ferox iuventus clauserat, 


non sine ceitamine expugnalum est : nam et j» ocHum pro 
muris ausi erant et puisi intra muninienta aggeri demum et 
inrumpentium armis cessere. quae facilius proveniebant, 2 
quia Parthi Hyrcano bello distinebanlur. miserantque Hyr- 
5 cani ad principem Romanum societatem oratum, attineri a se 
Vologesen pro pignore amicitiae ostentantes. eos regredientes 3 
Corbulo, ne Euphraten transgress! hoslium custodiis circum- 
venirentur, dato praesidio ad litora maris rubri deduxit, unde 
vitatis Parthorum finibus patrias in sedes remeavcre. 

'o 26. Quin et Tiridaten per Medos extrema Armeniae in- 
trantem, praemisso cum auxiliis Verulano legato, atque ipse 
legionibus citis, abire procul ac spem belli amittere subegit ; 
quosque nobis aversos animis cognoverat, caedibus et incendiis 
perpopulatus, possessionem Armeniae usurpabat, cum advenit 

15 Tigranes a Nerone ad capessendum imperium delectus, 
Cappadocum ex nobililate, regis Archelai nepos, sed quod 
diu obses apud urbem fuerat, usque ad servilem patientiam 
demissus. nee consensu acceptus, durante apud quosdam 2 
favore Arsacidarum. at plerique superbiam Parlhorum perosi 

20 datum a Romanis regem malebant. additum ei praesidium 3 
mille legionarii, tres sociorum cohortes duaeque cquitum 
alae, et quo facilius novum regnum tueretur, pars Armeniae, 
ut cuique finitima, Pharasmani Polemonique et Aristobulo 
atque Antiocho parere iussae sunt. Corbulo in Surinm 4 

25 abscessit, morte Ummidii legati vacuam ac sibi permissam. 
27. Eodem anno ex inlustribus Asiae urbibus Laodicea 
tremore terrae prolapsa, nullo a nobis remedio, propriis 
opibus revaluit, at in Italia vetus oppidum Puteoli ius 2 
coloniae et cognomentum a Nerone apiscunlur. veterani 3 

30 Tarentum et Antium adscript! non tamen infrequentiae 
locorum subvenere, dilapsis pluribus in provincias in quibus 
stipendia expleverant ; neque coniugiis suscipiendis neque 
alendis liberis sueti orbas sine posteris domos relinquebant. 

A.D. r,i.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 25-30. 

4 non enim, ut olim, universae legiones deducebantur cum 
^tribunis et centuiionibus et sui cuiusque ordinis miliiibus, ut 
consensu et caritate rem publicam efficerent, sed ignoti inter 
se, diversis manipulis, sine rectore, sine adfectibus mutuis, 
quasi ex alio genere mortalium repente in unum collecli, 5 
Humerus magis quam colonia. 

28. Comilia praetorum arbitrio senatus haberi solita, 
quoniam acriore ambitu exarserant, princeps composuit, tris, 

2 qui supra numerum petebant, legioni praeficiendo. auxitque 
palrum honorem slatuendo ut, qui a privatis iudicibus ad 10 
senatum provocavissent, eiusdem pecuniae periculum facerent, 
cuius si qui imperatorem appellarent; nam antea vacuum id 

3 solutumque poena fuerat. fine anni Vibius Secundus eques 
Romanus accusantibus Mauris repetundarum damnatur at- 
que Italia exigitur, ne graviore poena adficeretur, Vibii Crispi 15 
fratris opibus enisus. 

29. Caesennio Paeto et Pelronio Turpiliano consulibus 
gravis clades in Britannia accepta, in qua neque A. Didius 
legatus,ut memoravi, nisi parta retinuerat,et successor Veranius 
modicis excursibus Siluras populatus, quin ultra bellum pro- 20 
ferret, morte prohibitus est, magna, dum vixit, severitatis 
fama, supremis testamenti verbis ambitionis manifestus: 
quippe multa in Neronem adulatione addidit subieclurum 

2 ei provinciam fuisse, si biennio proximo vixisset. sed turn 
Paulinus Suetonius obtinebat Britannos, scientia militiae et 25 
rumore populi, qui neniinem sine aemulo sinit, Corbulonis 
concertator, receptaeque Armeniae decus aequare domitis 

3 perduellibus cupiens. igitur Monam insulam, incolis validam et 
receptaculum perfugarum, adgredi parat, navesque fabricatur 

4 piano alveo adversus breve et incertum. sic pedes; equites 30 
vada secuti aut altiores inter undas adnantes equis tramisere. 

30. Stabat pro litore diversa acies, densa armis virisque, 
intercursantibus feminis ; in modum Furiarum veste ferali, 


crinibus deiectis faces praeferebant ; Druidaeque circum, 
preces diras sublatis ad caelum manibus fundentes, novitate 
aspectus perculere militem, ut quasi haerentibus membris 
inmobile corpus vulneribus praeberent. dein cohortationibus 2 
5 ducis et se ipsi stimulantes, ne muliebre et fanaticum agmen 
pavescerent, inferunt signa sternuntque obvios et igni suo 
involvunt. praesidium posthac inpositum victis excisique 3 
luci saevis superstitionibus sacri : nam cruore captivo adolere 
aras et hominum fibris consulere deos fas habebant. haec 
10 agenti Suetonio repentina defectio provinciae nuntiatur. 

31. Rex Icenorum Prasutagus, longa opulentia clarus, 
Caesarem heredem duasque filias scripserat, tali obsequio 
ratus regnumque et domum suam procul iniuria fore, quod 2 
contra vertit, adeo ut regnum per centuriones, domus per 

15 servos velut capta vastarentur. iam primum uxor eius 3 
Boudicca verberibus adfecta et filiae stupro violatae sunt : 
praecipui quique Icenorum, quasi cunctam regionem muneri 
accepissent, avitis bonis exuuntur, et propinqui regis inter 
mancipia habebantur. qua contumelia et metu graviorum, 4 

20 quando in formam provinciae cesserant,rapiunt arma,commotis 
ad rebellationem Trinovantibus et qui alii nondum servitio 
fracti resumere libertatem occultis coniurationibus pepigerant, 
acerrimo in veteranos odio. quippe in. coloniam Camulodu- 5 
num recens deducti pellebant domibus, exturbabant agiis, 

25 captivos, servos appellando, foventibus inpotentiam vetera- 
norum militibus similitudine vitae et spe eiusdem licentiae. 
ad hoc templum divo Claudio constitutum quasi arx aeternae 6 
dominationis aspiciebatur, delectique sacerdotes specie re- 
ligionis omnis fortunas effundebant. nee arduum videbatur 7 

30 excindere coloniam nullis rnunimentis saeptam ; quod ducibus 
nostris parum provisum erat, dum amoenitati prius quam usui 

32. Inter quae nulla palam causa delapsum Camuloduni 

A.D. 6i.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 30-33. 

simulacrum Victoriae ac retro conversum, quasi cederet 

2 hostibus. et feminae in furorem turbatae adesse exilium 
canebant, externosque fremitus in curia eorum auditos; 
consonuisse ululatibus theatrum visamque speciem in aestuario 
Tamesae subversae coloniae : iam Oceanus cruento aspectu, 5 
dilabente aestu humanorum corporum effigies relictae, ut 

3 Britannis ad spem, ita veteranis ad metum trahebantur. sed 
quia procul Suetonius aberat, petivere a Cato Deciano 
procuratore auxilium, ille baud amplius quam ducentos sine 

4 iustis armis misit ; et inerat modica militum manus. tutela lo 
templi freti, et impedientibus qui occulti rebellionis conscii 
consilia turbabant, neque fossam aut vallum praeduxerunt, 
neque motis senibus et feminis iuventus sola restitit : quasi 
media pace incauti multitudine barbarorum circumveniuntur. 

5 et cetera quidem impetu direpta aut incensa sunt : templum, 15 
in quo se miles conglobaverat, biduo obsessum expugna- 

6 tumque. et victor Britannus Pelilio Ceriali legato legionis 
nonae in subsidium adventanti obvius fudit legionem, et quod 
peditum interfecit : Cerialis cum equitibus evasit in castra et 

7 munimentis defensus est. qua clade et odiis provinciae, 20 
quam avaritia eius in bellum egerat, trepidus procurator Catus 

in Galliam transiit. 

33. At Suetonius mira constantia medios inter hostes 
Londinium perrexit, cognomento quidem coloniae non insigne, 
sed copia negotiatorum et commealuum maxime celebre. 25 

2 ibi ambiguus an illam sedem bello deligeret, circumspecta 
infrequentia militis, satisque magnis documentis temeritatem 
Petilii coercitam, unius oppidi damno servare universa statuit. 

3 neque fletu et lacrimis auxilium eius orantium flexus est, 
quin daret profectionis signum et comitantes in partem 30 
agminis acciperet : si quos inbellis sexus aut fessa aetas vel 

4 loci dulcedo attinuerat, ab hoste oppressi sunt, eadem 
clades municipio Verulamio fuit, quia barbari omissis castellis 


praesidiisque militarium, quod uberrinium spolianli et defen- 
dentibus intutum, laeti praeda et laborum segnes petebant. 
ad septuaginta milia civium et sociorum iis quae memoravi 5 
locis cecidisse constitit. neque enim capere aut venundare 6 
5 aliudve quod belli commercium, sed caedes patibula ignes 
cruces, tamquam reddituri supplicium ac praerepta interim 
ultione, festinabant. 

34. lam Suetonio quarta decuma legio cum vexillariis 
vicensimanis et e proximis auxiliares, decern ferme milia 

10 armatorum erant, cum omittere cunctationem et congredi 
acie parat. deligitque locum artis faucibus et a tergo silva 2 
clausum, satis cognito nihil hostium nisi in fronte et apertam 
planitiem esse, sine metu insidiarum. igiiur legionarius 3 
frequens ordinibus, levis circum armatura, conglobatus pro 

15 cornibus eques adslitit. at Britannorum copiae passim per 4 
catervas et turmas exsultabant, quanta non alias multitudo, 
et animo adeo feroci, ut coniuges quoque testes victoriae 
secum traherent plauslrisque inponerent, quae super extremum 
ambitum campi posuerant. 

20 35. Boudicca curru filias prae se vehens, ut quamque 
nationem accesserat, solitum quidem Britannis feminarum 
ductu bellare testabatur, sed tunc non ut tantis maioribus 
ortam regnum et opes, verum ut unam e vulgo libertatem 
amissam, confectum verberibus corpus, contrectatam filiarum 

25 pudiciliam ulcisci. eo provectas Romanorum cupidines, ut 2 
non corpora, ne senectam quidem aut virgin itatem in- 
pollutam relinquant. adesse tamen deos iustae vindictae : 3 
cecidisse legionem quae proelium ausa sit; ceteros castris 
occultari aut fugam circumspicere. ne strepitum quidem et 4 

30 clamorem tot milium, nedum impetus et manus perlaluros : 
si copias armatorum, si causas belli secum expenderent, 
vinccndum ilia acie vel cadendum esse, id mulieri des- 5 
tinatum : viverent viri et servirent. 

A.D. 6i.] LIBER XIV. C/J/'. 33-38. 

36. Ne Suetonius quidem in tanto discrimine silebat. 
quamquam confideret virtuli, tamen exhortationes et preces 
miscebat, ut spernerent sonores barbarorum et inanes minas : 

2 plus illic feminarum quam iuvenlutis aspici. inbelles inermes 
cessuros statim, ubi ferrum virtutemque vincentium totiens 5 

3 fusi adgnovissent. etiam in multis legionibus paucos, qui 
proelia profligarent ; gloriaeque eorum accessurum quod 
modica manus universi exercitus famam adipiscerentur. 

4 conferli tantum et pilis emissis, post umbonibus et gladiis 
stragem caedemque conlinuarent, praedae inmemores : parta 10 

5 victoria cuncta ipsis cessura. is ardor verba ducis seque- 
batur, ita se ad intorquenda pila expedierat vetus miles et 
multa proeliorum experientia, ut certus eventus Suetonius 
daret pugnae signum. 

37. Ac primum legio gradu inmota et angustias loci 15 
pro munimento retinens, poslquam in propius suggressos 

2 hostis certo iactu tela exhauserat, velut cuneo erupit. idem 
auxiliarium impetus ; et eques protentis hastis perfringit quod 

3 obvium et validum erat. ceteri terga praebuere, difficili 

4 effugio, quia circumiecta vehicula saepserant abitus. et ao 
miles ne mulierum quidem neci temperabat, confixaque 

5 telis etiam iumenla corporum cumulum auxerant. clara et 
antiquis victoriis par ea die laus parta : quippe sunt qui 
paulo minus quam octoginta milia Britannorum cecidisse 
tradant, militum quadringentis ferme interfectis nee multo 25 

6 amplius vulneratis. Boudicca vitam veneno finivit. et 
Poenius Postumus praefectus castrorum secundae legionis, 
cogniiis quartadecumanorum vicensimanorumque prosperis 
rebus, quia pari gloria legionem suam fraudaverat abnueratque 
contra riium militiae iussa duci?, se ip e gladio transegit. 30 

38. Contractus deinde omnis exercitus sub pellibus habitus 
est ad reliqua belli perpetranda. auxitque copias Caesar 
missis ex Germania duobus legionariorum milibus, octo 


auxiliarium cohortibus ac mille equilibus, quorum adventu 
nonani legionario milite suppleti sunt, cohortes alaeque 2 
novis hibernaculis locatae, quodque nationum ambiguum aut 
adversum fuerat, igni atque ferro vastatum. sed nihil aeque 3 
5 quam fames adfligebat serendis frugibus incuriosos, et omni 
aetate ad bellum versa, dum nostros commeatus sibi destinant. 
gentesque praeferoces tardius ad pacem inclinabant, quia 4 
lulius Classicianus successor Cato missus et Suetonio discors 
bonum publicum privatis simultatibus impediebat disperse- 

10 ratque novum legatum opperiendum esse, sine hostili ira et 
superbia victoris clementer deditis consulturum. simul in 5 
urbem mandabat, nullum proeliorum finem exspectarent, nisi 
succederetur Suetonio, cuius adversa pravitati ipsius, prospera 
ad fortunam referebat. 

15 39. Igitur ad spectandum Britanniae statum missus est e 
libertis Polyclitus, magna Neronis spe posse auctoritate eius 
non modo inter legatum procuratoremque concordiam gigni, 
sed et rebelles barbarum animos pace conponi. nee defuit 2 
Polyclilus quo minus ingenti agmine Italiae Galliaeque gravis, 

20 postquam Oceanum transmiserat, militibus quoque nostris 
terribilis incederet. sed hostibus inrisui fuit, apud quos 3 
flagrante etiam tum libertate nondum cognita libertinorum 
potentia erat ; mirabanturque quod dux et exercitus tanti 
belli confector servitiis oboedirent. cuncta tamen ad im- 4 

25 peratorem in mollius relata ; detcntusque rebus gerundis 
Suetonius, quod postea paucas naves in litore remigiumque 
in iis amiserat, tamquam durante bello tradere exercitum 
Petronio Turpiliano, qui iam consulatu abierat, iubetur. is 5 
non inritato hoste neque lacessitus honestum pacis nomen 

30 segni otio imposuit. 

40. Eodem anno Romae insignia scelera, alterum senatoris, 
servili alterum audacia, admissa sunt. Domiiius Balbus erat 
praetorius, simul longa senecta, simul orbitate et pecunia 

A.D. 6i.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 38-43. 

2 insidiis obnoxius. ei propinquus Valerius Fabianus, capes- 
sendis honoribus destinalus, subdidit testamentum ascitis 
Vinicio Rufino et Terentio Lentino equitibus Romanis. illi 

3 Antonium Primum et Asinium Marcellum sociaverant. An- 
tonius audacia promptus, Marcellus Asinio Pollione proavo 5 
clarus neque morum spernendus habebatur, nisi quod 

4 paupertatem praecipuum malorum credebat. igitur Fabianus 
tabulas sociis quos memoravi et aliis minus inlustribus 

5 obsignat. quod apud patres convictum, et Fabianus Antoni- 
usque cum Rufino et Terentio lege Cornelia damnantur. 10 
Marcellum memoria maiorum et preces Caesaris poenae 
magis quam infamiae exemere. 

41. Perculit is dies Pompeium quoque Aelianum, iuvenem 
quaestorium, tamquam flagitiorum Fabiani gnarum, eique 

2 Italia et Hispania, in qua ortus erat, interdictum est. pari 15 
ignominia Valerius Ponticus adficitur, quod reos, ne apud 
praefectum urbis arguerentur, ad praetorem detulisset, interim 

3 specie legum, mox praevaricando ultionem elusurus. additur 
senalus consulto, qui talem operam emptitasset vendidissetve 
perinde poena teneretur ac publico iudicio calumniae con- 20 

42. Haud multo post praefectum urbis Pedanium Secun- 
dum servus ipsius interfecit, seu negata libertate, cui pretium 
pepigerat, sive amore exoleti incensus et dominum aemulum 

2 non tolerans. ccterum cum vetere ex more familiam omnem, 25 
quae sub eodem tecto mansitaverat, ad supplicium agi 
oporteret, concursu plebis, quae tot innoxios protegebat, 
usque ad seditionem ventum est senatusque obsessus, in quo 
ipso erant studia nimiam severitatem aspernantium, pluribus 
nihil mutandum censentibus. ex quis C. Cassius sentcntiae 30 
loco in hunc modum disseruit : 

43. ' Saepe numero, patres conscripti, in hoc ordine 
interfui, cum contra instituta et leges maiorum nova senatus 



decreta postularentur ; neque sum adversatus, non quia 
dubitarem, super omnibus negotiis melius atque rectius olim 
provisum et quae converterenlur in deterius mutari, sed ne 
nimio amore antiqui moris studium meum extollere viderer. 
5 simul quidquid hoc in nobis auctoritatis est, crebiis con- 2 
tradictionibus destruendum non exislimabam, ut maneict 
integrum, si quando res publica consiliis eguisset. quod 3 
hodie evenit, consulari viro domi suae interfecto per insidias 
serviles, quas nemo prohibuit aut prodidit quamvis nondum 

10 concusso senatus consulto, quod supplicium toti familiae 
minitabatur. decernite hercule inpunitatem, ut quem dignitas 4 
sua defendat, cum praefectura urbis non prcfuerit? quem 
Humerus servorum tueatur, cum Pedanium Secundum quad- 
ringenti non protexerint? cui familia opem fcrat, quae ne 

15 in metu quidem pericula nostra advertit? an, ut quidam 5 
fingere non erubescunt, iniurias suas ultus est interfeclor, 
quia de paterna pecunia transegerat aut avitum mancipium 
detrahebatur ? pronuntiemus ultro dominum lure caesum 

20 44. Libet argumenta conquirere in eo quod sapientioribus 
deliberatum est? sed et si nunc primum statuendum 
haberemus, creditisne servum interficiendi domini animum 
sumpsisse, ut non vox minax excideret, nihil per temeritatem 
proloquerelur ? sane consilium occultavit, telum inter ignaros 2 

25 paravit : num excubias transire, cubiculi fores recludere, 
lumen infene, caedem patrare poterat omnibus nesciis? 
multa sceleris indicia praeveniunt : servi si prodant, possunius 3 
singuli inter plures, tuli inter anxios, postremo, si pereundum 
sit, non inulti inter nocentes agere. suspecta maioribus 4 

30 nostris fuerunt ingenia servorum, etiam cum in agris aut 
domibus isdem nascerentur caritatemque dominorum statim 
acciperent. postquam vero nationes in lamiliis habemus, 6 
quibus diversi ritus, externa sacra aut nulla sunt, conluviem 

A.D. 6i.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 43-47. 

6 istam non nisi metu coercueris. at quidam insontes peribunt. 
nam et ex fuso exercitu cum decumus quisque fusti feritur, 

7 etiam strenui sortiuntur. habet aliquid ex iniquo omne 
magnum exemplum, quod contra singulos utilitate publica 
rependitur.' 5 

45. Sententiae Cassii ut nemo unus contra ire ausus est, 
ita dissonae voces respondebant numerum aut aetatem aut 
sexum ac plurimorum indubiam innocentiam miserantium : 

2 praevaUiit tamen pars quae supplicium decernebat. sed 
obtemperari non poterat, conglobata multitudine et saxa ac 10 

3 faces minante. tum Caesar populum edicto increpuit atque 
omne iter, quo damnati ad poenam ducebantur, militaribus 

4 praesidiis saepsit. censuerat Cingonius Varro ut liberti 
quoqiie, qui sub eodem tecto fuissent, Italia deportarentur. 

id a principe prohibitum est, ne mos antiquus, quem miseri- 15 
cordia non minuerat, per saevitiam intenderetur. 

46. Damnatus isdem consulibus Tarquitius Priscus repe- 
tundarum Bithynis interrogantibus, magno patrum gaudio, 
qui accusatum ab eo Statilium Taurum pro consule ipsius 

2 meminerant. census per Gallias a Q. Volusio et Sextio 20 
Africano Trebellioque Maximo acti sunt, aemulis inter se 
per nobilitatem Volusio atque Africano : Trebellium dum 
uterque dedignatur, supra tulere. 

47. Eo anno mortem obiit Memmius Regulus, auctorilate 
constantia fama, in quantum praeumbrante imperatoris 25 
fastigio datur, clarus, adeo ut Nero aeger valetudine, et 
adulantibus circum qui finem imperio adesse dicebant, si 
quid fato pateretur, responderit habere subsidium rem 
publicam. rogantibus dehinc in quo potissimum, addiderat 

2 in Memmio Regulo. vixit tamen post haec Regulus, quiete 30 
defensus et quia nova generis claritudine neque invidiosis 

3 opibus erat. gymnasium eo anno dedicatum a Nerone 
praebitumque oleum equiti ac senalui Graeca facilitate. 


48. P. Mario L. Afinio consulibus Antistius praetor, quern 
in tribunatu plebis licenter egisse memoravi, probrosa adversus 
principem carmina factitavit vulgavitque celebri convivio, 
dum apud Ostorium Scapulam epulatur. exim a Cossutiano 2 

5 Capitone, qui nuper sanatorium ordinem precibus Tigellini 
soceri sui receperat, maiestatis delatus est. turn primum 3 
revocata ea lex, credebaturque baud perinde exitium Antistio 
quam imperatori gloriam quaeri, ut condemnatum a senatu 
intercessione tribunicia morti eximeret. et cum Ostorius 4 

10 niliil audivisse pro testimonio dixisset, adversis testibus 
creditum ; censuitque lunius Marullus consul designatus 
adimendam reo praeturam necandumque more maiorum. 
ceteris inde adsentientibus, Paetus Thrasea, multo cum 5 
honore Caesaris et acerrime increpito Antistio, non quidquid 

15 nocens reus pati mereretur, id egregio sub principe et nulla 
necessitate obstricto senatui statuendum disseruit : carnificem 6 
et laqueum pridem abolita, et esse poenas legibus constitutas, 
quibus sine iudicum saevilia et temporum infamia supplicia 
decernerentur. quin in insula publicatis bonis, quo longius 7 

20 sontem vitam traxisset, eo privatim miseriorem et publicae 
clementiae maximum exemplum futurum. 

49. Libertas Thraseae servilium aliorum rupit, et postquam 
discessionem consul permiserat, pedibus in sententiam eius 
iere, paucis exceptis, in quibus adulatione promptissimus fuit 

35 A. Vitellius, optimum quemque iurgio lacessens et respon- 
dent! reticens, ut pavida ingenia solent. at consules perficere 2 
decretum senatus non ausi, de consensu scripsere Caesari. 
ille inter pudorem et iram cunctatus, postremo rescripsit : 3 
nulla iniuria provocatum Antistium gravissimas in principem 

30 contumelias dixisse ; earum ultionem a patribus postulatam, 
et pro magnitudine delicti poenam statui par fuisse. ceterum 4 
se, qui severitatem decernentium impediturus fuerit, modera- 
tionem non prohibere : statuerent ut vellent, datam et 

A.D. 62.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 48-51. 

5 absolvendi licentiam. his atque talibus recitatis et offensione 
manifesta, non ideo aut consules mutavere relationem aut 
Thrasea decessit sententia ceterive quae probaverant de- 
seruere, pars, ne principem obiecisse invidiae viderentur, 
plures nuniero tuti, Thrasea sueta firmiludine animi et ne 5 
gloria intercideret. 

50. Haud dispari crimine Fabricius Veiento conflictalus 
est quod multa et probrosa in patres et sacerdotes composuis- 
set iis libris quibus nomen codicillorum dederat. adiciebat 
Tullius Geminus accusator venditata ab eo munera principis 10 

2 et adipiscendorum honorum ius. quae causa Neroni fuit 
suscipiendi iudicii, convictumque Veientonem Italia depulit 
et libros exuri iussit, conquisitos lectitatosque, donee cum 
periculo parabantur : mox licentia habendi oblivionem 
attulit. 15 

51. Sed gravescentibus in dies publicis malis subsidia 
minuebantur, concessitque vita Burrus, incertum valetudine 

2 an veneno. valetudo ex eo coniectabatur, quod in se tume- 
scentibus paulalim faucibus et impedito meatu spiritum 

3 finiebat. plures iussu Neronis, quasi remedium adhiberetur, 20 
inlitum palatum eius noxio medicamine adseverabant, et 
Burrum intellecto scelere, cum ad visendum eum princeps 
venisset, aspectum eius aversatum sciscitanti hactenus re- 

4 spondisse : ' ego me bene habeo.' civitati grande desiderium 
eius mansit per memoriam virtutis et successorum alterius 35 

5 segnem innocentiam, alterius flagrantissma flagitia. quippe 
Caesar duos praetoriis cohortibus imposuerat, Faenium 
Rufum ex vulgi favore, quia rem frumentariam sine quaestu 
tractabat, Sofonium Tigellinum, veterem inpudicitiam atque 

6 infamiam in eo secutus. atque illi pro cognitis moribus fuere, 30 
validior Tigellinus in animo principis et intimis libidinibus 
adsumplus, prospera populi et militum fama Rufus, quod 
apud Neronem adversum experiebatur. 


52. Mors Burri infregit Senecae potenliam, quia ncc bonis 
aitibus idem virium erat altero velut duce amoto, et Nero 
ad deteriores inclinabat. hi variis criminationibus Senecam 2 
adoriuntur, tamquam ingentes et privatum modum evectas 

5 opes adhuc augeret, quodque studia civium in se verteret, 
hortorum quoque amoenitate et villarum magnificenlia quasi 
principem supergrederetur. obiciebant etiam eloquentiae 3 
laudem uni sibi adsciscere et cavmina crebrius factitare, post- 
quani Neroni amor eorum venisset. nam oblectamentis 4 

10 principis palam iniquum detrectare vim eius equos regentis, 
inludere voces, quotiens caneret. quern ad finem nihil in re 5 
publica clarum fore quod non ab illo reperiri credatur ? 
certe finitam Neronis pueritiam et robur iuventae adesse : 6 
exueret magistrum, satis amphs doctoribus instructus maio- 

15 ribus suis. 

53. At Seneca criminantium non ignarus, prodentibus iis, 
quibus ahqua honesti cura, et famiharitatem eius magis asper- 
nante Caesare, tempus sermoni orat et accepto ita incipit : 

' quartus decumus annus est, Caesar, ex quo spei tuae admotus 2 
20 sum, octavus, ut imperium obtines : medio temporis tantum 
honorum atque opum in me cumulasti, ut nihil fehcitati meae 
desit nisi moderatio eius. utar magnis exempHs, nee meae 3 
fortunae sed tuae. abavus tuus Augustus M. Agrippae IMyti- 
lenense secretum, C. Maecenali urbe in ipsa velut peregrinum 
25 olium permisit ; quorum alter bellorum socius, alter Romae 
pluribus laboribus iactatus ampla quidem, sed pro ingentibus 
meritis praemia acceperant. ego quid aliud munificentiae 4 
tuae adhibere potui quam studia, ut sic dixerim, in umbra 
educata, et quibus claritudo venit, quod iuventae tuae rudi- 
30 mentis adfuisse videor, grande huius rei pretium. at tu 5 
gratiam inmensam, innumeram pecuniam circumdedisti, adeo 
ut plerumque intra me ipse volvam : egone, equestri et provin- 
ciali loco ortus, proceribus civitatis adnumeror ? inter nobiles 

A.D. 62.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 52-55. 

6 et longa decora piaeferentes novitas mea enituit ? ubi est 
animus ille modicis contentus ? talis hortos exstruit et per 
haec suburbana incedit et tantis agrorum spatiis, tarn lato 
faenore exuberat ? una defensio occurrit, quod muneribus 
tuis obniti non debui. 5 

54. ' Sed uterque mensuram inplevimus, et lu, quantum 
princeps tribuere amico posset, et ego, quantum amicus a 

2 principe accipere : cetera invidiam augent. quae quidem, ut 
omnia mortalia, infra tuam magnitudinem iacet, sed mihi in- 

3 cumbit, mihi subveniendum est. quo modo in militia aut via 10 
fessus adminiculum orarem, ita in hoc itinere vitae senex et 
levissimis quoque curis inpar, cum opes meas ultra sustinere 

4 non possim, praesidium peto. iube rem per procuratores tuos 
administrari, in tuam fortunam recipi. nee me in paupertatem 
ipse detrudam, sed tradilis quorum fulgore praestringor, quod 15 
temporis hortorum aut villarum curae seponitur, in animum 

5 revocabo, superest tibi robur et tot per annos visum summi 
fastigii regimen : possumus seniores amici quietem reposcere. 
hoc quoque in tuam gloriam cedet, eos ad summa vexisse qui 

et modica tolerarent,' 20 

55. Ad quae Nero sic ferme respondit : ' quod meditatae 
orationi tuae statim occurram, id primum tui muneris 
habeo, qui me non tantum praevisa sed subita expedire 

2 docuisti. abavus meus Augustus Agrippae et Maecenati 
usurpare otium post labores concessit, sed in ea ipse aetate, 25 
cuius auctoritas tueretur quidquid illud et qualecumque 

8 tribuisset ; ac tamen neutrum datis a se praemiis exuit. bello 
et periculis merueraitt ; in iis enim iuventa Augusti versata est. 

4 nee mihi tela et manus tuae defuissent in armis agenti : sed 
quod praesens condicio poscebat, ratione consilio praeceptis 30 

5 pueritiam, dein iuventam meam fovisti. et tua quidem erga 
me munera, dum vita suppetet, aeterna erunt : quae a me 

6 habes, horti et faenus et villae.. casibus obnoxia sunt, ac 


licet multa videantur, plerique haudquaquam artibus tuis pares 
plura tenueiunt. pudet referre libertinos, qui diliores spec- 7 ' 
tantur : unde etiam mihi rubori est quod praecipuus caritate 
nondum omnes fortuna antecellis. 
5 56. ' Veium et tibi valida aetas rebusque et fructui rerum 
sufficiens, et nos prima imperii spatia ingredimur, nisi forte 
aut te Vitellio ter consuli aut me Claudio postponis, et quan- 
tum Volusio longa parsimonia quaesivit, tantum in te mea 
liberalitas explere non potest, quin, si qua in parte lubricum 2 

10 adulescentiae nostrae declinat, revocas ornatumque robur 
subsidio inpensius regis ? non tua moderatio, si reddideris 3 
pecuniam, nee quies, si reliqueris principem, sed mea avaritia, 
meae crudelitatis metus in ore omnium versabitur. quod si 4 
maxime continenlia tua laudetur, non tamen sapienti viro 

15 decorum fuerit, unde amico infamiam paret, inde gloriam sibi 
recipere.' his adicit complexum et oscula, factus natura et 5 
consuetudine exercitus velare odium fallacibus blanditiis. 
Seneca, qui finis omnium cum dominante sermonum, 6 
grates agit : sed instituta prioris potentiae commutat, prohibet 

20 coelus salutantium, vitat comitantis, rarus per urbem, quasi 
valetudine infensa aut sapientiae studiis domi adtineretur. 

57. Perculso Seneca promptum fuit Rufum Faenium in- 
minuere Agrippinae amicitiam in eo criminantibus. validior- 
que in dies Tigellinus et malas artes, quibus solis pollebat, 

25 gratiores ratus, si principem societate scelerum obstringeret, 
metus eius rimatur ; conpertoque Plautum et Sullam maxime 
timeri, Plautum in Asiam, Sullam in Galliam Narbonensem 
nuper amotos, nobilitatem eorum et propinquos huic Orienlis, 
illi Germaniae exercitus commemorat. non se, ut Burrum, 3 

30 diversas spes, sed solam incolumitatem Neronis spectare ; 
cui caveri utcumque ab urbanis insidiis praesenti opera : 
longinquos motus quonam modo comprimi posse ? erectas 3 
Galilas ad nomen dictatorium, nee minus suspensos Asiae 

A.D. 62.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 55-59- 

4 populos claritudine avi Drusi. Sullam inopem, unde prae- 
cipuam audaciam, et simulatorcm segnitiae, dum lemeritati 

5 locum reperiret. Plautum magnis opibus ne fingere quidem 
cupidinem olii, sed veterum Romanorum imitamenta praeferre, 
adsumpta etiam Stoicorum adrogantia sectaque, quae luibidos 5 

6 et negotiorum adpetentes facial, nee ultra mora. Sulla 
sexto die pervectis Massiliam percussoribus ante metum et 
rumorem interficitur, cum epulandi causa discumberet. per- 
latum caput eius inlusit Nero tamquam praematura canitie 
deforme. 10 

58. Plauto parari necem non perinde occultum fuit, quia 
pluribus salus eius curabatur, et spatium itineris ac maris 
tempusque interiectum moverat famam; vulgoque fingebant 
petitum ab eo Corbulonem, magnis turn exercitibus praesiden- 
tem et, clari atque insontes si interficerentur, praecipuum ad 15 

2 pericula. quin et Asiam favore iuvenis arma cepisse, nee 
milites ad scelus missos aut numero validos aut animo promp- 
tos, postquam iussa efficere nequiverint, ad spes novas trans- 

3 isse. vana haec more famae credentium otio augebantur ; 
ceterum libertus Plauti celeritate ventorum praevenit centu- 20 
rionem et mandata L. Antisdi soceri attulit : effugeret segnem 
mortem, dum suffugium esset : magni nominis miseratione 
reperlurum bonos, consociaturum audaces : nullum interim 

4 subsidium aspernandum. si sexaginta milites (tot enim 
adveniebant) propulisset, dum refertur nuntius Neroni, dum 25 
manus alia permeat, multa secutura quae adusque bellum 

5 evalescerent. denique aut salutem tali consilio quaeri, aut 
nihil gravius audenli quam ignavo patiendum esse. 

59. Sed Plautum ea non movere, sive nullam opem pro- 
videbat inermis atque exul, seu taedio ambiguae spei, an 30 
amore coniugis et liberorum, quibus placabiliorem fore prin- 

2 cipem rebatur nulla sollicitudine turbatum. sunt qui alios a 
socero nuntios venisse ferant, tamquam nihil atrox immineret ; 


doctoiesque sapientiae, Coeranum Graeci, IMusonium Tusci 
generis, constantiam opperiendae mortis pro incerta et 
trepida vita suasisse. repertus est certe per medium diei 3 
nudus exercitando corpori. talem eum centurio trucidavit 
5 coram Pelagone spadone, quern Nero centurioni et manipulo, 
quasi satellitibus ministrum regium, praeposuerat. caput 4 
interfecti relatum ; cuius aspectu (ipsa principis verba referam) 
cur, inquit, Nero * * * et posito metu nuptias Poppaeae ob 
eius modi terrores dilatas maturare parat Octaviamque 

10 coniugem amoliri, quamvis modeste ageret, nomine patris et 
studiis populi gravem. sed ad senatum lilteras misit de 5 
caede Sullae Plautique baud confessus, verum utriusque 
turbidum ingenium esse, et sibi incolumitatcm rei publxae 
magna cura haberi. decretae eo nomine supplicationes, 6 

15 utque Sulla et Plaulus senatu moverenlur, gravioribus iam 
ludibriis quam malis. 

60. Igitur accepto patrum consulto, postquam cuncta 
scelerum suorum pro egregiis accipi videt, exturbat Octaviam, 
sterilem dictitans ; exim Poppaeae coniungitur. ea diu 2 

20 paelex et adulteri Neronis, mox mariti potens, quendam 
ex minislris Octaviae impulit servilem ei amorem obicere. 
destinaturque reus cognomento Eucaerus, natione Alexan- 3 
drinus, canere tibiis doctus. actae ob id de ancillis quaestiones 4 
et vi tormentorum victis quibusdam ut falsa adnuerent, plures 

25 perstitere sanctitatem dominae tueri. movetur tamen primo 5 
civilis discidii specie domumque Burri, praedia Plauti, infausta 
dona accipit : mox in Campaniam pulsa est addita militari 
custodia. inde crebri questus nee occuiti per vulgum, cui 6 
minor sapientia et ex mediocritate fortunae pauciora pericula 

30 sunt, his . . . tamquam Nero paenitentia flagitii coniugem 
revocarit Octaviam. 

61. Exim laeti Capitolium scandunt deosqu'e tandem 

A.D. 62.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 59-62. 

venerantur. effigies Poppaeae proiuunt, Octaviae imagines 
geslant umeris, spargunt floribus foioque ac templis slatuunt. 

2 t itur etiam in principis laudes repe^itum venerantium. iamque 
et Palatium multitudine et clamoribus complebant, cum emissi 
militum globi verbeiibus et intento ferro turbatos disiecere. 5 
mutataque quae per seditionem verterant, et Poppaeae honos 

3 repositus est. quae semper odio, tum et melu atrox, ne aut 
vulgi acrior vis ingrueret aut Nero inclinatione populi muta- 
retur, provoluta genibus eius, non eo loci res suas ait, ut de 
matrimonio certet, quamquam id sibi vita potius, sed vitam 10 
ipsam in extremum adductam a clientelis et servitiis Octaviae, 
quae plebis sibi nomen indiderint, ea in pace ausi quae vix 

4 bello evenirent. arma ilia adversus principem sumpta ; 
ducem tantum defuisse, qui motis rebus facile reperirelur, 
omitteret modo Campaniam et in urbem ipsa pergeret, ad 15 

5 cuius nutum absentis tumultus cierentur. quod alioquin suum 
delictum ? quam cuisquuam offensionem ? an quia veram 
progeniem penatibus Caesarum datura sit ? malle populum 
Romanum tibicinis Aegyptii subolem imperatorio fastigio 

6 induci ? denique, si id rebus conducat, libens quam coactus 20 

7 acciiet dominam, vel consuleret securitati iusta ultione. et 
modicis remediis primos motus consedisse : at si desperent 
uxorem Neronis fore Octaviam, illi marilum daturos. 

62. Varius sermo et ad metum atque iram accommodatus 
terruit simul audientem et accendit. sed parum valebat 25 
suspicio in servo et quaestionibus ancillarum elusa erat. 

2 ergo confessionem alicuius quaeri placet, cui rerum quoque 

3 novarum crimen adfingeretur. et visus idoneus maternae 
necis patrator Anicetus, classi apud Misenum, ut memoravi, 
praefectus, levi post admissum scelus gratia, dein graviore 3° 
odio, quia malorum facinorum ministri quasi exprobrantes 

4 aspiciuntur. igitur accitum eum Caesar operae prioris ad- 
monet : solum incolumitali principis adversus insidiantem 


mat rem subvenisse ; locum baud minoris gratiae instare, si 
coniugem infensam depelleret. nee manu aut telo opus : 5 
fateretur Octaviae adulterium. occulta quidem ad praesens, 
sed magna ei praemia et secessus amoenos promittit, vel, 
5 si negavisset, necem intentat. ille insita vaecordia et facilitate 6 
prioium flagitiorum, plura etiam quam iussum erat fingit 
fateturque apud amicos, quos velut consilio adbibuerat 
princeps. turn in Sardiniam pellitur, ubi non inops exilium 
toleravit et fato obiit. 

10 63. At Nero praefectum in spem sociandae classis corrup- 
tum, et incusatae paulo ante sterilitatis oblitus, abactos partus 
conscientia libidinum, eaque sibi conperta edicto memorat 
insulaque Pandateria Octaviam claudit. non alia exul visen- 2 
tium oculos maiore misericordia adfecit. meminerant adhuc 

15 quidam Agrippinae a Tiberio, recentior luliae memoria 
obversabatur a Claudio pulsae : sed illis robur aetatis adfuerat ; 3 
laeta aliqua viderant et praesentem saevitiam melioris olim 
fortunae recordatione adlevabant. huic priinum nuptiarum 4 
dies loco funeris fuit, deductae in domum in qua nihil nisi 

20 luctuosum haberet, erepto per venenum patre et statim fratre ; 
tum ancilla domina validior et Poppaea non nisi in perniciem 
uxoris nupta, postremo crimen omni exitio gravius. 

64. Ac puella vicensimo aetatis anno inter centuriones 
et milites, praesagio malorum iam vitae exempta, nondum 

25 tamen morte adquiescebat. paucis dehinc interiectis diebus 2 
mori iubetur, cum iam viduam se et tantum sororem testa- 
retur communesque Germanicos et postremo Agrippinae 
nomen cieret, qua incolumi infelix quidem matrimonium, sed 
sine exitio pertulisset. restringitur vinclis venaeque eius 3 

30 per omnes artus exsolvuntur ; et quia pressus pavore sanguis 
tardius labebatur, praefervidi balnei vapore enecatur. addi- 4 
turque atrocior saevitia, quod caput amputatum latumque 
in urbem Poppaea vidit. dona ob haec templis decreta 

A.D. 62.] LIBER XIV. CAP. 62-65. 

5 quern ad finem memorabimus ? quicumque casus temporum 
illoium nobis vel aliis auctoribus noscent, praesuniptum 
habeant, quotiens lugas et caedes iussit princeps, totiens 
grates dels actas, quaeque rerum secundarum olim, turn 

6 publicae cladis insignia fuisse. neque tamen silebimus, si 5 
quod senatus consultum adulatione novum aut patientia 
postremum fuit. 

65. Eodem anno libeitorum potissimos veneno inteifecisse 
creditus est, Doryphorum quasi adversatum nuptiis Poppaeae, 
Pallantem, quod inmensam pecuniam longa senecta detineret. 10 
2 Romanus secretis criminationibus incusaverat Senecam ut 
C. Pisonis socium, sed validius a Seneca eodem ciimine 
perculsus est. unde Pisoni timor et orta insidiaium in 
Neronem magna moles et inprospera. 



1. Interea rex Parthorum Vologeses.cognitis Corbulonis 
rebus regemque alienigenam Tigranen Armeniae impositum, 
simul fratre Tiridate pulso spretum Arsacidarum fastigium 
ire ultum volens, magniludine rursum Romana et contin-'i 

5 foederis reverentia divcrsas ad curas trahebatur, cunctator 
ingenio et defectione Hyrcanorum, gentis validae, multisque 
ex eo bellis inligatus. atqiie ilium ambiguum novus insuper 2 
nunlius conluineliae exslimulat : quippe egressus Armenia 
Tigranes Adiabenos, conterminam nationem, latius ac diutius 

10 quam per latrocinia vastaverat, idque primores gentium aegre 
tolerabanl : eo contemplionis descensum, ut ne duce quidem 
Romano incursarcntur, sed temeiitate obsidis tot per annos 
inter mancijiia habiti. accendebat dolorem eorum Mono- 3 
bazus, quern penes Adiabenum regimen, quod praesidium 

15 aut unde peteret rogitans. iam de Armenia concessum, 4 
proxima trahi ; et nisi defendant Parthi, levius servitium apud 
Romanes dedilis quam captis esse. Tiridates quoque regni 5 
profugus per silentium aut modice querendo gravior erat : 
non enim ignavia magna imperia contineri ; virorum armo- 

20 rumque faciendum certamen ; id in summa fortuna aequius 
quod validius ; et sua retinere privatae domus, de alienis 
certare regiam laudem esse. 

2. Igitur commotus his Vologeses concilium vocat et 
proximum sibi Tiridaten constituit atque ita orditur : ' hunc 

25 ego eodem mecum patre genitum, cum mihi per aetatem 
summo nomine concessisset, in possessionem Armeniae deduxi, 
qui tertius potentiae gradus habetur : nam Medos Pacorus 
ante ceperat. videbarque contra Vetera fratrum odia et 2 
certamina familiae nostrae penates rite composuisse. pro- 

A.D. 02.] LIBER XV. CAP. 1-4. 

hibent Romani et pacem numquam ipsis prospere lacessitam 

3 nunc quoque in exitium suum abrumpunt. non ibo infitias : 
acquitale quam sanguine, causa quam armis relinere parla 
maioiibus malueram. si cunctatione deliqui, virtute corrigam. 

4 vcstra quidem vis et gloria in integro est, addita modestiae 5 
fama, quae neque sunimis mortalium spernenda est et a dis 

5 aeslimatur.' simul diademate caput Tiiidatis evinxit ; promp- 
tam equitum manum, quae regem ex more sectatur, Monaesi 
nobili viro tradidit, adiectis Adiabenorum auxiliis, mandavitque 
Tigranen Armenia cxturbare, dum ipse positis adversus 10 
Hyrcanos discordiis vires intimas molemque belli ciet, pro- 
vinciis Romanis minitans. 

3. Quae ubi Corbuloni cerlis nunliis audita sunt, legiones 
duas cum Verulanp Severo^ et Vettio . Bolano subsidium 
Tigrani mittit, occulto praecepto, compositius cuncta quam 15 
fcstinantius agerent: quippe bellum habere quam gerere 

2 malebat. scripseratque Caesari proprio duce opus esse, qui 
Armeniam defenderet : Suriam ingruente Vologese acriore 

3 in discrimine esse, atque interim reliquas legiones pro ripa 
Euphratis locat, tumultuariam provincialium manum armat, 20 

4 hostiles ingressus pfaesidiis intercipit. et quia egena aquarum 
regio est, castella fontibus inposita ; quosdam rivos congestu 
harenae abdidit. 

4. Ea dum. a Corbulone tuendae Suriae parantur, acto 
^ ra^tim agmine "Monaeses, ut famam sui praeiret, non ideo 25 

2 nescium aut incautum Tigranen offendit. occupaverat Ti- 

granocertam, urbem copia defensorum et magnitudine rnoe- , ^nitM^' 
8 nium validam. ad hoc Nicephorius amnis halid spernenda 
SvxO'^l'atitudine partem murorum ambit, et ducta ingens fossa, qua 

4 fluvio difTidebatur. inerantque milites et provisi ante com- 30 
meatus, quorum subvectu pauci avidius progressi et repentinis 
hostibus circumvent! ira magis quam metu ceteros accenderant. 

5 sed Parlho ad exsequendas obsidiones nulla C9mfninus 



audacia : raris sagittis neque clauses exterret et semet frus- 
tratur. Adiabeni cum piomovere scalas et machinamenta in- 6 
ciperent, facile detrusi, mox eiumpentibus nostris caeduntur. 

5. Corbulo tamen, quamvis secundis rebus suis, modcran- 
S dum fortunae ratus misit ad Vologesen qui exposlularent 

vim provinciae inlatam : socium amicumque regem, cohortes 
Romanas circumsideii. omitteret potius obsidionem, aut 
se quoque in agro hostili castra positurum. Casperius 2 
centurio in eam legationem delectus apud oppidum Nisibin, 

10 septem et triginta milibus passuum a Tigranocerta distantem, 
adiit regem et mandata ferociter edidit. Vologesi vetus et 3 
penitus infixum erat arma Romana vitandi , nee praesentia 
prospere fluebant. inritum obsidium, tutus manu et copiis 4 
Tigranes, fugali qui expugnationem sumpserant, missae in 

15 Armenian! legiones, et aliae pro Suria paratae ultro inrum- 
pere ; sibi inbecillum equitem pabuli inopia : nam exorta vis 
locustarum ambederat quidquid herbidum aut frondosum. 
igilur metu abstruso mitiora obtendens, missurum ad im- 5 
peratorem Romanum legates super petenda Armenia et fir- 

20 manda pace respondet. Monaesen omittere Tigranocertam 
iubet, ipse retro concedit. 

6. Haec plures ut formidine regis et Corbulonis minis 
patrata ac magnifica extollebant : alii occulte pepigisse inter- 
pretabantur, ut omisso utrimque bello et abeunte Vologese 

25 Tigranes quoque Armenia abscederet. cur enim exercitum 2 
Romanum a Tigranocertis deductum ? cur deserta per otium 
quae bello defenderant? an melius hibernavisse in extrema 
Cappadocia, raplim erectis tuguiiis, quam in sede regni modo 
retenti ? dilata prorsus arma, ut Vologeses cum alio quam 3 

30 cum Corbulone cerlaret, Corbulo meritae tot per annos 
gloriae non ultra periculum faceret. nam, ut rettuli, proprium 4 
ducem tuendae Armeniae poposcerat, et adventare Caesennius 
Paetus audiebatur. iamque aderat, copiis ita divisis, ut 5 

A.D. 6 2. J LIBER XV. CAP. 4-9. 

quarta et duodecuma legiones addita quinta, quae recens 
e JMoesis excita erat, simul Pontica et Galataium Cap- 
padocumque auxilia Paeto oboedirent, tertia et sexta et 
decuma legiones priorque Suriae miles apud Corbulonem 
6 manerent ; cetera ex rerum usu £Ociarent partirenturve. sed 5 
neque Corbulo aemuli patiens, et Paetus, cui satis ad gloriam 
erat, si proximus haberelur, despiciebat gesta, nihil caedis 
aut praedae, usurpatas nomine tenus urbium expugnationes 
dictitans : se tributa ac leges et pro umbra regis Romanum 
ius victis impositurum. 10 

7. Sub idem tempus legati Vologesis, quos ad principem 
misses memoravi, revertere inriti bellumque propalam sump- 

2 tum a Parthis. nee Paetus detrectavit, sed duabus legionibus, 
quarum quartam Funisulanus Vettonianus eo in tempore, 
duodecumam Calavius Sabinus regebant, Armeniam intrat 15 

3 tristi online, nam in transgressu Euphratis, quem ponte 
tramitlebant, nulla palam causa turbatus equus, qui consularia 

4 insignia gestabat, retro evasit. hostiaque, quae muniebantur, 
hibernaculis adsistens, semifacta opera fuga perrupit seque 

5 vallo extulit. et pila militum arsere, magis insigni prodigio, 20 
quia Parthus hostis missilibus telis decertat. 

8. Ceterum Paetus spretis ominibus, necdum satis firmatis 
hibernaculis, nullo rei frumentariae provisu, rapit exercitum 
trans montem Taurum reciperandis, ut ferebat, Tigranocertis 
vastandisque regionibus, quas Corbulo integras omisisset. 25 

2 et capta quaedam castella, gloriacque et praedae nonnihil 
partum, si aut gloriam cum modo aut praedam cum cura 

3 habuisset. longinquis itineribus percursando, quae obtineri 
nequibant, corrupto, qui captus erat, commeatu et instante 
iam hieme, reduxit exercitum conposuitque ad Caesarem 30 
litteras quasi confecto bello, verbis magnificis, rerum vacuas. 

9. Interim Corbulo numquam neglectam Euphratis ripam 
crebrioribus praesidiis insedit ; et ne ponti iniciendo impedi- 



mentum hostiles turmae adferrent (iam enim subi ectis campjs ^ 
magna specie volitabant), naves magnitudine praestantes et 
conexas trabibus ac turribus auctas agit per amnem catapul- 
tisque et ballistis proturbat barbaros, in quos saxa et hastae 

5 longius permeabant, quam ut contrario sagittarum iaclu 
adaequarentur. dein pons cqntmualus collesque adversi per 2 
socias cohortes, post legionum castris occupantur, tanta 
celeritate et ostentatione virium, ut Parthi omisso paratu 
invadendae Suriae spem omnem in Armenian! verterent, ubi 

10 Paetus imminentium nescius quintam legionem procul in 
Ponto habebat, reliquas promiscis mililum commeatibus 
infirmaverat, donee adventare Vologesen magno et infenso 
agmine auditum. 
- .; ^ J.p. Accitur legio duodecuma, et unde famam aucti exercitus 
^ 15 speraverat, prodita infrequentia, qua tamen retineri castra et 

eludi Parthus tractu belli poterat, si Paeto aut in suis aut in 
alienis consiliis constantia fuisset : verum ubi a viris mililari- 2 
bus adversus urguentes casus firmatus erat, rursus, ne alienae 
sententiae indigens videretur, in diversa ac deteriora transibat. 

20 et tunc relictis hibernis non fossam neque vallum sibi, sed 3 
corpora et arma in hostem data clamitans, duxit legiones 
quasi proelio certalurus. deinde amisso centurione et paucis 4 
militibus, quos visendis hostium copiis praemiserat, trepidus 
remeavit. et quia minus acriter Vologeses institerat, vana 5 

35 rursus fiducia tria milia delecti peditis proximo Tauri iugo 
imposuit, quo transitum regis arcerent ; alares quoque 
Pannonios, robur equitatus, in parte campi locat. coniunx e 
ac filius castello, cui Arsamosata nomen est, abditi, data in 
praesidium cohorte ac disperso milite, qui in uno habitus 

30 vagum hostem promptius sustentavisset. aegre compulsum 7 
ferunt, ut instantem Corbuloni fateretur. nee a Corbulone 
properatum, quo gliscentibus periculis etiam subsidii laus 
augeretur. expediri tamen itineri singula milia ex tribus 8 

A.D. 62.] LIBER XV. CAP. g-i 2. 

legionibus et alarios octingentos, parem numerum e cohorti- 
bus iussit. 

11. At Vologeses, quamvis obsessa a Paeto itinera hinc 
peditatu inde equite accepisset, nihil mutato consilio, sed vi 
ac minis alares exterruit, legionaries obtrivit, uno tantum 5 
centurione Tarquitio Crescente turrim, in qua praesidium 
agitabat, defendere auso factaque saepius eruptione et caesis, 
qui barbarorum propius suggrediebantur, donee ignium iactu 

2 circumveniretur. peditum si quis integer longinqua et avia, 
vulnerati castra repetivere, virtutem regis, saevitiam et copias 10 
gentium, cuncta metu extollentes, facili credulitate eorum qui 

3 cadem pavebant. ne dux quidem obniti adversis, sed cuncta 
militiae munia deseruerat, missis iterum ad Corbulonem 
precibus, veniret propere, signa et aquilas et nomen reliquum 
infelicis exercitus tueretur : se fidem interim, donee vita 15 
subpeditet, retenturos. 

12. Ille interritus et parte copiarum apud Suriam relicta, 
ut munimenta Euphrati inposila relinerentur, qua proximum 
et commeatibus non egenum, regionem Commagenam, exim 

2 Cappadociam, inde Armenios petivit. comitabantur exer- 20 
citum praeter alia sueta bello magna vis camelorum onusta 

3 frumenli, ut simul hoslem famemque depelleret. primum 
*^ e perculsis Paccium primi pili centurionem obvium habuit, 

dein plerosque militum ; quos diversas fugae causas obten- 
dentes redire ad signa et clementiam Paeti experiri monebat; 35 

4 se nisi victoribus immitem esse, simul suas legiones adire, 
hortari, priorum admonere, novam gloriam ostendere. non 
vicos aut oppida Armeniorum, sed castra Romana duasque 

5 in iis legiones prelium laboris peti. si singulis manipularibus 
praecipua servajicivis corona imperatoria, manu tribueretur, 30 
quod illud et quantum decus, ubi par eorum numerus aspi- 

6 ceretur, qui adtulissent salutem et qui accepissent ! his atque 
talibus in commune alacres (et erant quos pericula fratrum 

Jx» eow.aa."*^^*^'*^ «.vUj.tU^ ^1© 1<ML 1^4^ 


aut propinqiioium propriis stimulis incenderent) continuum 
diu noctuque iter properabant. 

13. Eoque intentius Vologeses premere obsesses, modo 
vallum legionum, modo castellum, quo inbellis aetas defende- 

5 batur, adpugnare, propius incedens quam mos Partliis, si ea 
temeritate hostem in proelium eliceret. at illi vix contu- 2 
berniis extract!, nee aliud quam munimenta propugnabant, 
pars iussu ducis, et alii propria ignavia aut Corbulonem 
opperientes, ac vis si ingrueret, provisis exemplis cladis 

10 Caudinae Numantinaeque ; neque eandem vim Samnitibus, 
Italico populo, ac Parthis, Romani imperii aemulis. validam 3 
quoque et laudatam antiquitatem, quotiens fortuna contra 
daret, saluti consuluisse. qua desperatione exercitus dux 4 
subactus primas tamen lilteras ad Vologesen non supplices, 

15 sed in modum querentis composuit, quod pro Armeniis 
semper Romanae dicionis aut subiectis regi, quem imperator 
delegisset, hostilia faceret : pacem ex aequo utilem ; ne 
praesentia tantum spectaret. ipsum adversus duas legiones 5 
totis regni viribus advenisse : at Romanis orbem terrarum 

20 reliquum, quo belium iuvarent. 

14. Ad ea Vologeses nihil pro causa, sed opperiendos 
sibi fratres Pacorum ac Tiridaten rescripsit ; ilium locum 
tempusque consilio destinatum, quid de Armenia cernerent ; 
adiecisse deos dignum Arsacidarum, simul ut de legionibus 

35 Romanis statuerent. missi posthac Paeto nuntii et regis 2 
conloquium petilum, qui Vasacen praefectum equitntus ire 
iussit. turn Paetus Lucullos, Pompeios et si qua Caesares 3 
optinendae donandaeve Armeniae egerant, Vasaces imaginem 
retinendi largiendive penes nos, vim penes Parthos memorat. 

30 et multum in vicem disceptato, Monobazus Adiabenus in 4 
diem posterum testis iis quae pepigissent adhibetur. placuit- 5 
que liberari obsidio legiones et decedere omnem militem 
finibus Armeniorum castellaque et commeatus Parthis tradi, 

_- .^^^Aig^ M C>U?U ' 

A.D. 62.] LIBER XV. CAP. 12-16. 

quibus perpetratis copia Vologesi fieret mittendi ad Neronem 

15. Interim flumini Arsaniae (is castra praefluebat) pontem 
imposuit, specie sibi illud iter expedientis, sed Parthi quasi 

Jocumentum victoiiae iusserant ; namque iis usui fuit, nostri 5 

2 per diversum iere. addidit rumor sub iugum missas legiones 
et alia ex rebus infaustis, quorum simulacrum ab Armeniis 

3 usurpatum est. namque et munimenta ingressi sunt, ante- 
quam agnien Romanum excederet, et circumstetere vias, 
captiva olim mancipia aut iumenta adgnoscentes abstra- 10 

4 hentesque : raptae etiam vestes, retenta arma, pavido milite 

5 ei concedente, ne qua proelii causa, existeret. Vologeses 
armis et corporibus caesorum aggeratlis, quo cladem nostram 
testaretur, visu fugientium legionum abstinuit. fama modera- 

6 tionis quaerebatur, postquam superbiam expleverat. flumen 15 
Arsaniam elephanto insidens, proximus quisque regem vi 
equorum perrupere, quia rumor incesserat pontem cessurum 
oneri dolo fabricantium : sed qui ingredi ausi sunt, validum 

et fidum intellexere. 

16. Ceterum obsessis adeo suppeditavisse rem frumentariam 20 
constitit, ut horreis ignem inicerent, contraque prodiderit 
Corbulo Parthos inopes copiarum et pabulo attrito relicturos 

2 oppugnationem, neque se plus tridui itinere afuisse. adiciL 
iure iurando Paeti cautum apud signa, adstantibus iis quos 
testificando rex misisset, neminem Romanum Armeniam 25 
ingressurum, donee referrentur litterae Neronis, an paci 

3 adnueret. quae ut augendae infamiae composita, sic reliqua 
non in obscuro habentur, una die quadraginta milium spatium 
emensum esse Pactum, desertis passim sauciis, neque minus 
deformem illam fugientium trepidationem quam si terga in 30 

4 acie vertissent. Corbulo cum suis copiis apud ripam Euphratis 
obvius non eam speciem insignium et armorum praetulit, ut 

5 diversitatem exprobraret. maesli manipuli ac vicem com- 


militonum miserantes ne lacrimis quidem temperare ; vix 
prae fletu usurpata consalutatio. decesserat certamen virtutis 6 
et ambitio gloriae, felicium hominum adfectus : sola miseii- 
cordia valebat, et apud minores magis. 
5 17. Ducum inter se brevis sermo secutus est, hoc con- 
querente iam inritum laborem, potuisse belliim fuga Paithorum 
finiri : ille integra utrique cuncta respondit : converterent 
aquilas et iuncti invaderent Armeniam abscessu Vologesis , 
iiifirmatam. non ea imperatoris habere mandata Corbulo : 2 

10 peiiculo legionum commotum e provhicia egressum ; quando 
in incerto habeanturParthorum conatus, Suiiam repeliturum : 
sic quoque optimam Foitunam orandam, ut pedes confectus 3 
spatiis itinerum alacrem et facilitate camporum praevenientem 
equitem adsequeretur. exim Paetus per Cappadociam hiber- 4 

15 navit : at Vologesis ad Corbulonem missi nuntii, detraheret 
castella trans Euphraten amnemque, ut olim, medium faceret. 
ille Armeniam quoque diversis praesidiis vacuam fieri ex- 5 
postulabat. et postremo concessit rex ; dirutaque quae 
Euphralen ultra communiverat Corbulo, et Armenii sine 

20 arbitro relicti sunt. 

18. At Romae tropaea de Panhis arcusque medio Capito- 
lini montis sistebantur^ ^ecreta ab senatu integro adhuc bello 
neque turn omissa, dum aspectui consulitur spreta conscientia. 
quin et dissimulandis rerum externarum curis Nero frumen- 2 

25 turn plebis vetustaje corruptum in Tiberim iecit, quo securi- 
tatem annonae suslentaret. cuius pretio nihil additum est, 3 
quamvis ducentas ferme naves portu in ipso violentia 
tempestatis et centum alias Tiberi subvectas fortuitus ignis 
absumpsisset. tris dein consulares, L. Pisonem, Ducenium 4 

30 Geminum, Pompeium Paulinum vectigalibus publicis prae- 
posuit, cum insectatione priorum principum, qui gravitate 
sumptuum iustos reditus anteissent : se annuum sexcentiens 
sestertium rei publicae largiri. 

,D. 62.] LIBER XV. CAP. 1 6-2 1. 


19. Percrebrueiat ea tempestate pravissimus mos, cum 
propinquis comitiis aut sorte provinciarum plerique orbi 
fictis adoptionibus adsciscerent filios, praeturasque et pro- 
vincias inter patres sortiti statim emitterent manu, quos 
adoptaverant. magna cum invidia senatum adeunt, ius 5 
naturae, labores educandi adversus fraudem et artes et brevi- 

3 tatem adoptionis enumerant. satis pretii esse orbis, quod 
multa securitate, nullis oneribus gratiam iionores cuncta 

4 prompta et obvia haberent. sibi promissa legum diu exspec- 
tata in ludibrium verti, quando quis sine sollicitudine parens, 10 
sine luctu orbus longa patrum vota repente adaequaret. 

5 factum ex eo senatus consultum, ne simulata adoptio in ulla 
parte muneris publici iuvaret ac ne usurpandis quidem here- 
ditatibus prodesset. 

20. Exim Claudius Timarchus Cretensis reus agitur, ceteris 15 
criminibus, ut solent praevalidi provincialium et opibus nimiis 
ad iniurias minorum elati : una vox eius usque ad contumeliam 
senatus penetraverat, quod dictitasset in sua potestate situm, 
an proconsulibus, qui Cretam obtinuissent, grates agerentur. 

2 quam occasionem Paetus Thrasea ad bonum publicum vertens, 20 
postquam de reo censuerat provincia Creta depellendum, 
haec addidit : * usu probatum est, patres conscripti, leges 
egregias, exempla honesta apud bonos ex delictis aliorum 

3 gigni. sic oratorum licentia Cinciam rogationem, candida- 
torum ambitus lulias leges, magistratuum avaritia Calpurnia 25 
scita pepererunt; nam culpa quam poena tempore prior, 

4 emendari quam peccare posterius est. ergo adversus novam 
provincialium superbiam dignum fide constantiaque Romana 
capiamus consilium, quo tutelae sociorum nihil derogetur, 
nobis opinio decedat, qualis quisque habeatur, alibi quam in 30 
civium iudicio esse. 

21. ' Olim quidem non modo praetor aut consul, sed privati 
etiam mittebantur, qui provincias viserent et quid de cuius- 


que obsequio videielur referient, Irepidabantque gentes de 
aestimalione singulorum ; at nunc colimus exteinos ct adu- 2 
lamur, et quo modo ad nulum alicuius grates, ita piomptius 
accusatio decernitur. decernatuique et maneat provincialibus 3 
5 potentiam suam tali modo ostentandi : sed laus falsa et 
precibus expressa perinde cohibealur quam malitia, quam 
crudelitas. plura saepe peccantur dum demeremur quam 4 
dum offendimus. quaedam immo virtutes odio sunt, seveiitas 
obstinata, invictus adversum gratiam animus, inde initia 5 

10 magistratuum nostrorum melioia ferme ef finis inclinat, dum 
in modum candidatoium suffragia conquirimus; quae si 
arceantur, acquabilius atque constantius provinciae regentur. 
nam ut metu repetundarum infracta avaritia est, ita vetita 6 
gratiarum aclione ambitio cohibebitur.' 

15 22. Magno adsensu celebrata sentenlia, non tamen senalus 
consultum perfici potuit, abnuentibus consulibus ea de re 
relatum. mox auctore principe sanxere, ne quis ad con- 2 
cilium sociorum referret agendas apud senatum pro prae- 
toribus prove consulibus grates, neu quis ea legatione 

20 fungeretur. 

Isdem consulibus gymnasium ictu fulminis conflagravit, 3 
eftigiesque in eo Neronis ad informe aes liquefacta. et motu 4 
terrae celebre Campaniae oppidum Pompei magna ex parte 
proruit. defunctaque virgo Vestalis Laelia, in cuius locum 

25 Cornelia ex familia Cossorum capta est. 

23. Memmio Regulo et Verginio Rufo consulibus natam 
sibi ex Poppaea filiam Nero ultra mortale gaudium accepit 
appellavitque Augustam,dato et Poppaeae eodem cognomento. 
locus puerperio colonia Antium fuit, ubi ipse generatus erat. 2 

30 iam senatus uterum Poppaeae commendaverat dis votaque 
publice susceperat, quae multiplicata exsolutaque. et additae 3 
supplicationes templumque Fecunditati et certamen ad 
exemplar Actiacae religionis decretum, utque Fortunarum 

A.D. 63.] LIBER XV. CAP. 21-25. 

effigies aureae in solio Capitolini lovis locarcntur, ludicrum 
circense, ut luliae genti apud Bovillas, ita Claudiae Domi- 

4 tiaeque apud Antium ederetur. quae fluxa fuere, quartum 
intra mensem defuncta infante, rursusque exortae adulationes 
censentium honoiem divae et pulvinar aedemque et sacer- 5 

5 dotem. atque ipse ut laelitiae, ita maeroris inmodicus egit. 
adnotatum est, omni senatu Antium sub recentem partum 
effuso, Thraseam prohibitum inmoto animo praenuntiam 

6 inminentis caedis contumeliam excepisse. secutam dehinc 
vocem Caesaris feiunt, qua reconciliatum se Tliraseae apud 10 
Senecam iactaverit, ac Senecam Caesari gratulatum ; unde 
gloria egregiis viris et pericula gliscebant. 

24. Inter quae veris principle legati Parthorum mandata 
regis Vologesis litterasque in eandem formam attulere: se 
priora et totiens iactata super optinenda Armenia nunc 15 
omiltere, quoniam di, quamvis potentium populorum arbitri, 
possessionem Parthis non sine ignominia Romana tradidissent. 

2 nuper clausum Tigranen; post Paetum legionesque, cum 
opprimere posset, incolumes dimisisse. satis adprobatam 

3 vim ; datum et lenitatis experimenium. nee recusaturum 20 
Tiridaten accipiendo diademati in urbem venire, nisi sacer- 
dotii religione attineretur. iturum ad signa et effigies 
principis, ubi legionibus coram regnum auspicaretur. 

25. Talibus Vologesis litteris, quia Paetus diversa tamquam 
rebus integris scribebat, interrogans cenlurio, qui cum legatis 25 
advenerat, quo in statu Armenia esset, omnes inde Romanos 

2 excessisse respondit. tum intellecto barbarum inrisu, qui 
peterent quod eripuerant, consuluit inter primores civitatis 
Nero, bellum anceps an pax inhonesla placeret. nee 

3 dubitatum de bello. et Corbulo militum atque hostium tot 30 
per annos gnarus gerendae rei praeficitur, ne cuius alterius 

4 inscitia rursum peccaretur, quia Paeti piguerat. igitur inriti 
remittuntur, cum donis tamen, unde spes fieret non frustra 


eadem oraturum Tiridaten, si preces ipse attulisset. Suiiaeque 5 
exsecutio C. Ceslio, copiae militares Corbuloni permissae, et 
quinta decuma legio ducente Mario Celso e Pannonia adiecta 
est. sciibitur tetrarchis ac regibus praefectisque et procu- 6 
6 ratoiibus et qui praetorum finitimas provincias regebant, 
iussis Corbulonis obsequi, in tantum ferme modum aucta 
potestate, quern populus Romanus Cn. Pompeio bellum 
piiaticum gesture dederat. regressum Paetum, cum graviora 7 
metueret, facetiis insectari satis liabuit Caesar, his ferme 

10 verbis : ignoscere se statim, ne tarn promptus in pavorem 
longiore sollicitudine aegresceret. 

26. At Corbulo quarta et duodecuma legionibus,quae fortis- 
simo quoque amisso et ceteris exterritis parum habiles proelio 
videbantur, in Suriam translatis, sextam inde ac tertiam 

16 legiones, integrum militem et crebris ac prosperis laboribus 
exercitum, in Armeniam ducit. addiditque legionem quintam, 2 
quae per Pontum agens expers cladis fuerat, simul quinta- 
decumanos recens adductos et vexilla delectorum ex Illyrico 
et Aegypto, quodque alarum cohortiumque, et auxilia regum 

2o in unum conducta apud Melitenen, qua tramittere Euphraten 
parabat. turn lustratum rite exercitum ad contionem vocat 3 
orditurque magnifica de auspiciis imperatoris rebusque a se 
gestis, adversa in insciliam Paeti declinans, multa auctoritate, 
quae viro militari pro facundia erat. 

25 27. Mox iter L. Lucullo quondam penetratum, apertis 
quae vetustas obsaepserat, pergit. et venientes Tiridatis 
Vologesisque de pace legatos baud aspernatus, adiungit iis 
centuriones cum mandatis non inmitibus ; nee enim adhuc 
eo ventum, ut certamine extremo opus esset. multa Romanis 2 

30 secunda, quaedam Parthis evenisse, documento adversus 
superbiam. proinde et Tiridati conducere intactum vasta- 
tionibus regnum dono accipere, et Vologesen melius societate 
Romana quam damnis mutuis genti Parthorum consullurum. 

A.D. 63.] LIBER XV. CAP. 25-29. 

3 scire, quantum intus discordiarum quamque indomitas et 
praeferoces nationes regeret : contra imperatori suo immotam 

4 ubique pacem et unum id bellum esse, simul consilio 
terrorem adiccre, et megistanas Armenios, qui primi a nobis 
defecerant, pellit sedibus, castella eorum excindit, plana edita, 5 
validos invalidosque pari metu complet. 

28. Non infensuni nee cum hostili odio Corbulonis nomen 
etiam barbaris habebatur, eoque consilium eius fidum 
credebant. ergo Vologeses neque atrox in summam, et 
quibusdam praefecturis indutias petit : Tiridates locum diem- 10 

2 que conloquio poscit. tempus propinquum, locus, in quo 
nuper obsessae cum Paeto legiones erant, barbaris delectus 
est ob memoriam laetioris sibi rei, Corbuloni non vitatus, ut 

3 dissimilitudo fortunae gloriam augeret. neque infamia Paeti 
angebatur, quod eo maxime patuit, quia filio eius tribuno 15 
ducere manipulos atque operire reliquias malae pugnae 

4 imperavit. die pacta Tiberius Alexander, inlustris eques 
Romanus, minister bello datus, et Vinicianus Annius, gener 
Corbulonis, nondum senatoria aetate set pro legato quintae 
legioni inpositus, in castra Tiridatis venere, honori eius ac ne 20 
metueret insidias tali pignore ; viceni dehinc equites adsumpti. 

5 et viso Corbulone rex prior equo desiluit ; nee cunctatus 
Corbulo, sed pedes uterque dexteras miscuere. 

29. Exim Romanus laudat iuvenem omissis praecipitibus 

2 tuta et salutaria capessentem. ille de nobilitate generis 25 
multum praefatus, cetera temperanter adiungit : iturum 
quippe Romam laturumque novum Caesari decus, non 

3 adversis Parthorum rebus supplicem Arsaciden. tum placuit 
Tiridaten ponere apud effigiem Caesaris insigne regium nee 
nisi manu Neronis resumere ; et conloquium osculo finitum. 30 

4 dein paucis diebus interiectis, magna utrimque specie, inde 
eques compositus per turmas et insignibus patriis, hinc 
agmina legionum stetere fulgentibus aquilis signisque et 


simulacris deum in modum templi : medio tribunal sedem 5 
cuiulem et sedes effigiem Neronis suslinebat. ad quam 6 
progressus Tiridates, caesis ex more victimis, sublatum capiti 
diadema imagini subiecit, magnis apud cunclos animorum 
5 motibus, quos augebat insila adhuc oculis exercituum Roma- 
norum caedes aut obsidio. at nunc versos casus : iturum 7 
Tiridaten ostenlui gentibus, quanlo minus quam captivum ? 

30. Addidit gloriae Corbulo comitatem epulasque ; et 
rogitante rege causas, quotiens novum aliquid adverterat, ut 

10 initia vigiliarum per centurionem nuntiari, convivium bucina 
dimitti et structam ante augurale aram subdita face accendi, 
cuncta in mains atlollens admiratione prisci mods adfecit. 
postero die spatium oravit, quo tantum itineris aditurus 2 
fratres ante matremque viseret ; obsidem interea filiam tradit 

15 litterasque supplices ad Neronem, 

31. Et digressus Pacorum apud Medos, Vologesen Ecba- 
tanis repperit, non incuriosum fratris; quippe et propriis 
nuntiis a Corbulone petierat, ne quam imaginem servitii 
Tiridates perferret neu ferrum traderet aut complexu provin- 

ao cias optinentium arceretur foribusve eorum adsisteret, tan- 
tusque ei Romae quantus consulibus honor esset. scilicet 2 
externae superbiae sueto non inerat nolitia nostri, apud quos 
vis imperii valet, inania tramittunlur. 

32. Eodem anno Caesar nationes Alpium maritimarum in 
25 ius Latii transtulit. equitum Romanoium locos sedilibus 2 

plebis anteposuit apud circum ; namque ad earn diem indis- 
creti inibant, quia lex Roscia nihil nisi de quatluordecim 
ordinibus sanxit. spectacula gladiatorum idem annus habuit 3 
pari magnificentia ac priora ; sed feminarum inlustrium 
30 senatorumque plures per arenam foedati sunt. 

33. C. Laecanio M. Licinio consulibus acriore in dies 
cupidine adigebatur Nero promiscas scaenas frequentandi. 
nam adhuc per domum aut hortos cecinerat luvenalibus 

A.D. 64.] Z/Z?ZsA' XV. CAP. 29-35. 

ludis, quos ut parum celebres, et tantae voci angustos sper- 

2 nebat non tamen Romae incipere ausus Neapolim quasi 
Graecam urbam delegit : inde initium fore, ut transgressus 
in Achaiam insignesque et antiquitus sacras coronas adeptus 

3 maiore fama studia civium eliceret. ergo contractum oppi- 5 
danorum vulgus, et quos e proximis coloniis et municipiis 
eius rei fama acciverat, quique Caesarem per honorem aut 
varios usus sectantur, etiam militum manipuli, theatrum 
Neapolitanorum complent. 

34. Illic, plerique ut arbilrabantur, triste, ut ipse, providum 10 
potius et secundis numinibus evenit : nam egresso qui 
adfuerat populo vacuum et sine ullius noxa threatrum con- 

2 lapsum est. ergo per conpositos cantus grates dis atque 
ipsam recentis casus fortunam celebrans petiturusque maris 
Hadriae traiectus apud Beneventum interim consedit, ubi 15 

3 gladiatorium munus a Vatinio celebre edebatur. Vatinius 
inter foedissima eius aulae ostenta fuit, sutrinae tabernae 
alumnus, corpore detorto, facetiis scurrilibus;. primo in con- 
tumelias adsumptus, dehinc optimi cuiusque criminatione 
eo usque valuit, ut gratia, pecunia, vi nocendi etiam malos 20 

35. Eius munus frequentanti Neroni ne inter voluptates 

2 quidem a sceleribus cessabatur. isdem. quippe illis diebus 
Torquatus Silanus mori adigitur, quia super luniae familiae 

3 claritudinem divum Augustum abavum ferebat. iussi accu- 25 
satores obicere prodigum largitionibus, neque aliam spem 
quam in rebus novis esse : quin eum inter libertos habere, 
quos ab epistulis et libellis et rationibus appellet, nomina 

4 summae curae et meditamenta. . tum intimus quisque liber- 
torum vincti abreptique. et cum damnatio instaret,, bra- 30 

5 chiorum venas Torquatus interscidit. secutaque ' Neronis 
oratio ex more, quamvis sontem et defensioni merito diffisum 
victurum tamen fuisse, si clementiam iudicis exspeclasset. 


36. Nee multo post, omissa in praesens Achaia (eausae 
in incerto fuere) urbem revisit, provincias Orientis, maxima 
Aegyptum, secretis imaginationibus agitans. dehinc edicto 2 
testificatus non longam sui absentiam et cuncta in re 
5 publica perinde immota ac prospera fore, super ea pro- 
fectione adiit Capitolium. illic veneratus deos, cum Vestae 3 
quoque templum inisset, repente cunctos per artus tremens, 
seu numine exterrente, seu facinorum recordatione numquam 
ft***^ timore vacuus, deseruit inceptum, cunctas sibi curas amore ,1, 

10 patriae leviores dictitans. vidisse maestos civium vultus, 4 
audire secretas querimonias, quod tantum itineris adituius 
esset, cuius ne modicos quidem egressus tolerarent, sueti 
adversum fortuita aspectu principis refoveri. ergo ut in 5 
privatis necessitudinibus proxima pignora praevalerent, ita in 

\^ re publica populum Romanum vim plurimam habere paren- 
dumque retinenti. haec atque talia plebi volentia fuere, 6 
voluptatum cupidine et, quae praecipua cura est, rei frumen- 
tariae angustias, si abesset, metuenti. senatus et primores 7 
in incerto erant, procul an coram atrocior haberetur : dehinc, 

20 quae natura magnis timoribus, deterius credebant quod 




37. Ipse quo fidem adquireret nihil usquam perinde 
laelum sibi, publicis locis struere convivia totaque urbe quasi 
domo uti. et celeberrimae luxu famaque epulae fuere, quas 2 

25 a Tigelhno paratas ut exemplum referam, ne saepius eadem 
prodigenlia narranda sit. igitur in stagno Agrippae fabri- 3 
catus est ratem, cui superpositum convivium navium aharum 
tractu moveretur. naves auro et ebore distinctae, remigesque 4 
exoleti per aetates et scientiam libidinum componebantur. 

30 volucres et feras diversis e terris et animaha maris Oceano 5 
abusque petiverat. crepidinibus stagni lupanaria adstabant 6 
inlustribus feminis completa, et contra scorta visebantur 
nudis corporibus. iam geslus motusque obsceni ; et post- 7 

A.D. 64.] LIBER XV. CAP. 36-38. 

quam tenebrae incedebant, quantum iuxta nemoris et cir- 
8 cumiecta tecta consonare cantu et liiminibus clarescere. ipse 
per licita atque inlicita foedatus nihil flagilii leliquerat quo 
corruptior ageret, nisi paucos post dies uni ex illo contamina- 
toium grege (nomen Pythagorae fuit) in modum solemniuni 5 
coniugiorum denupsisset. 

38. Sequitur clades, forte an dolo principis incertum (nam 
utrumque auctores prodidere), sed omnibus quae huic urbi 10 
per violentiam ignium acciderunt gravior atque atrocior. 

2 initium in ea parte circi ortum, quae Palatino Caelioque 
monlibus contigua est, ubi per tabernas, quibus id merci- 
monium inerat quo flamma alitur, simul cqeptus ignis et 
statim validus ac vento citus longitudinem circi corripuit. 15 

3 neque enim domus munimentis saeptae vel templa muris 

4 cincta aut quid aliud morae interiacebat. impetu pervaga- 
tum incendium plana primum, deinde in edita adsurgens et 
rursus inferiora populando, anteiit remedia velocitate mali et 
obnoxia urbe artis itineribus hucque et illuc flexis atque 20 

"^ 6 enormibus vicis, qualis vetus Roma fuit. ad hoc lamenta 
paventium feminarum, fessa aetate aut rudis pueritiae [aetas], 
quique sibi quique aliis consulebant, dum trahunt invalidos 
aut opperiuntur, pars mora, pars festinans, cuncta impedie- 
bant, et saepe, dum in tergum respectant, lateribus aut 25 
fronte ciicumveniebantur, vel si in proxima evaserant, illis 
quoque igni correptis, etiam quae longinqua crediderant in 

7 eodem casu reperiebant. postremo, quid vitarent quid 
peterent ambigui, complere vias, sterni per agros; quidam 
amissis omnibus fortunis, diurni quoque victus, alii caritate 30 
suorum, quos eripere nequiverant, quamvis patente effugio 

8 inleriere. nee quisquam defendere audebat, crebris multo- 
rum minis restinguere prohibentium, et quia alii palam faces 


iaciebant atque esse sibi auctorem vocifeiabantur, sive ut 
raptus licentius exercerent seu iussu. 

39. Eo in tempore Nero Antii agens non ante in urbem 
regressus est quam domui eius, qua Palatium et Maecenatis 

6 hortos continuaverat, ignis propinquaret. neque tamen sisti 
potuit, quin et Palatium et domus et cuncta circum haurirentur. 
sed solacium populo exturbato ac profugo campum Marlis 2 
ac monumenta Agrippae, hortos quin etiam suos patefecit 
et subitaria aedificia exstruxit, quae multitudinem inopem 

lo acciperent ; subvectaque utensilia ab Ostia et propinquis muni- 
cipiis pretiumque frumenti minutum usque ad ternos nummos. 
quae quamquam popularia in iiiritum cadebant, quia per- 3 
vaserat rumor ipso tempore flagrantis urbis inisse eum 
domesticam scaenam et cecinisse Troianum excidium, prae- 

15 sentia mala vetustis cladibus adsimulantem. 

40. Sexto demum die apud imas Esquilias finis incendio 
factus, prorutis per inmensum aedificiis, ut continuae violen- 
tiae campus et velut vacuum caelum occurreret. necdum 2 
positus metus, et rediit haut levius rursum grassatus ignis 

20 patulis magis urbis locis, eoque slrages hominum minor : 
delubra deum et porlicus amoenitati dicatae latius procidere. 
plusque infamiae id incendium habuit, quia praediis Tigellini 3 
Aemilianis proruperat ; videbaturque Nero condendae urbis 
novae et cognomento suo "appellandae gloriam quaerere. 

25 quippe in regiones quattuordecim Roma dividitur, quarum 4 
quattuor integrae manebant, tres solo tenus deiectae : septcm 
reliquis pauca tectorum vestigia supererant, lacera et semusta. 

41. Domuum et insularum et templorum, quae amisssa sunt, 
numerum inire baud promptum fue«it : sed vetustissima reli- 

30 gione, quod Servius TuUius Lunae, et magna ara fanumque, 
quae praesenti Herculi Areas Evander sacraverat, aedesque 
Statoris lovis vota Romulo Numaeque regia et delubrum 
Vestae cum Penatibus populi Romani exusta ; iam opes tot 2 

A.D. 64.] LIBER XV. CAP. 38-43. 

victoriis quaesitae et Graecarum arlium decora, exim monu- 
menta ingeniorum antiqua et incorrupta, til quamvis in tanta 
resurgentis urbis pulchritudine multa seniores meminerint, 

3 quae reparari nequibant. fuere qui adnotarent XIIII Kal. 
Sextiles principium incendii huius ortum, quo et Senones I 

4 captam urbem inflammaverint. alii eo usque cura progressi 
sunt, ut totidem annos mensesque et dies inter utraque in- 
cendia numerent. 

42. Ceterum Nero usus est patriae ruinis exstruxitque 
domum, in qua baud proinde gemmae et aurum miraculo 10 
essent, solita pridem et luxu vulgata, quam arva et stagna et 

in modum solitudinum hinc silvae inde aperta spatia et 
prospectus, magistris et machinatoribus Severo et Celere, 
quibus ingenium et audacia erat etiam, quae natura denega- 

2 visset, perartem temptare etviribusprincipis inludere. namque 15 
ab lacu Averno navigabilem fossam usque ad ostia Tiberina 
depressuros promiserant, squalenti litore aut per monies 

3 adversos. neque enim aliud umidum gignendis aquis occurrit 
quam Pomptinae paludes : cetera abrupta aut arentia, ac si 

4 perrumpi possent, intolerandus labor nee satis causae. Nero 20 
tamen, ut erat incredibilium cupitor, effodere proxima Averno 
iuga conisus est, manentque vestigia inritae spei. 

43. Ceterum urbis quae domui supererant non, ut post 
Gallica incendia, nulla distinctione nee passim erecta, sed 
dimensis vicorum ordinibus et latis viarum spatiis cohibitaque 25 
aedificiorum altitudine ac patefactis areis additisque por- 

2 ticibus, quae frontem insularum protegerent. eas porticus 
Nero sua pecunia exstructurum purgatasque areas dominis 

3 traditurum pollicitus est. addidit praemia pro cuiusque ordine 

et rei familiaris copiis, finivitque tempus intra quod effectis 3° 

4 domibus aut insulis apiscerentur. ruderi accipiendo Ostienses 
paludes destinabat, utique naves, quae frumentum Tiberi 
subvectavissent, onustae rudere decurrerent, aedificiaque ipsa 


certa sui parte sine trabibus saxo Gabino Albanove solida- 
rentur, quod is lapis ignibus impervius est ; iam aqua priva- 
toium licentia intercepta quo largior et pluribus locis in 
publicum flueret, custodes, et subsidia reprimendis ignibus in 
6 propatulo quisque haberet ; nee communione parietum, sed 
propriis quaeque muris ambirentur. ea ex ulilitate accepta 5 
decorem quoque novae urbi attulere. erant tamen qui 
crederent, veterem illam formam salubritati magis conduxisse, 
quoniam angustiae itinerum et altitudo tectorum non perinde 

10 solis vapore periumperentur ; at nunc patulam latitudinem et 
nulla umbra defensam graviore aestu ardescere. 

44. Et haec quidem humanis consiliis providebantur. mox 
petita dis piacula aditique Sibullae libri, ex quibus supplicatum 
Volcano et Cereri Proscrpinaeque, ac propitiata luno per 

15 matronas, primum in Capilolio, deinde apud proximum mare, 
unde hausta aqua templum et simulacrum deae perspersum 
est; et sellisternia ac pervigilia celebravere feminae quibus 
mariti erant. sed non ope humana, non largitionibus priu- 2 
cipis aut deum placamentis decedebat infamia, quin iussum 

20 incendium crederetur. ergo abolendo rumori Nero subdidit 3 
reos et quaesitissimis poenis adfecit, quos per flagitia invisos 
vulgus Christianos appellabat. auctor nominis eius Christus 4 
Tiberio imperitante per procuratorem Pontium Pilatum 
supplicio adfectus erat; repressaque in praesens exitiabilis 

25 superstitio rursum erumpebat, non modo per ludaeam, 
originem eius mali, sed per urbem etiam, quo cuncta undique 
atrocia aut pudenda confluunt celebranturque. igitur primum 5 
correpti qui fatebantur, deinde indicio eorum multitudo ingens 
baud proinde in crimine incendii quam odio humani generis 

30 convicti sunt, et pereuntibus addita ludibria, ut ferarum 6 
tergis contecti laniatu canum interirent, aut crucibus adfixi 
aut flammandi, atque, ubi defecisset dies, in usum nocturni 
luminis urerentur. horlos suos ei spectaculo Nero obtulerat 7 

A.D. 64.] LIBER XV. CAP. 43-47- 

ct circense ludicrum edebat, habitu aurigae permixtus plebi 
8 vel curriculo insistens. unde quamquam adversus sontes et 
novissima exempla meritos miseratio oriebatur, tamquam non 
utilitate publica sed in saevitiam unius absumerentur. 

45. Interea conferendis pecuniis pervastata Italia, pro- 5 
vinciae eversae sociique populi et quae civitatium liberae 

2 vocantur. inque earn praedam etiam di cessere, spoliatis in 
urbe templis egestoque auro, quod triumphis, quod votis 
omnis populi Romani aetas prospere aut in metu sacraverat, 

3 enimvero per Asiam atque Achaiam non dona tantum sed 10 
simulacra numinum abripiebantur, missis in eas provincias 

4 Acrato ac Secundo Carrinate. ille libertus cuicumque flagitio 
promplus, hie Graeca doctrina ore tenus exercitus animum 

5 bonis artibus non inbuerat. ferebatur Seneca, quo invidiam 
sacrilegii a semet averteret, longinqui ruris secessum oravisse, 15 
et postquam non concedebatur, ficta valetudine, quasi aeger 

6 nervis, cubiculum non egressus. tradidere quidam venenum 
ei per libertum ipsius, cui nomen Cleonicus, paratam iussu 
Neronis vitatumque a Seneca prodilione liberti seu propria 
formidine, dum persimplici victu et agrestibus pomis, ac si 20 
sitis admoneret, profluente aqua vitam tolerat. 

46. Per idem tempus gladialores apud oppidum Praeneste 
temptata eruptione praesidio militis, qui custos adesset, 
coerciti sunt, iam Spartacum et vetera mala rumoribus 
ferente populo, ut est novarum rerum cupiens pavidusque. 25 

2 nee multo post clades rei navalis accipitur, non bello (quippe 
baud alias tarn immota pax), sed certum ad diem in Cam- 
paniam redire classem Nero iusserat, non exceptis maris 

3 casibus, ergo gubernatores, quamvis saeviente pelago, a 
Formiis movere : et gravi Africo, dum promunturium INIiseni 30 
superare contendunt, Cumanis litoribus inpacti triremium 
plerasque et minora navigia passim amiserunt. 

47. Fine anni vulganlur prodigia, inminentium malorum 


nuntia. vis fulgurum non alias crebrior, et sidus cometes, 
sanguine inlustri semper Neroni expiatum. bicipites hominum 2 
aliorumve animalium partus abiecti in publicum aut in 
sacrificiis, quibus gravidas hostias inmolari mos est, reperti. 
5 et in agro Placentino viam propter natus vilulus, cui caput in 3 
crure esset; secutaque haruspicum inlerpretatio, parari rerum 
humanarum aliud caput, sed non fore validum neque occul- 
tum, quia in utero repressum aut iter iuxta editum sit. 

48. Ineunt deinde consulatum Silius Nerva et Atticus 
lo Vestinus, coepta simul et aucta coniuratione, in quam certatim 

nomina dederant senatores eques miles, feminae etiam, cum 
odio Neronis, turn favore in C. Pisonem, is Calpurnio 2 
genere ortus ac multas insignesque familias paterna nobilitate 
complexus, claro apud vulgum rumore erat per virtutem aut 

15 species virtutibus similes, namque facundiam tuendis civibus 3 
exercebat, largitionem adversum amicos, et ignotis quoque 
comi sermone et congressu; aderant etiam fortuita, corpus 
procerum, decora facies : sed procul gravitas morum aut 4 
voluptatum parsimonia; levitali ac magnificentiae et ali- 

20 quando luxu indulgebat. idque pluribus probabatur, qui in 5 
tanta vitiorum dulcedine summum imperium non restrictum 
nee perseverum volunt. 

49. Initium coniurationi non a cupidine ipsius fuit; nee 
tamen facile memoraverim, quis primus auctor, cuius instinctu 

25 concitum sit quod tarn multi sumpserunt. promptissimos 2 
Subrium Flavum tribunum praetoriae cohortis et Sulpicium 
Asprum centurionem extitisse constantia exitus docuit: et 
Lucanus Annaeus Plautiusque Lateranus vivida odia intulere. 
Lucanum propriae causae accendebant, quod famam car- 3 

30 minum eius premebat Nero prohibueratque ostentare, vanus 
adsimulatione: Lateranum consulem designatum nulla iniuria, 
sed amor rei publicae sociavit. at Flavius Scaevinus et 4 
Afranius Quintianus, uterque senatorii ordinis, contra famam 

A.D. 65.] LIFyER XV. CAP. 47-51. 

5 sui principium tanti fiicinoris capessivere. nam Scaevino 
dissoluta luxu mens et pioinde vita somno languida: Quin- 
tianus mollilia corporis infamis et a Nerone probroso carmine 
diffamalus contumelias ultum ibat. 

50. Ergo dum scelera principis, et finem adesse imperio 5 
deligendumque qui fessis rebus succurreret, inter se aut inter 
amicos iaciunt, adgregavere Claudium Senecionem, Cervarium 
Proculum, Vulcatium Araricum, lulium Augurinum, IMuna- 
tium Gratum, Antonium Natalem, Marcium Feslum, equites 

2 Romanos. ex quibus Senecio, e praecipua familiaritate 10 
Neronis, speciem amicitiae etiam turn retinens eo pluribus 
periculis conflictabatur ; Natalis particeps ad omne secretum 

3 Pisoni erat ; ceteris spes ex novis rebus petebatur. adscitae 
sunt super Subrium et Sulpicium, de quibus rettuli, militares 
manus, Gavins Silvanus et Statins Proximus tribuni cohortium 15 
praetoriarum, Maximus Scaurus et Venetus Paulas cen- 

4 turiones. sed summum robur in Faenio Rufo praefecto 
videbatur, quem vita famaque laudatum per saevidam inpu- 
dicitiamque Tigellinus in animo principis anteibat, fatiga- 
batque criminationibus ac saepe in metum adduxerat quasi 20 
adulterum Agrippinae et desiderio eius ullioni internum. 

5 igitur ubi coniuratis praefectum quoque praetorii in partes 
descendisse crebro ipsius sermone facta fides, promptius iam 

6 de tempore ac loco caedis agitabant. et cepisse impetum 
Subrius Flavus ferebatur in scaena canentem Neronem 25 
adgrediendi, aut cum ardente domo per noctem hue illuc 

7 cursaret incustoditus. hie occasio solitudinis, ibi ipsa fre- 
quentia tanti decoris testis pulcherrima animuni exstimu- 
laverant, nisi impunitatis cupido retinuisset, magnis semper 
conatibus adversa. 30 

51. Interim cunctantibus prolatantibusque spem ac metum 
Epicharis quaedam, incertum quonam modo sciscitata (neque 
illi ante uUa rerum honestarum cura fuerat), accendere et 


argiiere coniuratos, ac.postremum lentitudinis eoruni pertaesa 
et in Campania agens piimores classiaiiorum Misenensium 
labefacere et conscientia inligare conisa est tali initio, erat 2 
navarchus in ea classe Volusius Pioculus, occidendae matris 
5 Neroni inter ministros, non ex magnitudine sceleris pro- 
vectus, ut rebatur. is mulieri olim cognitus, seu recens orta 3 
amicitia, dum nieiita erga Neronem sua et quam in inritum 
cecidissent aperit adicitque questus et destinationem vindictae, 
si facultas oreretur, spem dedit posse inpelli et plures 

lo conciliare : nee leve auxilium in classe, crebras occasiones, 
quia Nero multo apud Piiteolos et Misenum maris usu 
laetabatur. ergo Epicharis plura et omnia scelera principis 4 
orditur; neque senatui fieque poptdo quidquam manere. sed 5 
provisum quonam modo poenas eversae rei publicae daret : 

X5 accingeretur modo navare operam et militum acerrimos 
ducere in partes, ac digna pretia exspectaret ; nomina tamen 
coniuratorum reticuit. unde Proculi indicium inritum fuit, e 
quamvis ea quae audierat ad Neronem detulisset. acciLa 7 
quippe Epicharis et cum indice composita nullis teslibus 

20 innisum facile confutavit. sed ipsa in custodia retenta est, 8 
suspectante Nerone baud falsa esse etiam quae vera non 

52. Coniuratis tamen metu proditionis permotis placitum 
maturare caedem apud Baias in villa Pisonis, cuius amoeni- 

25 tale caplus Caesar crebro ventitabat balneasque et epulas 
mibat omissis excubiis et fortunae suae mole, sed abnuit 2 
Piso, invidiam praetendens, si sacra mensae dique hospitales 
caede qualiscumque principis cruentarentur : melius apud 
urbem in ilia invisa et spoliis civium exstructa domo vel in 

30 publico patraturos quod pro re publica suscepissent. haec in 3 
commune, ceterum timore occulto, ne L. Silanus eximia 
nobilitate disciplinaqiie C. Cassii, apud quem educatus erat, 
ad omnem clariludinem sublatus imperium invaderet, promple 

A.D. 65.] LIBER XV. CAP. 5[-54. 

daluiis, qui a coniuratione integri essent quique miserarentur 

4 Neronem tamquam per scelus interfectum. pleiique Vestini 
quoque consulis acre ingenium vitavisse Pisonem credi- 
derunt, ne ad libertatem oreretur, vel delecto imperatore alio 

5 sui niuneris rem publicam faceret. etenim expers coniu- 5 
rationis erat, quamvis super eo crimine Nero vetus adversum 
insontem odium expleverit. 

53. Tandem statuere circensium ludorum die, qui Cereri 
celebratur, exsequi destinata, quia Caesar rarus egressu 
domoque aut hortis clausus ad ludicra circi ventitabat promp- 10 

2 tioresque aditus erant laetitia spectaculi. ordinem insidiis 
composuerant, ut Lateranus, quasi subsidium rei familiari 
oraret, deprecabundus et genibus principis accidens pro- 
sterneret incautum premeretque, animi validus et corpora 

3 ingens. tum iacentem et impeditum tribuni et centuriones 15 
et ceterorum, ut quisque audentiae habuisset, adcurrerent 
trucidarentque, primas sibi partes expostulante Scaevino, qui 
pugionem templo SaluLis sive, ut alii tradidere, Fortunae 
Ferentino in oppido detraxerat gestabatque velut magno operi 

4 sacrum, interim Piso apud aedem Cereris opperiretur, unde 20 
eum praefectus Faenius et ceteri accitum ferrent in castra, 
comitante Antonia Claudii Caesaris filia ad eliciendum vulgi 

5 favorem, quod C. Plinius memorat. nobis quoquo modo 
traditum non occultare in animo fuit, quamvis absurdum 
videretur aut inanem ad spem Antoniam nomen et pericu- 25 
lum commodavisse, aut Pisonem notum amore uxoris alii 
matrimonio se obstrinxisse, nisi si cupido dominandi cunctis 
adfectibus flagrantior est. 

54. Sed mirum quam inter diversi generis ordinis, aetatis 
sexus, diles pauperes taciturnitate omnia cohibita sint, donee 30 
proditio coepit e domo Scaevini ; qui pridie insidiarum multo 
sermone cum Antonio Natale, dein regressus domum testa- 
mentum obsignavit, promptum vagina pugionem, de quo 


supra rettuli, vetustate obtusum increpans, asperari saxo et in 
mucronem ardescere iussit eamque cuiam liberto INIilicho 
mandavit. simul adfluentius solito convivium inilum, ser- 2 

• vorum carissimi libertate et alii pecunia donati. atque ipse 3 

5 maestus et magnae ^cogitationis manifestus erat, quamvis 
laetitiam vagis sermonibus simularet. postremo vulneribus 4 
ligamenta quibusque sistitur sanguis parare eundem Milichum 
monet, sive gnarum coniurationis et illuc usque fidum, sen 
nescium et tunc primum arreptis suspicionibus, ut plerique 

10 tradideie de consequentibus. nam cum secum servilis 5 
animus praemia perfidiae reputavit simulque inmensa pecunia 
et potentia obversabantur, cessit fas et salus patroni et 
acceptae libertatis memoria. etenim uxoris quoque consilium 6 
adsumpserat muliebre ac deterius : quippe ultfo metum 

15 intentabat, multosque adstitisse libertos ac servos, qui eadem 
viderint; nihil profuturum unius silentium ; at praemia penes 
unum fore, qui indicio praevenisset. 

55. Igitur coepta luce Milichus in hortos Servilianos 
pergit; et cum foribus arceretur, magna et atrocia adferre 

20 dictitans deductusque ab ianitoribus ad libertum Neronis 
Epaphroditum, mox ab eo ad Neronem, urguens periculum, 
graves coniuratos et cetera quae audierat coniectaverat docet. 
telum quoque in necem eius paratum ostendit accirique reum 2 
iussit. is raptus per milites et defensionem orsus, ferrum, 3 

25 cuius argueretur, olim religione patria cultum et in cubiculo 
habitum ac fraude liberti subreptum respondit, tabulas testa- 
menti saepius a se et incustodita dierum observatione signatas. 
pecunias et libertates servis et ante dono datas, sed ideo tunc 4 
largius, quia tenui iam re familiari et instantibus creditoribus 

30 testamento diffideret. enimvero liberales semper epulas 5 
struxisse, vitam amoenam et duris iudicibus parum probatam. 
fomenta vulneribus nulla iussu suo, sed quia cetera palam 
vana obiecisset, adiungere crimen, cuius se pariter indicem et 

A.D. 65.] LIBER XV. CAP. 54-57. 

6 testem faceiet. adicit dictis constantiam ; incusat ultro 
intestabilem et consceleratum, lanta vocis ac vultus secuiitate, 
ut labaret indicium, nisi Milichum uxor admonuisset Anto- 
nium Natalem multa cum Scaevino ac secreta conlocutum et 
esse utrosque C. Pisonis intimos. 5 

56. Ergo accitur Natalis, et diversi interrogantur, quisnam 
is sermo, qua de re fuisset. tum exorta suspicio, quia non 

2 congruentia responderant, inditaque vincla. et tormentorum 
aspectum ac minas non tulere : prior tamen Natalis, totius 
conspirationis magis gnarus, simul arguendi peritior, de 10 
Pisone primum fatetur, deinde adicit Annaeum Senecam, 
sive internuntius inter eum Pisonemque fuit, sive ut Neronis 
gratiam pararet, qui infensus Senecae omnes ad eum oppri- 

3 mendum artes conquirebat. tum cognito Natalis indicio 
Scaevinus quoque pari inbecillitate, an cuncta iam patefacta 15 

4 credens nee ullum silentii emolumentum, edidit ceteros. ex 
quibus Lucanus Quinlianusque et Senecio diu abnuere : post 
promissa inpunitate corrupti, quo tarditatem excusarent, 
Lucanus Aciliam matrem suam, Quintianus Glilium Galium, 
Senecio Annium Pollionem, amicorum praecipuos, nomi- 20 

57. Atque interim Nero recordatus Volusii Proculi indicio 
Epicharim attineri ratusque muliebre corpus impar dolori 

2 tormentis dilacerari iubet. at illam non verbera, non ignes, 
non ira eo acrius torquentium, ne a femina spernerentur, 25 
pervicere quin obiecta denegaret. sic primus quaestionis 

3 dies contemptus. postero cum ad eosdem cruciatus retra- 
heretur gestamine sellae (nam dissolutis membris insistere 
nequibat), vinclo fasciae, quam pectori detraxerat, in modum 
laquei ad arcum sellae restricto indidit cervicem et corporis 30 
pondere conisa tenuem iam spiritum expressit, clariore 
exemplo libertina mulier in lanta necessitate alienos ac prope 
ignotos protegendo, cum ingenui et viri et equiies Romani 


senatoresque intacti tornientis carissima suoriim quisque 
pignorum prodeient. non enim omittebant Lucanus quoque 4 
et Senecio et Quinlianus passim conscios edere, magis 
magisque pavido Nerone, quamquam multiplicatis excubiis 
5 semet saepsisset. 

58. Quin et urbem, per manipulos occupatis moenibus, 
insesso etiam mari et amne, velut in custodiam dedit. volita- 2 
bantque per fora, per domos, rura quoque et proxima 
municipiorum pedites equitesque, permixti Germanis, quibus 

lo fidebat princeps quasi externis. continua hinc et vincta 3 
agmina trahi ac foribus hortorum adiacere. atque ubi dicen- 
dam ad causam introissent, laelatum erga coniuratos et 
forluitus sermo et subiti occursus, si convivium, si specta- 
culum siinul inissent, pro crimine accipi, cum super Neronis 

15 ac Tigellini saevas percontationes Faenius quoque Rufus 
violenter urgueret, nondum ab indicibus nominatus, et quo 
fidem inscitiae pararet, atrox adversus socios. idem Subiio 4 
Flavo adsistenti adnuentique, an inter ipsam cognitionem 
destringeret gladium caedemque patraret, renuit infregitque 

20 impetum iam manum ad capulum referentis. 

59. Fuere qui prodita coniuratione, dum auditur Milichus, 
dum dubitat Scaevinus, hortarentur Pisonem pergere in castra 
aut rostra escendere studiaque militum et populi temptare. si 2 
conatibus eius conscii adgregarentur, seculiiros etiam integros ; 

25 magnamque motae rei famam, quae plurimum in novisconsiliis 
valeret. nihil adversum haec Neroni provisum. etiam fortes 3 
viros subitis terreri, nedum ille scaenicus, Tigellino scilicet cum 
paelicibus suis comitante, arma contra cieret. multa ex- 4 
periendo confieri, quae segnibus ardua videantur. frustia 

30 silentium et fidem in tot consciorum animis et corporibus 
sperare ; cruciatui aut praemio cuncta pervia esse, venluros 5 
qui ipsum quoque vincirent, postremo indigna nece adficerent. 
quanto laudabilius perilurum, dum amplectitur rem publicam, 6 

A.D. 65.] LIBER AT. CAP. 57-61. 

dum auxilia libertati invocat. miles potius deesset et plebes 
desereret, dum ipse maioribus, dum posteris, si vita prae- 

7 riperetur, mortem adprobaret. inmotus his et paululum in 
publico versalus, post domi secretus, animum adversum 
suprema firmabat, donee manus militum adveniret, quos 5 
Nero tirones aut stipendiis recentes delegerat : nam vetus 

8 miles timebatur tamquam favore inbutus. obiit abruplis 
brachiorum venis. testamentum foedis adversus Neronem 
aduladonibus amori uxoris dedit, quam degenerem et sola 
corporis forma commendatam amici matrimonio abslulerat. 10 

9 nomen mulieris Atria Galla, priori niarito Domitius Silus : 
hie patientia, ilia inpudicilia Pisonis infamiam propagavere. 

60. Proximam necem Plautii Laterani consulis designati 
Nero adiungit, adeo propeie, ut non complecti hberos, non 

2 illud breve mortis arbitriumpermitteret. raptus in locum servili- 15 
bus poenis sepositum manu Statii tribuni trucidatur, plenus 
constantis silentii nee tribune obiciens eandem conscientiam. 

3 Sequitur caedes Annaei Senecae, laetissima principi, non 
quia coniurationis manifestum compererat, sed ut ferro 

4 grassaretur, quando venenum non processerat. solus quippe 20 
Natalis et hactenus prompsit, missum se ad aegrotum Sene- 
cam, uti viseret conquerereturque cur Pisonem aditu arceret : 
melius fore, si amicitiam familiari congressu exercuissent. 

5 et respondisse Senecam sermones mutuos et crebra con- 
loquia neutri conducere; ceterum salutem suam incolumitate 25 

6 Pisonis inniti. haec ferre Gavius Silvanus tribunus praetoriae 
cohortis, et andicta Natalis suaque responsa nosceret percontari 

7 Senecam iubetur. is forte an prudens ad eum diem ex Cam- 
pania remeaverat quartumque apud lapidem suburbano rure 

8 substiterat. illo propinqua vespera tribunus venit et villam 3° 
globis militum saepsit ; tum ipsi cum Pompeia Paulina uxore 

et amicis duobus epulanti mandata imperatoris edidit. 

61. Seneca missum ad se Natalem conquestumque nomine 


Pisonis quod a visendo eo prohiberetur, seque rationem 
valetudinis et amoiem quietis excusavisse respondit. cur 2 
salutem privati hominis incolumitati suae anteferret, causam 
non habuisse ; nee sibi promptum in adulationes ingenium. 

5 idque nulli magis gnarum quam Neroni, qui saepius liber- 3 
tatem Senecae quam servitium expertus esset. ubi haec 4 
a tribuno relata sunt Poppaea et Tigellino coram, quod erat 
saevienti principi intimum consiliorum, interrogat an Seneca 
voluntariam mortem pararet. tum tribunus nulla pavoris 5 

10 signa, nihil triste in verbis eius aut vultu deprensum confir- 
mavit. ergo regredi et indicere mortem iubetur. Iradit Fabius 6 
Rusticus non eo quo venerat itinere redisse tribunum, sed 
flexisse ad Faenium praefectum, et expositis Caesaris iussis 
an obtemperaret interrogavisse, monitumque ab eo ut ex- 

15 sequeretur, fatali omnium ignavia. nam et Silvanus inter 7 
coniuratos erat augebatque scelera, in quorum ultionem 
consenserat. voci tamen et aspectui pepercit intromisitque 
ad Senecam unum ex centurionibus, qui necessitatem ultimam 

20 62. Ille interritus poscit testamenti tabulas ; ac denegante 
centurione conversus ad amicos, quando meritis eorum referre 
gratiam prohiberetur, quod unum iam et tamen pulcherrimum 
habeat, imaginem vitae suae relinquere testatur, cuius si 
memores essent, bonarum artium famam fructum constantis 

25 amicitiae laturos. simul lacrimas eorum modo sermone, 2 
modo intentior in modum coercentis, ad firmitudinem revocat, 
rogitans ubi praecepta sapientiae, ubi tot per annos meditata 
ratio adversum imminentia ? cui enim ignaram fuisse saevitiam 3 
Neronis ? neque aliud superesse post matrem fratremque inter- 

30 fectos quam ut educatoris praeceptorisque necem adiceret. 
63. Ubi haec atque talia velut in commune disseruit, com- 
plectitur uxorem, et paululum adversus praesentem fortitu- 
dinem mollitus rogat oratque temperaret dolori neu aeternum 

A.D. 65.] LIBER XV. CAP. .61-64. 

susciperet, sed in contemplatione vitae per virtutem actae 

2 desiderium mariti solaciis honestis toleraret. ilia contra sibi 
quoque destinatam mortem adseverat manumque percussoris 

3 exposcit. turn Seneca gloriae eius non adversus, simul 
amore, ne sibi unice dilectam ad iniurias relinqueret, ' vitae ' 5 
inquit ' delenimenta monstraveram tibi, tu mortis decus mavis : 

4 non invidebo exemplo. sit huius tam fortis exitus constantia 
penes utrosque par, claritudinis plus in tuo fine.' post quae 

5 eodem ictu brachia ferro exsolvunt. Seneca, quoniam senile 
corpus et parco victu tenuatum lentaeffugia sanguini praebe- 10 

6 bat, crurum quoque et poplitum venas abrumpit ; saevisque 
cruciatibus defessus, ne dolore suo animum uxoris infringeret 
atque ipse visendo eius tormenta ad inpatientiam delaberetur, 

7 suadet in aliud cubiculum abscedere. et novissimo quoque mo- 
mento suppeditante eloquentia advocalis scriptoribus pleraque 15 
tradidit, quae in vulgus edita eius verbis invertere supersedeo. 

64. At Nero nullo in Paulinam proprio odio, ac ne glisceret 
invidia crudelitatis, iubet inhiberi mortem, hortantibus mili- 
tibus servi libertique obligant brachia, premunt sanguinem, 

2 incertum an ignarae. nam, ut est vulgus ad deteriora 20 
promptum, non defuere qui crederent, donee inplacabilem 
Neronem timuerit, famam sociatae cum marito mortis 
petivisse, deinde oblata mitiore spe blandimentis vitae 
evictam : cui addidit paucos postea annos, laudabili in 
maritum memoria et ore ac membris in eum pallorem 25 
albentibus, ut ostentui esset multum vitalis spiritus egestum. 

3 Seneca interim, durante tractu et lentitudine mortis, Statium 
Annaeum, diu sibi amiciiiae fide et arte medicinae proba- 
tum, orat provisum pridem venenum, quo damnati publico 
Atheniensium iudicio extinguerentur, promeret : adlatumque 30 
hausit frustra, frigidus iam artus et cluso corpora adversum 

4 vim veneni. postremo stagnum calidae aquae introiit, 
respergens proximos servorum addita voce, libare se liquorem 


ilium lovi liberatori. exim balneo inlatus et vapore eius 5 
exanimatus, sine ullo funeris sollemni crematur. ita codicillis e 
praescripserat. cum etiam turn praedives et praepotens supremis 
suis consuleret. 
5 65. Fama fuit Subrium Flavum cum centurionibus occulto 
consilio, neque tamen ignoiante Seneca, destinavisse, ut post 
occisum opera Pisonis Neronem Piso quoque interficeietur 
tradereturque imperium Senecae, quasi insontibus claritudine 
virtutum ad summum fastigium delecto. quin et verba Flavi 2 
10 vulgabantur, non referre dedecori, si citharoedus demoveretur 
et tragoedus succederet, quia ut Nero cithara, ita Piso tragico 
ornatu canebat. 

66. Ceterum militaris quoque conspiratio non ultra fefellit, 
accensis indicibus ad prodendum Faenium Rufum, quern 

15 eundem conscium et inquisitorem non tolerabant. ergo 2 
instanti minitantique renidens Scaevinus neminem ait plura 
scire quam ipsum, hortaturque ultro redderet tam bono 
principi vicem. non vox adversum ea Faenio, non silentium, 3 
sed verba sua praepediens et pavoris manifestus, ceterisque 

20 et maxime Cervario Proculo equite Romano ad convincen- 
dum eum cbnisis, iussu imperatoris a Cassio milite, qui ob 
insigne corporis robur adstabat, corripitur vinciturque. 

67. Mox eorundem indicio Subrius Flavus tribunus per- 
vertitur, primo dissimilitudinem morum ad defensionem 

25 traliens, neque se armatum cum inermibus et eflfeminatis 
lantum facinus consociaturum ; dein, postquam urguebatur, 
confessionis gloriam amplexus. interrogatusque a Nerone, 2 
quibus causis ad oblivionem sacramenti processisset, ' oderam 
te ' inquit, ' nee quisquam tibi fidelior miliium fuit, dum amari 

30 meruisti. odisse coepi, postquam parricida matris et uxoris, 3 
auriga et histrio et incendiarius extitisti.' ipsa rettuli verba, 4 
quia non, ut Senecae, vulgata erant, nee minus nosci decebat 
militaris viri sensus incomptos et validos. nihil in ilia coniu- 5 

A.D. 65.] LIBER XV. CAP. 64-69. 

ratione gravius auribus Neronis atcidisse constitit, qui ut 
faciendis sceleribus promptus, ita audiendi quae faceret insolens 

6 crat. poena Flavi Veianio Nigro tribuno mandatur. is 
proximo in agro scrobem effodi iussit, quam visam Flavus ut 
humilem et anguslam increpans, circum stantibus militibus, 5 

7 'ne hoc quidem' inquit 'ex disciplina/ admonitusque forliter 

8 protendere cervicem, ' utinam ' ait ' tu tarn fortiter ferias ! ' et 
ille muUum tremens, cum vix duobus ictibus caput amputa- 
visset, saevitiam apud Neronem iactavit, sesquiplaga inter- 
fectum a se dicendo. 10 

68. Proximum constantiae exemplum Sulpicius Asper 
centurio praebuit, percontanti Neroni, cur in caedem suam 
conspiravisset, breviter respondens non aliter tot flagitiis eius 

2 subveniri potuisse. tum iussam poenam subiit. nee ceteri 
centuriones in perpetiendis suppliciis degeneravere : at non 15 
Faenio Rufo par animus, sed lamentationes suas etiam in 
testamentum contulit. 

3 Opperiebatur Nero, ut Vestinus quoque consul in crimina 
traherelur, violentum et infensum ratus : sed ex coniuratis 
consilia cum Vestino non miscuerant quidam vetustis in eum 20 
simultatibus, plures, quia praecipitem et insociabilem crede- 

4 bant, ceterum Neroni odium adversus Vestinum ex intima 
sodalitale coeperat, dum hie ignaviam principis penitus 
cognitam despicit, ille ferociam amici metuit, saepe asperis 
facetiis inlusus, quae ubi multum ex vero traxere, acrem sui 25 

5 memoriam relinquunt. accesserat repens causa, quod Vestinus 
Statiliam Messalinam matrimonio sibi iunxerat, baud nescius 
inter adulteros eius et Caesarem esse. 

69. Igitur non crimine, non accusatore existente, quia 
speciem iudicis induere non poterat, ad vim dominationis 30 
conversus Gerellanum tribunum cum cohorte militum inmittit 
iubetque praevenire conatus consulis, occupare velut arcem 
eius, opprimere delectam iuventutem, quia Vestinus inminentes 


foro aedes decoraque servitia et pari aetate habebat. cuncta 2 
eo die munia consulis impleverat conviviumque celebrabat, 
nihil metuens an dissimulando metu, cum ingiessi milites 
vocari eum a tribuno dixere. ille nihil demoralus exsurgit 3 
5 et omnia simul properantur : clauditur cubiculo, praesto est 
medicus, abscinduntur venae, vigens adhuc balneo infertur, 
calida aqua meisatur, nulla edita voce qua semet miseraretur, 
ciicumdati interim custodia qui simul discubuerant, nee nisi 4 
provecta nocte omissi sunt, postquam pavorem eorum, ex 
10 mensa exitium opperientium, et imaginatus et inridens Nero 
satis supplicii luisse ail pro epulis consularibus. 

70. Exim Annaei Lucani caedem imperat. is profluente 
sanguine ubi frigescere pedes manusque et paulatim ab 
extremis cedere spiritum fervido adhuc et compote mentis 

15 pectore intellegit, recordatus carmen a se compositum, quo 
vulneratum militem per eius modi mortis imaginem obisse 
tradiderat, versus ipsos rettulit, eaque illi suprema vox fuit. 
Senecio posthac et Quintianus et Scaevinus non ex priore 2 
vitae moUitia, mox reliqui coniuratorum periere, nullo facto 

20 dictove memorando. 

71. Sed compleri interim urbs funeribus, Capitolium 
victimis; alius filio, fratre alius aut propinquo aut amico 
interfectis, agere grates deis, ornare lauru domum, genua 
ipsius advolvi et dextram osculis fatigare. atque ille gaudium 2 

25 id credens Antonii Natalis et Cervarii Proculi festinata 
indicia inpunitate remuneratur. Milichus praemiis ditatus 3 
conservatoris sibi nomen, Graeco eius rei vocabulo, ad- 
sumpsit. e tribunis Gavins Silvanus, quamvis absolutus, <i 
sua manu cecidit; Statins Proximus veniam, quam ab 

30 imperatore acceperat, vanitate exitus corrupit. exuti dehinc 5 
tribunatu * * Pompeius, Cornelius Martialis, Flavins Nepos, 
Statins Domitius, quasi principem non quidem odissent, sed 
tamen existimarentur. Novio Prisco per amicitiam Senecae, 6 

A.D. 65.] LIBER XV. C^ P. 69-73. 

et Glitio Gallo atque Annio PoUioni infamatis magis quam 

7 convictis data exilia. Priscum Artoria Flaccilla coniunx 
comitata est, Galium Egnatia Maximilla, magnis primum 
et integris opibus, post ademptis, quae utraque gloriam eius 

8 auxere. pellitur et Rufrius Crispinus occasione coniurationis, 5 
sed Neroni invisus, quod Poppaeam quondam matrimonio 

9 tenuerat. Verginium Flavum et Mtisoninvi Rufum claritudo 
nominis expulit : nam Verginius studia iuvenum eloquentia, 

10 INIusonius praeceptis sapientiae fovebat. Cluvidieno Quieto, 
luJio Agrippae, Blitio Catulino, Petionio Prisco, lulio Altino, 10 
velut in agmen et numerum, Aegaei maris insulae permit- 

11 tuntur. at Caedicia uxor Scaevini et Caesennius Maximus 
Italia prohibentur, reos fuisse se tantum poena experti. 

12 Acilia mater Annaei Lucani sine absolutione, sine supplicio 
dissimulata. • 15 

72. Quibus perpetratis Nero et contione militum habita 
bina nummum milia viritim manipularibus divisit addiditque 
sine pretio frumentum, quo ante ex modo annonae utebantur. 

2 turn, quasi gesta bello expositurus, vocat senatum et 
triumphale decus Petronio Turpiliano consulari, Cocceio 20 
Nervae praetori designato, Tigellino praefecto praetorii 
tribuit, Tigellinum et Nervam ita extollens, ut super trium- 
phales in foro imagines apud Palatium quoque effigies eorum 

3 sisteret. consularia insignia Nymphidio, qui quia nunc 
primum oblatus est, pauca repetam : nam et ipse pars 25 

4 Romanarum cladium erit. igitur matre libertina ortus, quae 
corpus decorum inter servos libertosque principum vulgaverat, 
ex Gaio Caesare se genitum ferebat, quoniam forte quadam 
habitu procerus et torvo vultu erat, sive Gaius Caesar, 
scortorum quoque cupiens, etiam matri eius inlusit * * * 30 

73. Sed Nero vocato senatu, oratione inter patres habita, 
edictum apud populum et conlata in libros indicia confes- 

2 sionesque damnatorum adiunxit. etenim crebro vulgi rumore 


lacerabatur, tamquam viros claros et insontes ob invidiam 
aut metum extinxisset. ceterum coeptam adultamque et 3 
revictam coniurationem neque tunc dubitavere quibus verum 
noscendi cura erat, et fatentur, qui post interitum Neronis 
5 in urbem regressi sunt, at in senatu cunctis, ut cuique 4 
plurimum maeroris, in adulationem demissis, lunium Gal- 
lionem, Senecae fratris morte pavidum et pro sua incolumitate 
supplicem, increpuit Salienus Clemens, hostem et parricidam 
vocans, donee consensu patrum deteiritus est, ne publicis 
10 malis abuli ad occasionem privati odii videretur, neu 
composita aut oblitterata mansuetudine principis novam ad 
saevitiam retraheret. 

74. Turn [decreta] dona et grates deis decernuntur 
propriusque honos Soli, cui est vetus aedes apud circum, 
15 in quo facinus parabatur, qui occulta coniurationis numine 
retexisset; utque circensium Cerealium ludicrum pluribus 
equorum cursibus celebraretur mensisque Aprilis Neronis 
cognomentum acciperet ; templum Saluti exstrueretur eo 
loci, ex quo Scaevinus ferrum prompserat. ipse eum 2 
20 pugionem apud Capitolium sacravit inscripsitque lovi 
Vindici : in praesens baud animadversum post arma lulii 
Vindicis ad auspicium et praesagium futurae ultionis trahe- 
batur. reperio in commentariis senatus Cerialem Anicium 3 
consulem designatum pro sententia dixisse, ut templum 
25 divo Neroni quam maturrime publica pecunia poneretur. 
quod quidem ille decernebat tamquam mortale fastigium 4 
egresso et venerationem hominum merito, sed ipse prohibuit, 
ne inlerpretatione quorundam ad omen malum sui exitus 
verteretur : nam deum honor principi non ante habetur 
30 quam agere inter homines desierit. 

A.D. 65.] LIBER XV. CAP. 73— .YF/. CAP. 3. 


1. Inlusit dehinc Neroni fortuna per vanitatem ipsius et 
promissa Caeselli Bassi, qui origine Poenus, mente turbida, 
nocturnae quietis imaginem ad spem baud dubiae rei traxit, 
vectusque Romam, principis aditum emercatus, expromit 
repertum in agro suo specum altitudine inmensa, quo magna 5 
vis auri contineretur, non in formam pecuniae, sed rudi et 

2 antique pondere. lateres quippe praegraves iacere, adstan- 
tibus parte alia columnis ; quae per tantum aevi occulta 

3 augendis praesenlibus bonis, ceterum, ut coniectura demon- 
strabat, Dido Phoenissam Tyro profugam condita Carthagine 10 
illas opes abdidisse, ne novus populus nimia pecunia lasciviret, 
aut rages Numidarum, et alias infensi, cupidine auri ad bellum 

2. Igitur Nero, non auctoris, non ipsius negotii fide satis 
spectata nee missis, per quos nosceret an vera adferrentur, 15 
auget ultro rumorem mittitque qui velut paratam praedam 

2 adveherent. dantur triremes et delectum remigium iuvandae 
festinationi. nee aliud per illos dies populus credulitate, pru- 

3 dentes diversa fama tulere, ac forte quinquennale ludicrum 
secundo lustro celebrabatur, ab oratoribusque praecipua 20 

4 materia in laudem principis adsumpta est. non enim solitas 
tantum fruges nee confusum metallis aurum gigni, sed nova 
ubertate provenire terram et obvias opes deferre deos, quaeque 
alia summa facundia nee minora adulatione servilia fingebant, 
securi de facilitate credentis. 25 

3. Gliscebat interim luxuria spa inani, consumebanturque 
veteres opes quasi oblalis, quas multos per annos prodigeret. 
quin et inde iam largiebatur ; et divitiarum exspectatio inter 

2 causas paupertatis publicae erat. nam Bassus, efiosso agro 


suo latisque circum arvis, dum hunc vel ilium locum promissi 
specus adseverat, sequunturque non modo milites sed populus 
agrestium efficiendo operi adsumptus, tandem posita vae- 
cordia, non falsa antea somnia sua seque tunc primum elusum 
5 admirans, pudorem et metum morte voluntaria effugit. qui- 
dam vinctum ac mox dimissum tradidere ademptis bonis in 
locum regiae gazae. 

4. Interea senatus, propinquo iam lustrali certamine, ut 
dedecus averteret, offert imperatori victoriam cantus adicitque 

10 facundiae coronam, qua ludicra deformitas velaretur. sed 2 
Nero nihil ambitu nee potestate senatus opus esse dictitans, 
se aequum adversum aemulos et religione iudicum meritam 
laudem adsecuturum, primo carmen in scaena recitat ; mox 
flagitante vulgo ut omnia studia sua publicaret (haec enim 

15 verba dixere) ingreditur theatrum, cunctis citharae legibus 
obtemperans, ne fessus resideret, ne sudorem nisi ea quam 
indutui gerebat veste detergeret, ut nulla oris aut narium 
excrementa viserentur. postremo flexus genu et coetum 3 
ilium manu veneratus sententias iudicum opperiebatur 

30 ficto pavore. et plebs quidem urbis, histrionum quoque 4 
gestus iuvare solita, personabat certis modis plausuque 
composito. crederes laetari, ac fortasse laetabantur per 
incuriam publici flagitii. 

5. Sed qui remotis e municipiis severaque adhuc et 
35 antiqui moris retinente Italia, quique per longinquas pro- 

vincias lascivia inexperti officio legationum aut privata 
utilitate advenerant, neque aspectum ilium tolerare neque 
labori inhonesto sufficere, cum manibus nesciis fatiscerent, 
turbarent gnaros ac saepe a militibus verberarentur, qui 
30 per cuneos stabant, ne quod temporis momentum inpari 
clamore aut silentio segni praeteriret. constitit plerosque 2 
equitum, dum per angustias aditus et ingruentem multi- 
tudijjem enituntur, obtritos, et alios, dum diem noctemque 

A.D. 65.] LIBER XVI. CAP. 3-7. 

8 sedilibus continuant, morbo exitiabili correptos. quippe 
gravior inerat metus, si spectaculo defuissent, niultis palam et 
pluribus occultis, ut nomina ac vultus, alacritatem tristitiam- 

4 que coeuntium scrutarentur. unde tenuioribus statim inro- 
gata supplicia, adversum inlustres dissimulatum ad praesens 5 

5 et mox redditum odium, feiebantque Vespasianum, tamquam 
somno coniveret, a Phoebo liberto increpitum aegreque 
meliorum piecibus obtectum, mox inminentem perniciem 
maiore fato effugisse. 

6. Post finem ludicri Poppaea mortem obiit, fortuita mariti 10 
iracundia, a quo gravida iclu calcis adflicta est. neque enim 
venenum crediderim, quamvis quidam scriptores tradant, odio 
magis quam ex fide : quippe liberorum cupiens et amori 

2 uxoris obnoxius erat. corpus non igni abolitum, ut Romanus 
mos, sed regum externorum consuetudine differtum odoribus 15 

3 conditur tumuloque luliorum infertur. ductae tamen publicae 
exsequiae, laudavitque ipse apud rostra formam eius et quod 
divinae infantis parens fuisset aliaque fortunae munera pro 

7. Mortem Poppaeae ut palam tristem, ita recordantibus 20 
lactam ob inpudicitiam eius saevitiamque, nova insuper 
invidia Nero complevit prohibendo C. Cassium officio ex- 

2 sequiarum, quod primum indicium mali. neque in longum 
dilatum est, sed Silanus addilur, nullo crimine, nisi quod 
Cassius opibus vetustis et gravitate morum, Silanus claritudine 25 

3 generis et modesta iuventa praecellebant. igitur missa ad 
senatum oratione removendos a re publica utrosque disseruit, 
obiectavitque Cassio quod inter imagines maiorum etiam 
C. Cassi effigiem coluisset, ita inscriptam ' duci partium': 
quippe semina belli civilis et defectionem a domo Caesarum 30 

4 quaesitam, ac ne memoria tantum infensi nominis ad discor- 
dias uteretur, adsumpsisse L. Silanum, iuvenem genere 
nobilem, animo praeruptum, quern novis rebus ostentaret. 


8. Ipsum dehinc Silanum increpuit isdem quibus patruum 
eius Torquatum, tamquam disponeret iam imperii curas prae- 
ficeretque rationibus et libellis et epistulis libertos, inania simul 
et falsa : nam Silanus intentior metu et exitio patrui ad prae- 

6 cavendum exterritus erat. inducti posthac vocabulo indicum, 2 
qui in Lepidam, Cassii uxorem, Silani amitam, incestum cum 
fratris filio et diros sacrorum ritus confingerent. trahebanlur 3 
ut conscii Volcatius Tullinus ac Maicellus Cornelius senatores 
et Calpurnius Fabatus eques Romanus ; qui appellate principe 
10 instantem damnationem frustrati, mox Neronem circa summa 
scelera distentum quasi minores evasere. 

9. Tunc consulto senatus Cassio et Silano exilia decer- 
nuntur : de Lepida Caesar statueret, deportatusque in insulam 2 
Sardinian! Cassius, et senectus eius exspectabatur. Silanus, 

15 tamquam Naxum deveheretur, Ostiam amotus, post municipio 
Apuliae, cui nomen Barium est, clauditur. illic indignissimum 3 
casum sapienter tolerans a centurione ad caedem misso corri- 
pitur; suadentique venas abrumpere, animum quidem morti 
destinatum ait, sed non remittere percussori gloriam ministerii. 

30 at centurio quamvis inermem, praevalidum tamen et irae quam 4 
timori propiorem cernens premi a militibus iubet. nee omisit 5 
Silanus obniti et intendere ictus, quantum manibus nudis 
valebat, donee a centurione vulneribus adversis tamquam in 
pugna caderet. 

25 10. Haud minus prompte L. Vetus socrusque eius Sextia 
et Pollilta filia necem subiere, invisi principi tamquam vivendo 
exprobrarent interfectum esse Rubellium Plautum, generum 
L. Veteris. sed initium detegendae saevitiae praebuit inter- 2 
versis patroni rebus ad accusandum transgrediens Fortunatus 

30 libertus, adscito Claudio Demiano, quem ob flagitia vinctum 
a Vetere Asiae pro consule exsolvit Nero in praemium 
accusationis. quod ubi cognitum reo, seque et libertum pari 8 
sorte componi, Formianos in agros digreditur. illic eum 

A.D. 65.] LIBER XVI. CAP. 8-12. 

4 milites occulta custodia circumdant. aderat filia, super 
ingruens periculum longo dolore atrox, ex quo percussores 
Plauti mariti sui viderat; cruentamque cervicem eius am- 
plexa servabat sanguinem et vestes respersas, vidua inpexa 
luctu continuo nee ullis alimentis nisi quae mortem arcerent. 5 

6 turn hortante patre Neapolim pergit. et quia aditu Neronis 
prohibebatur, egressus obsidens, audiret insontem neve con- 
sulatus sui quondam collegam dederet liberto, modo muliebri 
eiulatu, aliquando sexum egressa voce infensa clamitabat, 
donee princeps inmobilem se precibus et invidiae iuxta 10 

11. Ergo nuntiat patri abieere spem et uti necessitate : 
simul adfertur parari cognitionem senatus et trucem senten- 

2 tiam. nee defuere qui monerent magna ex parte heredem 
Caesarem nuncupare atque ita nepotibus de reliquo eonsulere. 15 

3 quod aspernatus, ne vilam proxime libertatem actam novis- 
simo servitio foedaret, largitur in servos quantum aderat 
pecuniae ; et si qua asportari possent, sibi quemque deducere, 

4 tris modo lectulos ad suprema retineri iubet. tune eodem in 
cubiculo, eodem ferro abscindunt venas, properique et singulis 20 
vestibus ad verecundiam velati balineis inferuntur, pater filiam, 
avia neptem, ilia utrosque intuens, et certatim precantes labenti 
animae celerem exitum, ut relinquerent suos superstites et 

5 morituros. servavitque ordinem fortuna, ae seniores prius, turn 

6 cui prima aetas extinguuntur. accusati post sepulturam de- 25 
cretumque ut more maiorum punirentur. at Nero intercessit, 
mortem sine arbitro permittens : ea caedibus peractis ludibria 

12. P. Gallus eques Romanus, quod Faenio Rufo intimus 

et Veteri non alienus fuerat. aqua aique igni prohibitus est. 30 

2 liberto et accusatori praemium operae locus in theatro inter 

3 viatores tribunicios datur. et menses qui Aprilem eundemque 
Neroneum sequebantur, Mains Claudii, lunius Germanici 


vocabulis mutantur, testificante Cornelio Orfito, qui id 
censuerat, ideo lunium mensem transmissum, quia duo iam 
Torquati ob scelera interfecti infausLum nomen lunium 

5 13. Tot facinoiibus foedum annum etiam di tempes- 
tatibus et morbis insignivere. vaslata Campania turbine 
ventorum qui villas arbusta fruges passim disiecit pertulitque 
violentiam ad vicina urbi ; in qua omne moitalium genus 
vis pestilentiae depopulabatur, nulla caeli intemperie, quae 

10 occurreret oculis. sed domus corporibus exanimis, itinera 2 
funeribus complebantur ; non sexus, non aetas periculo 
vacua; servitia perinde et ingenua plebes raptim extingui, 
inter coniugum et liberorum lamenta, qui dum adsident, dum 
deflent, saepe eodem rogo cremabantur. equitum senatorum- 3 

15 que interitus, quamvis promisci, minus flebiles erant, tam- 
quam communi mortalitate saevitiam principis praevenirent. 

Eodem anno dilectus per Galliam Narbonensem Africam- 4 
que et Asiam habiti sunt supplendis Illyricis legionibus, 
ex quibus aetate aut valetudine fessi sacramento solvebantur. 

20 cladem Lugdunensem quadragiens sestertio solatus est prin- 5 
ceps, ut amissa urbi reponerent ; quam pecuniam Lugdunenses 
ante obtulerant urbis casibus. 

14. C. Suetonio Luccio Telesino consulibus Antistius 
Sosianus, factitatis in Neronem carminibus probrosis exilio, 

25 ut dixi, multatus, postquam id honoris indicibus tamque 
promptum ad caedes principem accepit, inquies animo et 
occasionum baud segnis Pammenem, eiusdem loci exulem 
et Chaldaeorum arte famosum eoque multorum amicitiis 
innexum, similitudine fortunae sibi conciliat. ventitare ad 2 

30 eum nuntios et consultationes non frustra ratus, simul 
annuam pecuniam a P. Anteio ministrari cognoscit. neque 3 
nescium habebat Anteium caritate Agrippinae invisum 
Neroni opesque eius praecipuas ad eliciendam cupidinem 

A.D. 66.] LIBER XVI. CAP. 12-16. 

4 eamque causam muhis exitio esse, igitur interceptis Antei 
litteris, furatus etiam libellos, quibus dies genitalis eius 
et eventura secretis Pammenis occultabantur, simul repertis 
quae de ortu vitaque Ostorii Scapulae composita erant, scribit 
ad principem magna se et quae incolumitati eius conducerent 5 
adlaturum, si brevem exilii veniam inpetravisset : quippe 
Anteium et Ostorium inminere rebus et sua Caesarisque 

5 fata scrutari. exim missae liburnicae advehiturque propere 
Sosianus. ac vulgato eius indicio inter damnatos magis 
quam inter reos Anteius Ostoriusque habebantur, adeo ut 10 
testamentum Antei nemo obsignaret, nisi Tigellinus auctor 
extitisset, monito prius Anteio ne supremas tabulas moraretur. 

6 atque ille hausto veneno, tarditatem eius perosus intercibis 
venis mortem adproperavit. 

15. Ostorius longinquis in agris apud finem Ligurum id 15 
temporis erat. eo missus centurio, qui caedem eius matu- 

2 raret. causa festinandi ex eo oriebatur, quod Ostorius mulla 
militari fama et civicam coronam apud Britanniam meritus, 
ingenti corporis robore armorumque scientia metum Neroni 
fecerat, ne invaderet pavidum semper et reperta nuper con- 20 

3 iuratione magis exterritum. igitur centurio, ubi effugia villae 

4 clausit, iussa imperatoris Ostorio aperit. is fortitudinem saepe 
adversum hostes spectatam in se vertit : et quia venae quam- 
quam interruptae parum sanguinis effundebant, hactenus 
manu servi usus, ut inmotum pugionem extoUeret, adpressit 35 
dexlram eius iuguloque occurrit. 

16. Etiam si bella externa et obitas pro re publlca mortes 
tanta casuum similitudine memorarem, meque ipsum satias 
cepisset aliorumque taedium exspectarem, quamvis honestos 

2 civium exitus, tristes tamen et continuos aspernantium : at 30 
nunc patientia servilis tantumque sanguinis domi perdiium 
fatigant animum et maestitia restringunt. neque aliam 
defensionem ab iis quibus ista noscentur exegerim, quam ne 


odeiim tarn segniler percuntcs. ira ilia nuiiiinum in res 3 
Romanas fuit, quam non, ut in cladibus exeicituum aut 
captivitate urbium, semel edilo tiansire licet, detur hoc 4 
inlustrium virorum posteiilali, ut quo modo exsequiis a 
5 promisca sepultuia separantur, ita in tradilione suprcmorum 
accipiant habeantque propriam memoriam. 

17. Paucos quippe intra dies eodem agmine Annaeus Mela, 
Cerialis Anicius, Rufrius Crispinus, C. Petronius cecidere, 
Mela et Crispinus equites Romani dignitate senatoria. nam 2 

10 hie quondam praefectus praetorii et consularibus insignibus 
donatus ac nuper crimine coniuralionis in Sardiniam exactus, 
accepto iussae mortis nuntio semet interfecit. Mela, quibus 3 
Gallio et Seneca parentibus natus, petitione honorum ab- 
slinuerat per ambitionem praeposteram, ut eques Romanus 

15 consularibus potentia aequaretur ; simul adquirendae pecuniae 
brevius iter credebat per procurationes administrandis prin- 
cipis negotiis. idem Annaeum Lucanum genuerat, grande 4 
adiumentum claritudinis. quo inlerfecto dum rem familiarem 
eius acriter requirit, accusatorem concivit Fabium Romanum, 

20 ex intimis Lucani amicis. mixta inter palrem filiumque con- 5 
iurationis scientia fingitur, adsimilatis Lucani litteris : quas 
inspectas Nero ferri ad eum iussit, opibus eius inhians. at 6 
Mela, quae tum promptissima mortis via, exsolvit venas, 
scriptis codicillis quiLus grandem pecuniam in Tigellinum 

35 generumque eius Cossutianum Capitonem erogabat, quo 
cetera manerent. additur codicillis, tamquam de iniquitate 7 
exitii querens ita scripsisset, se quidem mori nuUis supplicii 
causis, Rufrium autem Crispinum et Anicium Cerialem 
vita frui infensos principi. quae composita credebantur 8 

30 de Crispino, quia interfectus erat, de Ceriale, ut inter- 
ficeretur, neque enim multo post vim sibi attulit, minore 
quam ceteri miseratione, quia proditam Gaio Caesari con- 
iuralionem ab eo meminerant. 

A.D. 66.] LIBER XVI. CAP. 16-20. 

18. De C. Petronio pauca supra repetcnda sunt, nam illi 
dies per somnum, nox officiis et oblectamentis vitae transige- 
batur ; utque alios industria, ita hunc ignavia ad famam pro- 
tuleiat, habebaturque non ganeo et profligator, ut plerique sua 

2 hauiientium, sed erudito luxu. ac dicta factaque eius quanlo 5 
solutiora et quandam sui neglegentiam praeferentia, tanto 

3 giatius in speciem simplicitatis accipiebantur. pro consule 
tamen Bithyniae et mo.K consul vigentem se ac parem 

4 negotiis ostendit. dein revolutus ad vitia, seu vitiorum 
imitatione, inter paucos familiarium Neroni adsumptus est, 10 
elegantiae arbiter, dum nihil amoenum et molle adfluentia 

5 putat, nisi quod ei Petronius adprobavisset. unde invidia 
Tigellini quasi adversus aemulum et scientia voluptalum 
potiorem. ergo crudelitatem principis, cui ceterae libidines 
cedebant, adgreditur, amicitiam Scaevini Petronio obieclans, 15 
corrupto ad indicium servo ademptaque defensione et maiore 
parte familiae in vincla rapta. 

19. Forte illis diebus Campaniam petiverat Caesar, et 
Cumas usque progressus Petronius illic attinebatur ; nee tulit 

2 ultra timoris aut spei moras, neque tamen praeceps vitam 20 
expulit, sed incisas venas, ut libitum, obligatas aperire rursum 

et adloqui amicos, non per seria aut quibus gloriam constan- 

3 tiae peteret. audiebatque referentes, nihil de inmortalitate 
animae et sapientium placilis, sed levia carmina et faciles 

4 versus, servorum alios largitione, quosdam verberibus adfecit. 25 
iniit et epulas, somno indulsit, ut quamquam coacta mors 

5 fortuitae similis esset. ne codicillis quidem, quod plerique 
pereuntium, Neronem aut Tigellinum aut quern alium 
potentium adulatus est : sed flagitia principis sub nominibus 
exoletorum feminarumque et novitatem cuiusque stupri per- 30 
scripsit atque obsignata misit Neroni. fregitque anulum, ne 
mox usui esset ad facienda pericula. 

20. Ambigenti Neroni, quonam modo noctium suarum 


ingenia notescerent, offertur Silia, matrimonio senatoris baud 
ignota et ipsi ad omnem libidinem adscita ac Petionio 
perquam familiaris. agitiir in exilium, tamquam non siluis- 
set quae viderat peituleratque, propiio odio, at Minucium 3 
6 Thermum praeiura functum Tigellini simultatibus dedit, quia 
libertus Thermi quaedam de Tigellino criminose detulerat, 
quae cruciatibus toimentoium ipse, patronus eius nece in- 
merita lucre. 

21. Trucidatis tot insignibus viiis, ad postremum Nero 
10 virtutem ipsam excindere concupivit interfecto Thrasea Paeto 

et Barea Sorano, olini utrisque infensus, et accedentibus causis 
in Thraseam, quod senatu egressus est, cum de Agrippina 
referretur, ut memoravi, quodque luvenalium ludicro parum 
spectabilem operam praebuerat; eaque ofFensio altius pene- 

15 trabat, quia idem Thrasea Patavi, unde ortus erat, ludis 
+ cetastis a Troiano Antenore institutis habitu tragico cecinerat. 
die quoque, quo praetor Antistius ob probra in Neronem 2 
composita ad mortem damnabatur, mitiora censuit obtinuitque ; 
et cum deum honores Poppaeae decernuntur, sponte absens, 

20 funeri non interfuerat. quae oblitterari non sinebat Capito 3 
Cossutianus, praeter animum ad flagitia praecipitem iniquus 
Thraseae, quod auctoritate eius concidisset, iuvantis Cilicum 
legatos, dum Capitonem repetundarum interrogant. 

22. Quin et ilia obiectabat, principio anni vitare Thraseam 
25 sollemne ius iurandum ; nuncupationibus votorum non adesse, 

quamvis quindecimvirali sacerdotio praeditum : numquam 
pro salute principis aut caelesd voce immolavisse ; adsiduum 
dim et indefessum, qui vulgaribus quoque patrum consultis 
semet fautorem aut adversarium ostenderet, triennio non 
30 introisse curiam ; nuperrimeque, cum ad coercendos Silanum 
et Veterem certatim concurreretur, privatis potius clientium 
negotiis vacavisse. secessionem iam id et partes et, si idem 2 
multi aiideant, bellum esse. ' ut quondam C. Caesarem ' 

A.D. 66.] LIBER XVI. CAP. 20-24. 

inquit ' et M. Catonem, ita nunc te, Nero, et Thraseam avida 

3 discordiarum civitas loquitur, et habet sectatores vel polius 
satellites, qui nondum contumaciam sententiarum, sed habitum 
vultumque eius sectantur, rigidi et tiistes, quo tibi lasciviam 

4 exprobrent. huic uni incolumitas tua sine cura, artes sine 5 
honore. prosperas principis res spernit : etiamne luctibus et 

5 doloribus non satialur? eiusdem animi est Poppaeam divam 
non credere, cuius in acta divi Augusti et divi luli non iurare. 

6 spernit religiones, abrogat leges, diurna populi Romani per 
provincias, per exercitus curatius leguntur, ut noscatur quid 10 

7 Thvasea non fecerit. aut transeamus ad ilia instituta, si potiora 
sunt, aut nova cupientibus auferatur dux et auctor. ista secta 
Tuberones et Favonios, veteri quoque rei publicae ingrata 

8 nomina, genuit. ut imperium evertant, libertatem praeferunt : 

9 si perverterint, libertatem ipsam adgredientur. frustra Cas- 15 
sium amovisti, si gliscere et vigere Brutorum aemulos passurus 
es. denique nihil ipse de Thrasea scripseris : disceptatorem 

10 senatum nobis relinque/ extollit ira promptum Cossutiani 
animum Nero adicitque Marcellum Eprium acri eloquentia. 

23. At Baream Soranum iam sibi Ostorius Sabinus eques 20 
Romanus poposcerat reum ex proconsulatu Asiae, in qua 
oflfensiones principis auxit iuslitia atque industria, et quia 
portui Ephesiorum aperiendo curam insumpserat vimque 
civitatis Pergamenae, prohibentis Acratum Caesaris libertum 

2 statuas et picturas evehere, inultam omiserat. sed crimini 25 
dabatur amicitia Plauti et ambitio conciliandae provinciae ad 

3 spes novas, tempus damnationi delectum, quo Tiridates 
accipiendo Armeniae regno adventabat, ut ad externa rumo- 
ribus intestinum scelus obscurarelur, an ut magnitudinem 
imperatoriam caede insignium virorum quasi regio facinore 30 

24. Igitur omni civitate ad excipiendum principem spec- 
tandumque regem eftusa, Thrasea occursu prohibilus non 


demisit animum, sed codicillos ad Neronem composuit, 
requirens obiecta et expurgatuium adseverans, si notitiam 
criminum et copiam diluendi habuisset. eos codicillos Nero 2 
properanter accepit, spe exterritum Thraseam scripsisse 
6 per quae claritudinem principis extolleret suamque famam 
dehonestaret. quod ubi non evenit vultumque et spiritus et 3 
libertatem insonlis uUro extimuit, vocari patres iubet. 

25. Turn Thrasea inter proximos consultavit, temptaretne 
defensionem an sperneret. diversa consilia adferebantur. 

10 quibus intrari curiam placebat, secures esse de constantia 
eius disserunt ; nihil dicturum nisi quo gloriam augeret. 
segnes et pavidos supremis suis secretum circumdare : 2 
aspiceret populus \irum morti obvium, audiret senatus voces 
quasi ex aliquo numine supra humanas : posse ipso miraculo 

15 etiam Neronem permoveri. sin crudelitati insisteret, dis- 3 
tingui certe apud posteros memoriam honesti exitus ab 
ignavia per silentium pereuntium. 

26. Contra qui opperiendum domui censebant, de ipso 
Thrasea eadem, sed ludibria et contumelias imminere : 

20 subtraheret aures conviciis et probris. non solum Cossu- 2 
tianum aut Eprium ad scelus promptos: superesse qui 
forsitan manus ictusque per immanitatem ingesturi sint; 
etiam bonos metu sequi. detraheret potius senatui, quem 3 
perornavisset, infamiam tanti flagitii, et relinqueret incertum 

25 quid viso Thrasea reo decreturi patres fuerint. ut Neronem 4 
flagitiorum pudor caperet, inrila spe agitari ; multoque 
magis timendum ne in coniugem, in filiam, in cetera pignora 
eius saeviret. proinde intemeratus, inpollutus, quorum ves- 5 
tigiis et studiis vitam duxerit, eorum gloria peteret finem. 

30 aderat consilio Rusticus Arulenus, flagrans iuvenis, et 6 
cupidine laudis offerebat se interccssurum senatus consu4to : 
nam plebei tribunus erat. cohibuit spiritus eius Thrasea, ne 7 
vana et reo non profutura, intercessor! exitiosa inciperet. 

A.n. 66.] LIBER XVI. CAP. 24-28. 

sihi actam aetatcin, ct tot per annos continuum vitae ordinem 
non deserendum : illi initium magistratuum et Integra 
8 quae supersint. mullum ante secum expenderet, quod 
tali in tempore capessendae rei publicae iter ingrederetur. 
ceterum ipse, an venire in senatum deceret, meditationi suae 5 

27. At postera luce duae praetoriae cohortes armatae 
templum Genetricis Veneris insedere. aditum senatus globus 
togatorum obsederat non occultis gladiis, dispersique per fora 

2 ac basilicas cunei militares. inter quorum aspectus et minas 10 
ingressi curiam senatores, et oratio principis per quaestorem 
eius audita est: nemine nominatim compellato patres ar- 
guebat, quod publica munia desererent eorumque exemplo 

3 equites Romani ad segnitiam verterentur : etenim quid 
mirum e longinquis provinciis baud veniri, cum plerique 15 
adepti consulatum et sacerdotia hortorum potius amoenitati 
inservirent. quod velut telum corripuere accusatores. 

28. Et initium faciente Cossutiano, maiore vi Marcellus 
summam rem publicam agi clamitabat ; conlumacia inferiorum 

2 lenitatem imperitantis deminui. nimium mites ad eam 20 
diem patres, qui Thraseam desciscentem, qui generum eius 
Helvidium Priscum in isdem furoribus, simul Paconium 
Agrippinum, paterni in principes odii heredem, et Curtium 
Montanum detestanda carmina factitantem eludere inpune 

3 sinerent. requirere se in senatu consularem, in votis 25 
sacerdotem, in iure iurando civem, nisi contra instituta et 
caerimonias maiorum proditorem palam et hostem Thrasea 

4 induisset. denique agere senatorem et principis obtrectatores 
protegere solitus veniret, censeret quid corrigi aut mutari 
vellet: facilius perlaturos singula increpantis vocem quam 30 

5 nunc silentium perferrent omnia damnantis. pacem illi per 
orbem terrae, an victorias sine damno exercituum displicere ? 
pe hominera bonis publicis maestum, et qui fora theatra 


templa pro soliludine haberet, qui minitaretur exilium suura, 
ambitionis pravae compotem facerent. non illi consulta 6 
haec, non magistratus aut Romanam urbem videri. abrum- 
peret vitam ab ea civitate, cuius caiitatem olim, nunc et 
5 aspectum exuisset. 

29. Cum per haec atque talia IMarcellus, ut erat torvus 
ac minax, voce voltu oculis ardesceret, non ilia nota et 
celebritate periculorum sueta iam senatus maestitia, sed 
novus et altior pavor manus et tela militum cernentibus. 

10 simul ipsius Thraseae venerabilis species obversabatur ; et 2 
erant qui Helvidium quoque miserarentur, innoxiae adfinitatis 
poenas dalurum. quid Agrippino obiectum nisi tristem 3 
patris fortunam ? quando et ille perinde innocens Tiberii 
saevitia concidisset. enimvero Montanum probae' iuventae 4 

15 neque famosi carminis, quia protulerit ingenium, extorrem agi. 

30. Atque interim Ostorius Sabinus, Sorani accusator, 
ingreditur orditurque de amicitia Rubellii Plauti, quodque 
proconsulatum Asiae Soranus pro claritate sibi potius ad- 
commodatum quam ex utilitate communi egisset, alendo 

20 seditiones civitatium. vetera haec : sed recens et quo 2 
discrimini patris filiam conectebat, quod pecuniam magis 
dilargita esset. acciderat sane pietate Serviliae (id enim 3 
nomen puellae fuit), quae caritaie erga parentem, simul 
inprudenlia aetatis, non tamen aliud consultaverat quam 

35 de incolumitate domus, et an placabilis Nero, an cognitio 
senalus nihil atrox adferret. igitur accita est in senatum, 4 
steteruntque diversi ante tribunal consulum grandis aevo 
parens, contra filia intra vicensimum aetatis annum, nuper 
marilo Annio PoUione in exilium pulso viduala desolataque, 

30 ac ne patrem quidem intuens, cuius onerasse pericula 

31. Tum interrogante accusatore, an cultus dotales, an 
detractum cervici monile venum dedisset, quo pecuniam 

A.D. 66.J LIBER XVI. CAP. 28-33. 

faciendis magicis sacris contraheret, primum strata humi 
longoque fletu et silentio, post altaria et aram complexa 
'nullos' inquit 'impios deos, nullas devotiones, nee aliud 
infelicibus precibus invocavi, quam ut hunc optimum patiem 
5 tu, Caesar, vos, patres, servarelis incolumem. sic gemmas 2 
et vestes et dignitatis insignia dedi, quo modo si sanguinem 
et vitam poposcissent. viderint isti, antehac mihi ignoti, quo 3 
nomine sint, quas artes exerceant : nulla mihi principis 
mentio nisi inter numina fuit. nescit tamen miserrimus 
10 pater et, si crimen est, sola deliqui/ 

32. Loquentis adhuc verba excipit Soranus proclamatque 
non illam in provinciam secum profectam, non Plauto per 
aetatem nosci potuisse, non criminibus mariti conexam : 
nimiae tantum pietatis ream separarent, atque ipse quam- 

15 cumque sortem subiret. simul in amplexus occurrentis filiae 2 
ruebat, nisi interiecti lictores utrisque obstitissent. mox 
datus testibus locus ; et quantum niisericordiae saevitia accu- 
salionis permoverat, tantum irae P. Egnatius testis concivit. 
cliens hie Sorani, et tunc emptus ad opprimendum amicum, 3 

JO auctoritatem Stoicae sectae praeferebat, habitu et ore ad 
exprimendam imaginem honesti exercitus, eeterum animo 
perfidiosus, subdolus, avaritiam ac libidinem occultans ; quae 
postquam pecunia reclusa sunt, dedit exemplum praecavendi, 
quo modo fraudibus involutos aut flagitiis commaculatos, 

25 sic specie bonarum arlium falsos et amicitiae fallaces. 

33. Idem tamen dies et honestum exemplum tulit Cassii 
Asclepiodoti, qui magniludine opum praecipuus inter Bithy- 
nos, quo obsequio florentem Soranum celebraverat, labentem 
non deseruit, exutusque omnibus fortunis et in exilium actus, 

30 aequitate deum erga bona malaque documenta. Thraseae 2 
Soranoque et Serviliae dalur mortis arbitrium. Helvidius et 3 
Paconius Italia depelluntur. Montanus patri concessus est, 4 
praedicto ne in re publica haberetur. accusatoribus Eprio 



et Cossutiano quinquagiens sestertium singulis, Ostorio 
duodeciens et quaestoria insignia tribuuntur. 

34. Turn ad Thiaseam in hortis agentem quaestor consulis 
missus vesperascente iam die. inlustrium virorum femina- 2 

6 runique coetum frequentem egerat, maxime intentus Demetrio 
Cynicae institutionis doctori, cum quo, ut coniectare erat 
intentione vultus et auditis, si qua clarius proloquebantur, de 
natura animae et dissociatione spiritus corporisque inquirebat, 
donee advenit Domitius Caecilianus ex intimis amicis et ei 

10 quid senatus censuisset exposuit. igitur flentes queritantesque 3 
' qui aderant ' facessere propere Thrasea neu pericula sua 
miscere cum sorte damnati hortatur, Arriamque temptantem 
mariti suprema et exemplum Arriae matris sequi monet 
retinere vilam filiaeque communi subsidium unicum non 

15 adimere. 

35. Turn progressus in porlicum illic a quaestore repe- 
ritur, laetitiae propior, quia Helvidium generum suum Italia 
tantum arceri cognoverat. accepto dehinc senatus consulto 2 
Helvidium et Demetrium in cubiculum inducit ; porrectisque 

2o utriusque brachii venis, postquam cruorem effudit, humum 
super spargens, proprius vocato quaestore ' libamus ' inquit 
' lovi liberatori. specta, iuvenis ; et omen quidem di pro- 3 
hibeant, ceterum in ea tempora natus es, quibus firmare 
animum expediat constantibus exemplis.' post Ipntitudine 

35 exitus graves cruciatus adferente, obversis in Demetrium * * * 



A. D. 66. Tiridates arrived in Rome and did homage to Nero 
for his kingdom, obtaining leave to rebuild Artaxata on his return. 

In Judaea, the oppressive government of the procurator Gessius 
Florus provoked rebellion. The Upper City and the castle Antonia 
in Jerusalem were taken by the insurgents, and the Roman garrison 
massacred. Cestius Callus, legatus of Syria, made an unsuccess- 
ful attempt to recover the city, and on his retreat was defeated 
with the loss of 6,000 men. The rebellion then spread over the 
whole of Judaea, Galilee, Samaria, Peraea, and Idumaea. Ve- 
spasian was then appointed as 'legatus Augusti propraetore ' in 
Palestine, with a force of three legions and their complement of 
auxiliaries, and Syria with its usual garrison of four legions was 
given to C. Licinius Mucianus. 

Before the close of the year Nero set out for Greece, leaving the 
freedman Helius, assisted by Polycleitus, with absolute power in 
Rome and Italy. 

A. D. 67. Galilee and the North of Palestine were recovered by 
Vespasian, who was assisted by his son Titus. 

In Greece, Nero altered the calendar so as to make all the chief 
games fall within that year, and competed in various contests in 
all of them. He pillaged statues and works of art from cities and 
temples, and put many wealthy Greeks to death to get their 
property. Corbulo was summoned from the East, and then ordered 
to despatch himself: the brothers Scribonius Rufus and Scribonius 
Proculus, governors of the German provinces, were sent for and 
executed without any fair trial : and similar executions were perpe- 
trated by Helius in Italy. 

In return for his entertainment there, Nero declared Greece free, 
and gave to the Senate the province of Sardinia in compensation. 

A. D. 68. Vespasian effected the recovery of Gadara, Peraea, 
Idumaea, and Samaria successively, and was preparing for the 
siege of Jerusalem, when the death of Nero was reported, and in 
the resulting confusion active operations had to be suspended for 
a year and a half. 

Nero returned early this year to Rome, which he entered after 
the fashion of a victorious Greek athlete, publicly displaying 1808 
crowns of victory ! Then, while visiting Naples, he heard that 
Julius Vindex, legatus of Gallia Lugdunensis, had taken up arms 
against him, supported by the richest and most central tribes of 


Gaul, the Arverni, Aedui, and Sequani, and was offering the princi- 
pate to Galba, legatus of Hispania Tarraconensis. Galba had but 
one legion, and Vindex's ioo,coo men were not Roman citizens ; 
much therefore depended on the action of the legions of Germany. 
Verginius Rufus, legatus of the Upper Province, marched on 
Vesontio and there held a conference with Vindex. Through some 
misunderstanding, Verginius' men attacked the army of Vindex, 
killing 20,000 and dispersing the rest, on which Vindex slew him- 
self. Verginius returned to his province, and refused to allow 
either himself or anyone else to be proclaimed emperor, except by 
nomination of senate and people. 

At Rome, Nero's half-hearted and feeble attempts to cope with 
the reported insurrection were frustrated by the action of Nymphi- 
dius Sabinus, Tigellinus' colleague in the command of the prae- 
torians. He persuaded them by a promise of 30,000 sesterces per 
man in Galba's name, and by a story that Nero had fled to Egypt, 
to give their support to Galba. 

Nero found himself deserted by his body-guard, and fled to a villa 
of one of his freedmen, distant about four miles from Rome. The 
senate, emboldened by the decision of the praetorians in favour of 
Galba, proclaimed the latter emperor, and sentenced Nero to death, 
'more maiorum'.' 

To avoid capture by the soldiers sent to take him, Nero com- 
mitted suicide, June 9. 

' For the meaning of this sentence, cf. note on xiv 48, 4. 



Ch. 1-5. Commencement of the rule of Nero (Oct. 13— Dec. 31, 
A.D. 54). 

I. Junius Silanus poisoned at the instigation of Agrippina : Nar- 
cissus forced to commit suicide. 2. Burrus and Seneca combine 
to prevent further murders and to counteract Agrippina and 
Pallas. 3. Funeral oration composed by Seneca for Nero : con- 
trast in this respect between him and previous emperors. 4. Nero 
announces to the senate his future policy. 5. Decrees passed in 
spite of the opposition of Agrippina : her arrogance described. 

Ch. 6-9. Outbreak of hostilities with Parthia on account of 
6. News of occupation of Armenia by the Parthians : opinion at 
Rome respecting Nero's capacity to conduct war. 7, 8. Troops 
raised in the East : retreat of the Parthians, and rejoicings at 
Rome : Domitius Corbulo appointed to the command. 9. Host- 
ages given by Vologeses : jealousies between Corbulo and Um- 
midius, legatus of Syria. 

Ch. 10. Minor events at the end of the year. 
A. U. C. 808, A. D. 55. Claudius Were Caesar Augustus, 
li. Antistius Vetus, coas. 

Ch. 11-24. Events at Rome. 

II. Instances of modesty and lenity in Nero. 12. His mother's 
influence weakened through his passion for Acte. 13. Agrippina 
changes her tactics : her disdain of Nero's presents. 14. Removal 
of Pallas from office : Agrippina takes up the cause of Britannicus. 
15-17. Britannicus poisoned by the agency of Julius Pollio and 
Locusta : his hurried funeral : feeling of the people and edict of 
Nero. 18. Nero rewards his friends, withdraws his mother's 
bodyguard, and removes her to another house; 19-22. Charge 
of treason preferred against Agrippina through the means of 
Junia Silana frustrated by her bold reply : the accusers punished. 
23. Burrus and Pallas accused and acquitted. 24. Removal of 
the guard from the theatres. 

A. U. C. 8.09, A. D. 56. Q. Volusius Saturninus, P. Cornelius 

Scipio, C033. 
Ch. 25-30. Events at Rome. 

25. Nero's nocturnal riots : Montanus compelled to suicide : 
pantomimists expelled, and guards brought back to the theatres. 
26,27. Discussion on the misconduct of freedmen to their patrons. 
28. Censure of a tribune, and restrictions imposed on tribunes 


and aediles generally. 29. Changes in the management of the 
public treasury : praefects of praetorian rank appointed. 30. 
Charges against certain persons : death of Caninius Rebilus and 
L. Volusius. 

A. U. C. 810, A. D. 57. Nero Caesar II, L. Calpurnius 
Piao, coss. 

Ch. 31-33. Events at Rome. 

31. Amphitheatre erected : 'congiarium' distributed: financial 
measures : provincial governors forbidden to give shows. 32. 
Enactment for protection against slaves : Pomponia Graecina 
tried by her husband, Plautius Silvanus, for superstition. 33. 
Impeachment of Celer, Capito, Eprius Marcellus. 

A. U. C. 811, A. D. 58. nSTero Caesar III, M. Valerius 
Messalla Corvinus, coss. 

Ch. 34. Liberality of Nero to his colleague, a descendant of the 
great Corvinus, and to other impoverished nobles. 

Ch. 35-41. Affairs in the East. 

35, 36. Severe measures of Corbulo to introduce and maintain 
discipline : defeat of Paccius Orfitus. 37, 38. Tiridutes harasses 
Armenia and attempts negotiation with Corbulo : a conference 
proposed but frustrated by suspicion of treachery. 39. Volandum 
and two other forts stormed by Corbulo. 40, 41. Tiridates at- 
tempts in vain to delay the advance of Corbulo on Artaxata ; 
which surrenders to him and is burnt ; extravagant honours 
decreed at Rome. 

Ch. 42-52. Events in Rome. 

42, 43. Suillius is accused, attacks Seneca, and is condemned. 
44. Crime of Octavius Sagitta. 45, 46. Attachment of Nero to 
Poppaea Sabina, whose character is described : her husband 
Otho removed to Lusitania. 47. Cornelius Sulla incurs Nero's 
displeasure, and is banished to Massilia. 48. Riots at Puteoli 
punished. 49. Paetus Thrasea blamed for speaking in the senate 
on a very trifling matter. 50, 51. Complaint made of the extor- 
tions of the publicani : bold proposal of Nero : measures taken. 52. 
Sulpicius Camerinus and Pompeius Silvanus tried and acquitted. 

Ch. 53-57. Events in Germany. 

53. Dam of Drusus completed: canal from the Saone to the 
Moselle projected. 54. The Frisii take possession of waste lands : 
conduct of their embassy in Rome. 55, 56. After their expulsion 
the same lands are invaded by the Ampsivarii ; who treat with 
the legatus through their chief Boiocalus, but are deserted by the 
other Germans and finally annihilated. 57. Conflict between the 
Hermunduri and Chatti for the possession of a salt spring. De- 
structive fires break out on the land of the Ubii. 

Ch. 58. Ominous withering and subsequent recovery of the ' Ficus 


BOOK XIII, 1, §§ 1-4 

Ch. 1, § T. lunii Silani : =!\r. Junius Silanus, grandson of 
Julia the i; rand-daughter of Augustus. 

non quia . . . inritaverat : the indicative in such sentences is 
more generally used only when what is stated is indeed a fact, but 
is denied to have produced the given result. Here it is implied 
that the fact is otherwise : so also xv 6o, 3. 

dommationibus aliis, ' an object of contempt to previous rulers.' 
The abstr. subst. used for concrete ; so ch. 2, 2 ' imperatoria 
iuventa ' ; ch. 42, 8 'subitae felicitati.' See Intr. II i. 

pecudem aureara, ' a golden sheep,' wealthy but stupid. For 
' pecus ' cf. 'vervecum in patria' ( = 'in the native land of block- 
heads'), Juv. X 50. 

§ 2. Ii. Silano : he was betrothed by Claudius to his daughter 
Octavia, but Agrippina wished the latter to marry Nero, and brought 
false accusations against him, which led to his expulsion from the 
Senate and loss of his praetorship, 48 A. D. In 49 A. D., on 
Agrippina's marriage with Claudius, he committed suicide {Ann, 
xii chs. 3, 4, 8). 

crebra vulgi fama, 'there being widespread talk among the 
people.' See Intr. II 22. 

vixdum . . . egresso : Nero was two months short of seventeen 
years of age. 

aetate composita, ' a man of ripe age.' He was forty. 

quod tunc spectaretur, ' the sort of thing then regarded as a 

Tacitus is writing in Trajan's reign, about fifty years after the ac- 
cession of Nero, who was the last emperor descended from Augustus. 

§ 3. P. Celer : mentioned again in ch.33 as saved by Nero from 
the punishment he deserved for his extortion in Asia. 

Helius : left in charge of Rome and Italy during Nero's tour in 
Greece, from the end of 66 to beginning of 68 A. D. He was 
subsequently put to death by C.alba. 

rei familiari . . . inpositi, ' stewards of the imperial estates in 
Asia.' Asia was a senatorial province, governed by a proconsul, but 
the emperor owned property there managed by his own agents 
{' procuratores 'j. Profits from these estates went to his private purse 
(• fiscus '). In Ann. iv 15, Tiberius has \\\s procurator punished 
by the senate for encroaching on the proconsul's powers. Under 
Claudius, the powers of the procuratores in the provinces were 
materially extended {Ann. xii 60). 

apertius, &c., 'too openly to escape the victim's notice.' 

§4. rettuli: Ann. xii chs. 57, 65. She charged him with 
making illicit gains over the contract for connecting the river Liris 
and Lacus Fucinus, 52 A.D., and Narcissus opposed her machina- 
tions for the murder of Nero's aunt Lepida, 54 a. d. 

necessitate extrema, 'the most rigorous compulsion,' i.e. by 
the threat of imminent execution. 

cuius, &c., 'to whose vicious character, as yet repressed, his 
rapacity and prodigality made him remarkably congenial.' 


avaritiam, ' greed in acquiring,' a quality not inconsistent with 
spendthrift habits. 

Ch. 2, § I. ibatur : sc. ' ab Agrippina.' 

Such a past indie, tense in apodosis, with a subjunct. in protasis, 
vividly marks the act as nearly fulfilled, but just prevented by the 
circumstance stated in the negatived protasis. Cf. ' labebar longius 
nisi me retinuissem,' Cic. Le^^. i. 19. See Intr. II 38. 

Afranius Burriis was promoted to the sole command of the 
praetorian cohorts, which previously had been under two com- 
manders, at Agrippina's recommendation, in 51 A. D., and he held 
this appointment till his death (xiv 51, i). Of his previous 
service nothing is known (the loss or mutilation of a hand is re- 
ferred to xiii 14, s); but he must have been of equestrian rank, 
and is called ' egregiae militaris famae ' in xii 42, 2, 

L. Annaeus Seneca was born 4 A. D. at Corduba in Spain, 
whence his father M. Seneca the rhetorician migrated to Rome 
and rose to the rank of knight. The young Seneca had attained 
the quaestorship, and become the leading senatorial pleader by 
the time of Gains ; in the first year of Claudius' reign he was 
relegated to Corsica owing to Messalina's dislike ; in 49 A. D. he 
was recalled through Agrippina's influence, made praetor, and 
instructor of Nero ; and, with Burrus, was the young emperor's 
chief adviser and confidant. On Burrus' death, Seneca retired 
(xiv 52-56), and was subsequently forced to commit suicide for 
alleged participation in Piso's conspiracy (xv 60-65). 

His chief works were ethical treatises, such as the De Ira and 
De Beneficiis ; physical speculations, Qteaesiwnes Natiirales ; 
'epistles' on ethical subjects, addressed to Lucilius ; nine tragedies 
on subjects taken from the Greek ; and a satire on the deification 
of Claudius, the ' apocolocyntosis,' relating how the deceased 
emperor was refused admittance to Olympus, and condemned to 
be not a god but a pumpkin (KoKoKvvTr)), or, according to another 
version, to play for ever with a bottomless dice-box. 

§ 2. iuventae: cf. ' dominationibus,' ch. i. 

rarum: parenthetical. See Intr. II 59. 

in societate potentiae, ' in a case where power is shared.* 

ex aequo, ' equally ' (f^ (.Vov). 

militaribus, &.Z., ' in virtue of his soldierly profession and the 
uprightness of his character.' 

praeceptis, &c., ' through his lessons in eloquence and dignified 
affability.' (C.) 

lubricam, ' unsteady,' ' dangerous.' 

concessis, ' such as public opinion allowed,' that did not cause 
grave scandal. Cf. xiv 21, 5. 

retinerent, ' that they might keep under control.' 

§ 3. ferociam, ' imperiousness.' 

in partibus, ' on her side.' So also/arA.f in ch. 18, 3. 

incestiB : because Agrippina was Claudius' niece. 

exitiosa : Claudius' adoption of Nero ended in his own de- 

BOOK XIII. Cn. 1, §4— CH. 3, §§ 1-4 

struction because Agiippina poisoned hfm to secure her own son's 
accession in place of Britannicus. 

§ 4. infra, ' submissive to.' 

tristi adrogintia, ' by his sour arrogance.' Cf. ch. 23, 3. 

taedium sui moverat, 'had rendered himself disliked.' 

§ 5. signum, ' the watchword,' given by the emperor to the 
ofificer commanding the cohort on guard at the palace. 

optimae matris : gen. of definition, so. 'signum.' 

§ 6. fiamonium Claudiale. In the same way when Augustus 
was deified after death, Livia was made 'flaminica Augusti.' 

simul, 'at the same sitting.' 

censorium : not 'the funeral of a censor,' but 'a funeral at 
public expense.' Under the Republic, the censors made the finan- 
cial arrangements for state spectacles, and though with the estab- 
lishment of the Principate the censorship as a separate magistracy 
disappeared, the adjective 'censorium' is still applied to a funeral 
given at the public expense. 

mox, ' shortly afterwards.' The funeral intervened between the 
preliminary arrangements drawn up for his 'cultus' as a god and 
the final ceremony of his apotheosis. 

Ch. 3, § I. antiquitatem : according to tradition, the 'gens Clau- 
dia' was derived from the Sabine Attus Clausus, who migrated with 
his followers from Regillus to Rome, 504 B.C. (Livy, ii 16). Vergil 
follows a version making them some of the original ' Ouirites ' from 
Cures {Ae/!. vii 706). 

consulatus, &c.: Suet, says that the 'gens Claudia ' had produced 
28 consuls, 5 dictators, 7 censors, and won 7 triumphs and 2 ovations 

intentus, 'serious.' 

liberalium artium, ' literary accomplishments.' Among Clau- 
dius' works were an autobiography and a general history from the 
close of the civil wars, of which two books were composed in his 
youth at the suggestion of Livy. His writings are not extant. 

nihil . . . triste, ' no disaster.' 

pronis animis audita, ' met a favourable hearing.' 

§ 2. cultus, ' polish.' 

amoenum, &c., ' attractive, and suited to the taste of that 
time ' ; said disparagingly. 

§ 3. quibus otiosum, &c., ' whom it amuses to compare past 
and present.' 

§ 4. summis oratoribus aemulus : Cicero makes Atticus say 
of Julius Caesar, 'omnium fereoratorum Latine loqui elegantissime' 
(Brut. 72, 252), and, in a letter to Cornelius Nepos, quoted by 
Suet. {Jul. 56), Cicero himself says that Caesar, in spite of his 
varied activities, surpassed those who devoted their whole time to 
oratory (' oratorum quern huic antepones eorum qui nihil aliud 
egerunt ? '). Ouintilian admires his vigour and elegance, but says 
he had not the leisure to cultivate his talent to its highest capacity. 

prompta, &c., 'ready and fluent,' but avoiding unnecessary 
adornment as unworthy of his position. 


§ 5. artem, &c., 'was proficient in the art of weighing out his 
words' (so as to say nothing that could compromise him), 'being 
besides (turn) full of vigour in the matter of his speech, or, if 
obscure, designedly so.' Tacitus' criticism in Attn, i li, is hardly 
consistent with this : there he says, ' Tiberioque etiam in rebus 
quas non occuleret, seu natura sive adsuetudine, suspensa (' hesi- 
tating ') semper et obscura verba.' 

§ 6. turbata mens, ' disordered intellect.' 

quotiens: with subjunctive of repetition. See Intr. II 41. 

meditata, 'a prepared speech.' 

requireres, ' would you miss literary skill.' Suet, criticizes 
a work of his as composed ' magis inepte quam ineleganter.' 

§ 7. vividum animum, ' vivacious intelligence.' 

caelare, &.C., substantival infinitives, in appos. to 'alia.' 

aliquando, ' at times.' Later on poetical composition became 
his ruling passion: An?t. xiv 16, I. 

Ch, 4, § I. patrum, his salutation as 'imperator' by the 
soldiers had preceded the recognition of his succession by the 
senate ; here, however, in addressing the ' patres,' he pays them 
the compliment of mentioning them first. 

consilia, ' spoke of the advice and example he had for excellent 
government.' ' Consilia,' that of Seneca and Burrus : exempla, 
that of Augustus. 

neque iuventam, ' his youth had not been steeped in civil 
wars ' (like that of Augustus) ' nor in family enmities ' (as was the 
case with Tiberius, Gaius, and Claudius). 

iniurias, ' injuries received.' 

adferre, ' was bringing to the throne.' 

§2. formam, 'sketched out the lines which his rule should 
follow.' He proposed to follow Augustus' policy. Cf. Suet, 'ex 
Augusti praescripto imperaturum se professus.' 

invidia: nominative. 

non enim, &c. : referring to the private trials so prevalent under 
Claudius, which appear to have taken cognisance of all kinds 
of charges. As to Nero's promise, see Intr. Ill 24 ; and for trials 
before Nero's private court, cf. ch. 23, 4; xiv 62, 6; xv 58, 3 and 
note on XV 73, I. 

venale : such as the traffic in the ' civitas ' and other privileges, 
carried on by Messalina and the freedmen. 

discretam, ' the affairs of his household and of the state should 
be kept strictly separate.' 

§ 3. antiqua munia : see Intr. Ill 8. 

conaulum : i. e. deputations from the senatorial (here called 
' publicae'j provinces and from Italy would apply to the consuls in 
their judgement-seats in the comitium to be granted a hearing 
before the senate. Cf. ch. 48. 

mandatia exercitibus, ' the armies entrusted to him.' This 
phrase also implies the emperor's supervision of the non-senatorial 
pro\ inces. 


BOOK XIII. CH. 3, § 5 - CH. 6, §§ 1-4 

Ch. 5, § I. arbitvio senatus. Under the Empire, legislation 
was cfiectcd by the emperor's edicts, or by decrees of the senate. 
The coinitia had lost legislative powers, retaining only a few 
ceremonial functions; Intr. Ill 7. 

ne qiiis ad causam, &c. : advocates were forbidden to take fees 
by the lex Cuuia, carried by the tribune M. Cincius Alimentus, in 
B.C. 204. The law fell into disuse, but Augustus revived it, B.C. 17, 
making the penalty for violating it a fine of four times the amount 
taken. In A. D. 47, Claudius limited the fee legally permissible to 
10,000 sesterces, about ^83 : disobedience involved the penalties of 
extortion (' repetundae ' ), Atui. xi 7, 8. Pliny, writing under Trajan, 
mentions that it was customary for the parties in a lawsuit to swear 
that they had entered into no undertaking to pay their advocates, 
but after the trial they might make a present to the extent of 10,000 
sesterces ('pecuniam dumtaxat decem milium,' Ep. v 9, 4); how- 
ever, what he says makes it evident that the restriction was usually 
evaded, and that the enforcement of the legal limit on the occasion 
he mentions was so unexpected as to cause surprise and consterna- 
tion. (Evasion was possible through the fiction that the fee was 
a free gift. Cf. ch. 42, 5.) 

§ 2. Palatium : the library of Apollo on the Palatine. 

ob id : pointing forward to ' ut,' ' with the object that she might . . .' 

additis : i. e. a new door made at the back of the room behind 
Nero's seat. Other readings are ' abditis ' and ' obditis.' 

§ 3. Armenioi-um : probably a deputation in connexion with 
the events mentioned in the next chapter. 

escendere suggestum : such an act would be an assertion of 
the regency to which she aspired and which in fact she at first 
partially exercised. 

parabat, nisi . . . admonuisset : for the moods, cf, ch. ii 
' Ibatur, nisi . . . obviam issent.' 

ita, &c., ' thus by a pretext of filial attention a scandal was 

Ch. 6, § I. Armeniam: this kingdom was in possession of 
Tiridates, brother of the Parthian king Vologeses. Rhadamistus 
had murdered the preceding king, Mithridates, who had reigned 
under the suzerainty of Rome : he usurped the throne but could 
not hold it against the Parthians, especially as he was detested by 
the Armenians themselves. See Intr. V i. 

saepe : an exaggeration. The thing had happened twice. 

§ 2. vix septemdeeim annos egressus : at his accession Nero 
was two months short of seventeen years of age. This Eastern 
crisis occurred shortly after his seventeenth birthday. 

suscipere, &c., 'bear or stave off such a crisis.' 

magistros, 'his tutors,' i.e. Eurrus and Seneca. 

§ 3. invalidus, ' incapacitated by age and indolence.' 

obtemperaturus, ' bound to be swayed by.' 

§ 4. multarum . . . cognitos, ' were known as men of manifold 
experience.' P'or this construction, see Intr. II 20. 


quantum. Szc, 'robur,' ripe or mature age. ' How far was the 
emperor too young (for the task), seeing that . . .' 

octavo deeumo: Pompeius was born B.C. lo6, and served under 
his father in civil war in 87. His first independent command was 
in 84 B. c, when he led a force against the Marians. 

Octavianus : he was nineteen in 44 B. C, the year of Julius 
Caesar's murder. 

civilia bella sustinuerint : Pompeius and Octavianus had 
coped with the difficulties of civil war when mere youths ; Nero 
might well be considered old enough to deal with the lighter task 
of a foreign war. 

§ 5. auspicia: a general ' took auspices,' i.e. consulted the omens 
at a sacrifice, before leaving Rome to take up his command. 
'Auspices' therefore metaphorically denote the inception and 
authorization of any undertaking. See Intr. Ill § 2. 

pleraque , . . geri : this defies literal translation. ' In his 
exalted position, the management of war was rather a matter of 
initiation and advice than of actual service in the field.' 

§ 6. honeatis an secus, ' honourable or otherwise,' the adv. being 
CO ordinated with the adj. Cf. Intr. II 49. 

amota invidia, 'setting jealousy aside' (either in himself or in 
his advisers). 

pecuniosum, ' some moneyed man who owed his promotion to 
favour and intrigue.' (' Ambitus,' = canvassing votes, hence ' undue 
influence,' ' intrigue ' : cf. ch. 52, 3). 

Ch. 7, § I. iuventutem : provincials of military age possess- 
ing the citizenship. 

quaesitam = conquisitam [cf. Intr. II 28]. Coiiquisitor, 'recruit- 
ing officer.' 

supplendis : Dative of Purpose. 

Agrippam : Herod Agrippa II, son of Herod Agrippa I, king of 
Judaea, whose execution of St. James, imprisonment of St. Peter, 
and death are described in Acts xii. Agrippa II interviewed 
St. Paul at Caesarea in company with Festus, Acts xxv-xxvi. He 
had received the kingdom of Chalcis in Coele Syria from Claudius 
in 48 A. D., and four years later was transferred with the title of 
king to the tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias, to which Nero added 
part of Galilee, 54 A. D. He joined Vespasian {Hist, ii 81) and 
aided the Romans in the Jewish war, after which he lived at Rome 
till his death in the time of Trajan. 

Antiochum : restored to the kingdom of Commagene, which 
in 18 A. D. had been made a province (Ann. ii 56), by Gaius, who 
added a part of Cilicia to his dominions. Pie was afterwards 
deposed by him, but was restored by Claudius, and rendered assist- 
ance to Corbulo in his Parthian and Armenian operations, and 
later on to Vespasian in the civil war and against the Jews. He 
was deposed in 72 A.D., his kingdom becoming a province, and 
ended his life at Rome. 

ultro intrarent, ' take the initiative by invading.' 

BOOK XIII. CH. 6, § 4 — CH. 8, §§ 1-4 

§ 2. Aristobulus was son of the Herod Agrippa named in this 
chapter. He received Coele Syria on his father's promotion and 
was the last vassal king of Lesser Armenia, which became a province 
under Vespasian. 

Sophene was taken by Pompeius from Tigranes and thence- 
forward under Roman influence. Later on it was governed with 

Sohaemus supported Vespasian {Hist, ii 81), and took part 
in the Jewish war {ib. v i). 

in tempore, ' opportunely.' 

Vologesi : dat. after ' aemulus.' For the forms of Oriental names 
in Tacitus cf. Intr. H 62. '■ 

Ch. 8, § I. in maius, 'with exaggeration.' 

vestem triumphalem : a purple tunic embroidered with golden 
palm-shoots (palmata), and a purple toga decorated with golden 
stars (toga picta), after the pattern of the dress of the Capitoline 
Jupiter. Under the Empire triumphs were not celebrated, but 
successful generals received triumphalia ornamenta, i. e. the right 
of wearing triumphal dress on public occasions. 

praetei' suetam, &c., ' adding to their usual flattery a real delight 
that . . . ' 

Corbulo was sent by Claudius as legatus to Lower Germany in 
47 A. D. He repressed the Frisii and was successfully dealing with 
a rebellion of the Chauci when he was recalled, out of jealousy, 
according to Tacitus {Afi/i. xi 18-201. He was now (54 A. D.) 
sent out as consular legatus of Cappadocia, with power overGalatia 
as well : in 60 A. D. he became legatus of Syria, and in 63 A. D. 
received general military command over Syria and the adjacent 
provinces and vassal kingdoms, an ' imperium maius ' compared to 
that given to Pompeius against the pirates (Ann. xv 25, 6). He was 
recalled from the East in 67 A. D., when Nero was visiting Greece, 
and compelled to commit suicide. 

retinendae : the term implies that Armenia was permanently in 
the position of a kingdom under the suzerainty of Rome. Dative 
of Purpose, so also in xv 25, 3.) 

§ 2. Ummidius succeeded C. Cassius about 51 A. D. as legatus 
of Syria, where he remained till his death in 60 A. D. {Ann. xiv 26), 
when Corbulo succeeded him. 

cohortibus alisque : allied infantry and cavalry. Cf. 35, 4. 

§ 3. socii reges. Sec, ' the allied kings were ordered to obey 
(either commander) according to the requirements of the war.' 

promptiora, &c., 'they gave a readier support to Corbulo.' 

§ 4. instaret: this word is lacking in Med., but another MS. 
reads ' inserviret,' probably a gloss for the more Tacitean ' instaret.' 

Aegeae was a free town on the gulf of Issus in Cilicia, outside 
Ummidius' province. 

corpore, &c., 'a man of gigantic stature, of grandiloquent speech, 
and, besides his experience and ability, impressive through the 
prestige of mere externals.' 



Ch. 9, § I. ceterum : this conjunction is employed to con- 
trast their present joint action with their subsequent differences. 

solitam prioribus : sc. ' rcgibus,' such as I-'hraates, who reigned 
from T)~i B. c. to 2 B.C. and did homage to Augustus {Ann. ii i). 

§ 2. ex commode, ' as might suit him best.' 

Arsacidarum : the descendants of Arsaces, who had broken off 
from the Syrian monarchy of the Seleucidae, and made Parthia 
a separate kingdom about 250 B. c. 

§ 3. Insteius : probably the ' praefectus castrorum ' to Corbulo 
mentioned in ch. 39, 2. 

forte prior, ' happening to be first on the spot, visiting the king 
on that business,' probably as one of the ' nuntii ' of § i. 

Arrius Varus was subsequently a distinguished officer of Vespa- 

§ 5. recentem : Med. has no preposition preceding this word. 
Some editors insert ' ob ' instead of ' per,' and others read ' recentem 
gloria' (abl.), ' fresh from his renown.' 

§ 6. praerepta, &c., ' he had been robbed (of the credit) of a 
result due to his own advice.' 

diix delectus, &c., ' till his own appointment as general had 
changed his hopes to fear.' 

§ 7. fascibUB : the ' fasces ' of the twelve lictors assigned to the 
emperor were to be decorated with laurel wreaths in honour of the 
success of his 'legati.' Both were named that they might have 
equal credit. 

in alios consules: i.e. into the year 55 a. D. 'These events 
I have recounted together, though they extended (from 54 A. i>.) 
into the next year.' 

Ch. 10, § I. Cn. Domitio : his marriage with Agrippina took 
place in 28 A. D. He was descended from the L. Domitius Aheno- 
barbus who so fiercely opposed Julius Caesar, and through his 
mother Antonia was grandson of Octavia, Augustus' sister. At this 
date (54 A. D.) he had been dead some fifteen years. Suetonius 
brands him as ' omni parte vitae detestabilis.' 

Asconius Labeo probably became Nero's guardian on the death 
of his stepfather Crispus Passienus (c. 44 A. D.). Nothing more is 
known of him. 

sibi, ' for himself, he forbade the statues of solid silver or gold 
that were offered him ' (lit. ' in opposition to those offering '). The 
dative 'sibi' is in contrast to those with 'petivit' above, auro 
solidas, like ' crateresque auro solidi,' Vergil, yitvz. ii 765). For 
a similar Ablative of Material, cf. Ann. xii 16, ' moenia non saxo 
sed cratibus.' 

§ 2. veterem religionem, 'the old religious associations of the 
1st of January for the beginning of the year.' The year originally 
began on March i,till 153 B.C., when the consuls began to enter on 
their year of office on January I, and accordingly the civil year took 
that date for commencement, while March I was still regarded as 
the first day of the religious year. 


BOOK XIII. CH. 9, § I - CH. 12, § I 

5 3. neque recepti : the consuls as presidents of the senate might 
refuse to entertain a charge brought before them. The ' princeps ' 
also could always suppress an accusation by using his tribunician 
' intercessio.' 

Carrinas subsequently was sent into Achaia and Asia by Nero 
to plunder the temples, together with Acratus a freedman {Ann. 
XV 45). 

servo accusante : however willing to give evidence, slaves had 
to confirm what they stated, under torture, otherwise it was not 
taken as legal evidence. 

equester : for ' eques,' see Intr. 1 1 2. The charge brought 
against Densus seems to be an attempt to revive the law of 
'maiestas,' under which so many persons were condemned in 
Tiberius' reign. Prosecutions for 'maiestas laesa'seem to have 
ceased under Claudius, but were revived later on in Nero's reign 
[Ann. xiv 48, 3). 

Ch. 11, § I. Claudio Nerone: Nero held this consulship for 
two months, and was again consul in 57 A. D. (ch. 31) ; in 58 A.D. 
(ch. 34) ; and in 60 A. D. (xiv 20). 

L. Antistio : his full name was L. Antistius Vetus. He was 
legatus of Upper Germany later on (ch. 53) ; he fell into Nero's 
disfavour as Iseing father-in-law of Rubellius Plautus, and accord- 
ingly committed suicide, 65 A.D. (Ann. xiv 58 and xvi lo-ii). 

in acta, iSic. : this ceremony, distinct from that of taking the 
' sacramentum' on the accession of a new 'princeps,' was the out- 
come of the oath taken by the Republican magistrates to observe 
the laws. The oath was taken annually on January i, first by the 
magistrates and then by all the senators, the formula being ' (se) 
nihil contra Caesaris acta (facturos).' 'Acta Caesaris' implied all 
measures passed under the reigning and preceding emperors. 

prohibuit : this was to show that he treated his colleague as 
his equal in official life. 

levium, &c., 'that elated by the fame arising even from slight 
things, he might go on at once (' continuaret ') to nobler deeds.' 

§ 2. Plautium : his expulsion was probably the act of the senate, 
but the power of pardon belonged in all cases to the ' princeps,' 
though Nero doubtless at this time followed Claudius in going 
through the form of consulting the senate in such cases. 

obstringens, ' solemnly promising.' 

testificando, ' for the purpose of testifying,' dat. of purpose. See 
Intr. II II. 

iactandi ingenii, ' in order to display his talent.' This genitive 
of purpose is like the Greek genitive of the substantival infinitive, 
as in Thuc. i. 4» M'i'wf to Xtjcttikov KnOijpn, tov tos TrpocroSov? fiaWov 
Kvin niTM. Cf. also ' Aegyptum proficiscitur cognoscendae antiqui- 
tatis,' Ann. ii 59, and see Intr. II 26. 

Ch. 12, § I. infracta . . . potentia : nominative. 

vocabulum, ' name.' She appears on an inscription as ' Claudia 
Acte, August! liberta.' Nero's connexion with her was not repre- 


hensible according to the ideas of that time, and was condoned as 
one of the ' voluptates concessae ' of ch. 2, 2. She was one of the 
faithful women who buried Nero after his death. The idea that she 
was a Christian rests on assuming her identity with a concubine of 
Nero's, mentioned fbut not named) by St. Chrysostom as converted 
by St. Paul. 

M. Othone : the subsequent emperor, now twenty-three years of 
age. See chs. 45, 46. 

Senecione: a knight, prominent in Piso's conspiracy (^««. xv 

familia consulari : his father, L. Otho, was consul suffectus after 
Galba, in 33 A. D. 

liberto : freed by Claudius, but he would still be ' Caesaris 
libertus,' since Nero would succeed to the ' patronatus ' exercised by 

§ 2. inrepserat : subj. ' Acte.' 

per luxum, &c., 'in his orgies (with Otho and Senecio) and in 
clandestine interviews.' For secreta cf. ch. 18, 3. 

muliercula explente : abl. abs., giving the reason for the 
acquiescence of Seneca and Ikirrus. 

Octavia : daughter of Claudius and Messalina, married to Nero 
in his sixteenth year, 53 A.D. He put her away to marry Poppaea 
Sabina, and banished and murdered her in 62 A. D. {Ann. xiv 60 
and foil.). 

Ch. 13, § I. nurum ancillam : the terms are exaggerated, Acte 
not being a slave but a freed woman, and also of course not really 
Agrippina's daughter-in-law, though, according to Suetonius, Nerc 
was at one time desirous of marrying her, and arranged for witnesses 
to swear that she was one of the Attalidae, the royal house of 
Pergamus (Suet. A^ero, 28). 

acrius : sc. 'eo,' 'the more she stimulated his passion' (Intr. II 
47 b). 

seque, ' put himself in the hands of Seneca.' 

Annaeus : Pliny states that he was 'praefectus vigilum,' and 
Seneca dedicated some treatises to him, and speaks of his own grief 
for his death, c. 62 A. D. 

§ 2. sinus : (i) 'fold of garment,' (2) 'lap,' ' bosom' ; hence (3) 
metaphorically, as here, ' protection,' ' shelter.' 

cubiculum ac sinum : hendiadys, ' the shelter of her own 

contegendis : dat. of purpose, sc. ' eis,' antecedent to ' quae.' 

§ 3. intempestivam, ' ill-timed.' 

suarum, &c., ' put at his disposal her own vast wealth, which 
was almost imperial (in its magnitude), as abjectly obsequious now 
as she had lately been excessively strict with her son.' 

§ 4. orabant eavere : so Verg., ' stabant orantes primi trans- 
mittere cursum,' Alv:. vi 313. See Intr. II 31. 

semper, &c., ' always dangerous, and now insincere as well.' 

§ 5. nulla parsimonia, ' with no lack of generosity.' 

BOOK XIII. CH. 12, § I — CH. 15, § i 

prior, ' unasked.' 

§ 6. non his, &c., 'her wardrobe was not being enriched with 
these so much as stinted of all the rest.' 

Ch. 14, § I. in deterius : supply a participle, such as 
' versa.' ' Reported these things, exaggerating them unfavour- 

eura rerum : he was head of the imperial treasury ('fiscus'), 
being 'libertus a rationibus.' Cf. the expression ' (servus) ab epis- 

vekit, &c., 'held as it were the position of master of the empire.' 
'Agere' and 'agitare' are both used of really holding a position as 
well as pretending to it. Here the word 'velut' (almost = ' in his 
own estimation ') marks Pallas' pretentiousness. The other read- 
ing, ' arbitrum,' is supported by such phrases as 'agere filium 
principis,' Hist, iv 2 ; 'amicum imperatoris ageret,' Hist, i 30. 

degrediente : i. e. down from the Palatium. 

eiui-aret: Nero sarcastically applies to the freedman on his 
dismissal a term proper only to an outgoing republican otificial, who 
when the time came for laying down his ' magistratus ' took oath in 
a public ceremony, ' se nihil contra leges fecisse.' 

§ 2. interrogaretur, 'should be called to account.' The genitive 
('facti') is that commonly associated with verbs of accusing, con- 
demning, and the like. So in Aim. xiv 46, 1. See Intr. II 24. 

pares, ' square,' ' balanced,' ' passed' ; translate, ' that he should 
have his account with the State taken as passed.' 

§ 3. aviribus: ablat., with 'abstinere.' Translate freely, 'did 
not refrain from declaring in the emperor's hearing.' 

insitus, ' an intruder.' 

per iniurias, &c.: the interpretation depends on whether 
'matris' is subjective or objective: (i) 'the government which he 
held, thanks to his mother's iniquities' ; or (2) ' which he exercised 
in a course of outrages on his mother.' The context favours (l). 

§ 4. id solum, ' one precaution had been taken.' 

§ 5. inde debilis: emended from Med. ' indebilis.' 

rursus, 'as the counterpart.' Cf. ch. 13, 3. 

exul: he was banished through Messalina's dislike in 41 A. D., 
and was recalled by Agrippina when she married Claudius in 
49 A. D. {Ann. xii 8, 3). 

ti'iinca manu. This applies to Burrus, referring to some wound, 
otherwise not known of, in virtue of which she calls him 'crippled' 
(debilis) above. 

professoria lingua, ' with his pedant's tongue.' 

§ 6. Silanorum : see ch. I, i and Atui. xii 8, i. 

inrita, ' fruitless,' since Nero did not repay her sacrifices for 

Ch. 15, § I. propinquo, 'as (the day) was approaching.' 

quartum decumum : this birthday would be an important one, 
as he would then become of an age to assume the ' toga virilis.' 

levi quidem : this is a correction from Med. ' ut quidam,' on 
15 M 


the supposition that the first syllable of 'levi' was lost in the last 
of ' indolem,' and ' ui ' corrupted into ' ut.' 

quaesivisset : the subjunctive is used, as this is part of Nero's 

§ 2. festis Saturno diebus: the Saturnalia of the previous 

lusu sortientium : with the dice. Cf. Hor. Od. i 4, iS, 'nee 
regna vini sortiere talis.' The ' king ' chosen in this game would 
give fantastic orders to the other players. ' Sortientium ' is a par- 
titive genitive, ' among those casting dice . . . the lot fell on Nero.' 

§ 3. diversa: sc. ' iussit.' For dat. after this verb cf. § 7 of this 
chapter and Ann. iv 72, 2, 'tributum iis Drusus iusscrat modicum.' 
The construction with the subjunctive is also found in the Histories 
of Tacitus, as well as in Terence, Livy, and Ovid. 

convictus, for the more usual ' convivia.' 

constanter, ' with self-possession.' The song chosen by Britan- 
nicus is conjectured to have been a passage from Ennius' Andro- 
jnac/ie, on Priam's downfall. 

§ 4. invidia, ' the feeling against him.' 

intendit, ' increases.' 

nullum crimen : sc. ' erat.' 

Locusta : already described, Ann. xii 66, 4, as selected by 
Agrippina to poison Claudius, and as being 'nupcr vencficii 
damnata et diu inter instrumenta regni habita.' 

§ 5. nam: in such a household it was easy to get poison ad- 
ministered, when once prepared. 

pensi haberet, 'should attach weight to.' See Intr. II 23 (e). 
Older writers who use this expression always make it depend on 
a neuter, as 'nihil' or 'quicquam.' 

§ 6. educatoribus : i.e. his TraiSaycoyoi. Cf. xiv 3, 5. 

temperamentum, ' dilution.' 

§ 7. dum respiciunt. See Intr. II 37, and notice that the 
approach to ' oratio recta ' heightens the rhetorical effect. 

rumorem, ' popular outcry.' 

§ 8. promittentibus : abl. abs. 

cognitis . . . rapidum, ' a poison, rapid in effect, from previously 
tested drugs.' According to Suetonius, Nero had it tried on a kid, 
which lived five hours ; then, after further concentration by boiling 
down, on a small pig, which died immediately. 

Ch. 16, § I. habebatur, 'was kept up.' Tacitus speaks in the 
past because from the time here spoken of till that in which he 
wrote there had been no younger sons of 'principes.' 

idem aetatis : for a similar accus. cf. Ann. v 9, 3, ' id aetatis 
corpora in (lemonias abiecta.' 

sedentes : under Augustus and Claudius this posture was main- 
tained for young people. Valerius Maximus mentions this as a 
former custom in the case of women ('feminae cum viris cubantibus 
sedentes cenitabant '). 

§ 2. gustu explorabat. The office of ' praegustator ' is men- 

BOOK XIII. CH. 15, § I — CH. 17, §§ 1-4 

tioned in Inscrr. as early as in the time of Augustus, and under 
Claudius the ' praegustatores ' formed a ' collegium ' under a ' pro- 
curator.' Similar precautions were taken by the Medo-Persian 
despots ; and so also Athenaeus, writing of Hiero's court, mentions 
'irpo-yeuorai' who' npoijadiov twv j-iaaLXfciiv npos ctacpdAiuiv' (Ath. 4. 71, 

§ 3. fervore : abl. of cause. See Intr. II 19. 

§ 4. inprudentes, ' those not in the secret.' 

resistunt, 'kept their seats.' 

§ 5. reclinis : a word not found in prose before Tacitus. 

nescio similis, ' as if unconscious.' Cf. ' ignaro propior ' (Afin. 
xi35, I). 

comitialem morbura, 'epilepsy,' called 'morbus comitialis' 
because a case of it occurring in the public assembly necessitated 
an adjournment. 

§ 6. emicuit, ' betrayed itself,' in a sudden expression of face. 

ut . . . constiterit : this tense is used in consecutive clauses in 
past time when emphasis is laid on the instantaneous or complete 
character of the action. 

exemplum, ' a precedent.' 

Ch. 17, § I. nox eadem : for such personifications see Intr. 
II 53. Dio and Suetonius describe the funeral as performed not 
at night but on the following day. But the language of the edict 
(§ 4) supports Tacitus' account. 

§ 2. in campo Martis : where Augustus' mausoleum stood. 

sepultus : refers to the deposition of his ashes. 

etiam : the idea is that human judgment is unlikely to be more 
lenient than the divine, yet even among men excuse was found for 
the crime; hence the 'vulgus' were probably wrong in ascribing 
the storm to divine displeasure. The lax moral judgment involved 
in this reasoning is due to the prevalence of such crimes in ancient 

antiquas : e. g. Atreus and Thyestes, Eteocles and Polynices, 
Romulus and Remus. Cf. 'solita fratribus odia' {Ann. iv 60, 5). 

insociabile, ' despotism bears no partner.' 

aestimantes, ' taking into account.' 

§ 3. sacra mensae: referring primarily to the customary libations 
to the Lares and Penates. The religious sanction thus appertain- 
ing to the meal further involves the mutual inviolability of those 
partaking of it. 

sororum : Octavia, Britannicus' own sister and wife of Nero, 
and Antonia his half-sister, daughter of Claudius by his second 
wife Paetina. 

§ 4. defendit, 'justified.' The edict was probably composed by 

subtrahere oculis : the ancient Roman custom by which all 
funerals were conducted at night survived in the case of those 
whose friends could not afford expensive ceremonies, and of those 
who died at an immature age. 



acerba : a metaphor fiom unripe fruit, apjilied also by Vergil, 
Acn. vi 429, to premature deaths. 

§ 5. familia : the 'gens Claudia,' to which Nero belonged by- 
adoption. (Nero could however trace his descent to Augustus, 
through his mother, who was grand-daughter of Augustus' daughter 

Ch. 18, § I. potissimos : Nero's most intimate associates. Ac- 
cording to Suetonius, Locusta as well received rich presents, and 
pardon for previous offences. 

gravitatem adseverantes, ' who made profession of austerity.' 
The allusion fits the case of Seneca, In connexion with 'necessi- 
tatem adhibitam,' Seneca's own dictum 'nemo in id accipiendo 
obligatur quod illi repudiare non licuit' {de Ben. 2. 18. 7) is signifi- 

§ 3. amplecti, * made much of.' 

avaritiam, ' rapacity.' Cf. A/m. xii 7, 7, ' cupido auri immensa 
obtentum habebat quasi subsidium regno pararetur ' (her avarice 
claimed the excuse of political forethought). 

etiam tum : Tacitus writes after the almost total extinction by 
Domitian of the old Republican nobility. 

§ 4. excubias : sentinels of praetorians at her doors, distinct 
from her body-guard ('custodes') when she went out. 

nuper eundeni in honorem : a correction of Med. 'super eun- 
dem,' which is unsatisfactory, though by some explained as ' besides 
that mark of honour.' 

§ 5. ne coetu: i.e. so that she should not receive attention from 
the crowd of courtiers who came to pay their respects to Jiiin. 

Antonia: the maternal great-grandmother of Nero, see Intr. VI b. 
She was better known than Nero's paternal grandmother, who 
also bore this name, and who has been taken by some to be the 
person named here. 

quotiens : followed by subjunctive denoting action frequently 
repeated (Intr. II 41). 

Ch. 19, § I. nihil, (S:c., 'Nothing in human affairs is so pre- 
carious and transient as the prestige of an authority that depends 
on another for enfoi'cement.' 

§ 2. supra : the story is told in the closing chapters of Ann. xi. 
Messalina conceived a violent passion for Silius, whom she positively 
married, thus repudiating her own marriage with the Emperor 
Claudius. The imperial freedmen persuaded Claudius to have 
Silius executed as a conspirator, and then Narcissus sent soldiers 
to kill Messalina too, though the emperor was half inclined to 
pardon her (48 A. D.). 

Sextium Africanum : mentioned again in Ann. xiv 46, as one 
of the officials taking the census in Gaul. He was descended from 
T. Sextius, legatus of Julius Caesar in Gaul, and subsequently 
proconsul in Numidia. 

vergentem : this verb is applied to the lapse of time and to 
mental tendency by writers of this age only. 

BOOK XIII. CH. 17, § 4 — CH. 20, § i 

opibus et orbitate, 'the wealth of the childless Silana,'hendiadys 
for 'opibus orbae.' Cf. ' testamenta et orbos,' ch. 42. 

For the courting of the childless by fortune-hunters at Rome, cf. 
Hor. Saf. ii 5. 28 ; Juv. iv 19 and xii 99. 

§ 3. iniurias : her ill-treatment by Nero. 

Rubellius Plautua was son of Rubellius Blandus and Julia 
daughter of Drusus the son of Tiberius. He was recommended by 
Nero to go and live in Asia, in 60 A. D. {An/i. xiv 22, 5), and was 
killed by Nero's orders in 62 A. D., (Anti. xiv 59, 3). 

pari ac Nero gradu : only so in virtue of Augustus' adoption of 
Tiberius, whereas Nero himself through his mother Agrippina was 
directly descended from Augustus, as the following tree shows : — 


Tiberius (by adoption) Julia 

I I 

Drusus Agrippina I 

I I 

Julia Agrippina II 

I I 

Rubellius Plautus Nero 

ad res novas extollere, ' encourage in a revolutionary design.' 

coniugioque, &c., ' and by making him first her husband and 
then emperor to reassert her former ascendency.' 

§ 4. Domitia, sister of Cn. Domitius, Nero's father, and wife of 
Crispus Passienus, who deserted her to marry Agrippina after the 
death of Domitius. She is to be distinguished from her sister 
Domitia Lepida, who took the young Nero under her care, when his 
father died and his mother was in exile through fear of Messalina. 
Domitia Lepida had been killed by Agrippina in 54 A. D. {Ann. 
xii 64, 4). 

histrionem : used (so also ' mimus ') for performers who re- 
presented characters and actions in elaborate dumb-show. Cf. such 
phrases as ' saltare Agamemnona,' ' Ledam.' Cf. Juv. vii 90. (For 
their expulsion, cf. ch. 25, 4 and xiv 21, 7.) 

impulit: with infin. See Intr. II 31. 

crimen atrociter deferre, ' to vehemently denounce her.' 

Ch. 20, § I. luxus intendere, 'to stimulate his excesses' (by 
his suggestive performances). 

compositus, &c., ' putting on a serious air.' Cf Ann. iii 44, 
'compositus ad securitatem,' 'affecting unconcern.' 

ordine, ' the detail.' Cf. 'ordo negotii,' AnJi. ii 27. 

tamquam, (Src, ' as owing his advancement to Agrippina's interest 
and bound to her by gratitude ' (lit. ' making her a return '). 

He was promoted to be 'praefectus praetorio ' in 51 a. D., 
displacing Lusius Geta and Rufrius Crispinus, both creatures of 




§ 2. Fabius Husticus : for this author, and also Pliny and 
Cluvius Rufus (§ 3), see Intr. I 3. 

Caecina Tuscus, known subsequently as praefect of Egypt, 
whence he was banished in the last year of Nero's reign, 68 A. D. 

codicillos, the term for 'letters patent,' conferring an imperial 

§ 3. nihil dubitatum, ' do not mention that any doubt was cast.' 

§ 4. seeuturi, ' as we intend to follow.' This does not indicate a 
new departure, but the course he has taken and still means to take. 

§ 5. differri, ' to be turned from his purpose.' 

accusatores : Iturius and Calvisius ; 'vocem unius,' = ' Atimeti ' ; 
' adferri ' implies that even he was only reported ihxow^ Paris. 

reputaret, 'let him reflect that it was late, that the night had 
been spent in revelry, and that the whole story savoured of reckless- 
ness and ignorance ' ; or, ' that all the conditions were favourable 
for rash and ignorant assertions.' 

(For ' reputaret ' Med. gives ' refutare,' which has been explained 
as a metaphor from cookery, the word meaning to check liquid 
from boiling over by pouring in cold water, and so giving rise to a 
phrase in Latin similar to our own, ' to pour cold water on.' ' Tene- 
bras,' 'noctem,' 'omnia,' will then be the subject to this infinitive. 
The emendation to ' reputaret' assumes that ' p ' and 'f ' have been 
confused, and the final 't' lost in the next word 'tenebras.') 

Ch. 21, § I. ut nosceret, 'that she might hear the charges 
against her.' 

§ 2. arbitri, 'as witnesses,' to report if Seneca and Burrus 
showed lack of firmness. 

§ 3. fei'ociae, 'her high spirit.' 

ignotos habere, ' is ignorant of So ' praesumptum habeant ' 
( = ' praesumant '), Ann. xiv 64, 5. 

§ 4. suscipiendae accusationis : gen. of description, with 
' operam.' ' And even if L and C, having squandered their fortunes, 
are repaying the hag by this latest service, undertaking my accusa- 
tion, this is no reason why I should suffer the infamy, or Caesar the 
guilt, of kindred murder.' parricidium denotes murder of any 
near relative, not only of a father. 

i § 5. nunc, &c., 'but, as it is, she is, so to speak, rigging up a 
stage effect.' 

§ 6. Baiarum, &c. : i. e. Domitia was only thinking of her own 
aggrandisement, while she, Agrippina, was advancing her son's 

extollebat, ' was adorning.' 

adoptio : in 50 A. D. Ann. xii 25. 

designatio : in 5 1 A. D. he was designated for the office of consul 
in his twentieth year, and held it in 57 A. D. (xiii 31), and between 
his ' designatio ' and year of office he was to hold ' proconsulave 
imperium extra urbem,' Ann. xii 41. 

§ 7. aut exsistat : a sudden transition in the argument, natural 
considering the excitement under which she is speaking, ' The 

BOOK XIII. CH. 20, § 2 — CH. 22, §§ 1-3 

praetorians corrupted, the allegiance of the provinces (i.e. the 
armies there) sapped, the slaves and freedmen bribed to murder,' 
may be understood as (i) referring to the steps taken by Agrippina 
to murder Claudius and advance Nero over the head of Britannicus 
the rightful heir ; these she declares to be the only crimes of which 
she can truthfully be accused, but Nero who has profited by them 
cannot condemn her for them : or (2), such acts being the natural 
steps towards overthrowing a reigning emperor, she challenges her 
accusers to prove her guilty of these definite acts of treason at the 
present moment, instead of bringing a vague and general charge 
of conspiracy. 

vivei-e ego, 'could my life have been spared had Britannicus 
become emperor ? ' (inasmuch as he would have avenged his father). 

§ 8. rem publicam : with ' obtinuerit ' ; 'iudicaturus,' 'bound to 
become my judge ' ; scilicet shows she is speaking sarcastically. 

impatientia, &c., ' injudicious sometimes through the uncontroll- 
able force of a mother's love.' She is contrasting such expressions 
as are quoted in chs. 13 and 14 with the dark crimes she had 
really committed, which only he who had profited by them could 

§ 9. commotie, ' being carried away,' ' convinced.' Cf. 44, 8. 

ultroque, &c., ' and actually proceeding to calm her outburst.' 

quasi diflBderet, ' as though she had any misgivings.' 

quasi exprobraret, ' as though protesting ' (against his in- 

Ch. 22, §1. praefectura annonae : this was the chief official 
position tenable by a Roman knight, next to that of ' praefectus 
praetorio ' and the ' praefectura Aegypti.' 

Faenio Rufo : this officer obtained a good reputation in this 
office, which led to his promotion to be ' praefectus praetorio ' on 
Burrus' death, (xiv 51, 5). He joined in the conspiracy of Piso, 
and suffered death (xv 50, 68). 

Arruntius Stella is otherwise not known. There was a L. 
Arruntius Stella, cos. suff. under Trajan, and often mentioned as a 
poet by Martial, who possibly was this' man's son. 

Ti. Balbillo : Med. gives, as praenomen, C, which may be 
a corruption of ' Claudio,' his gentile name. His full name, Ti. 
Claudius Balbillus, is known from inscrr., and he is mentioned as 
praefect of Egypt by Pliny and Seneca. 

§ 2. P. Anteius was subsequently accused of plotting, with 
Ostorius, against the emperor's life. Both the accused committed 
suicide (xvi 14, 2). 

retentus est : as an intimate friend of Agrippina he may have 
been thought unsafe to be trusted with military command. 

§ 3. relegantur : a milder form of banishment than Silana's. 
They were pardoned after Agrippina's death (xiv 12, 6). 

supplicium : capital punishment. 

apud libidines principis : the preposition implies personifica- 
tion, as though it were 'apud principem libidinosum.' 



tranamissvia : he was virtually banished to Asia, 60 A. D. (xiv 
22 \ and murdered by Nero's orders, 62 A. u. (xiv 59'. 

Ch. 23, § I. Coi-nelius Sulla: his full name was Faustus 
Cornelius Sulla Felix. He is mentioned as consul in 52 A. D. {Afin. 
xii 52), and was put to death by Nero in 62 A. D. (xiv 57). 

claritudine . . . adfinitate : causal ablatives. 

§ 2. exercendis . . . sectionibus, ' notorious for his traffic with 
the treasury in confiscated estates.' If a man's property was con- 
fiscated to the State, Paetus would pay the treasury a sum down, 
and then make what he could by seizing the property. He also 
seems to have bought up the right to collect debts long due, but 
hitherto not exacted by the treasury (§ 4). 

vanitatis, ' falsehood.' 

§ 3. gravis, ' offensive.' 

nominatis, ' called into court.' 

ne vocem consociaret, ' so as not to put himself on speaking 
terms with them.' 

§ 4. inter indices : Burrus was not a senator, but was on this 
occasion sitting as one of the ' assessores ' of the 'princeps,' trying 
the case personally 'intra cubiculum.' 

exiistae : that no one else might profit by them. 

Ch. 24, § I. static cohortis : the praetorian cohort usually 
present to keep order. 

ineorruptior ageret, 'might not become demoralized.' (Church 
and Brodribb.) 

modestiam, ' good behaviour.' 

§ 2. Ivistravit : this was done frequently on occasion of prodigies, 
calamities, or bloodshed. The ceremony is distinct from the regu- 
lar 'lustratio' after a census, but consisted similarly of a procession 
and sacrifice. The ' princeps ' would officiate, as ' pontifex maximus.' 

Ch. 25, § I. Volusio : his 'cognomen' was Saturninus ; his 
father is mentioned ch. 30, and his mother was a Cornelia of the 
Scipio family, so that he was probably related to his colleague. 

deverticula, ' low taverns,' the diminutive being used contemptu- 
ously. The ordinary form is ' deversorium.' The terrorism in 
the streets exercised by vicious young men is referred to by 
Juvenal (iii 278-301). 

vulnera : so Suet., ' redeuntes a caena verberare ac repugnantes 
vulnerare cloacisque demergere assuei'at.' 

ore praeferret, ' showed the bruises on his face.' 

§ 2. sub nomine, ' assuming the name.' 

in moduEQ captivitatis, 'in a way approaching the state of 
a captured city.' 

senatorii ordinis: Montanus had not yet become actually a 
senator (through the quaestorship), or at most had not gone beyond 
that office. Suet, calls him ' laticlavius quidam.' The laticlave 
was worn by sons of senators, and by knights capable and desirous 
of becoming senators. 

vi attemptantem, ' attacking him with violence.' 

BOOK XIII. CH. 22, § 3 — CH. 2G, § i 

deinde, &c., * (because) tlien on recognizing him (he) had asked 
pardon, was compelled to kill himself as though he had expos- 
tulated.' Dio gives Nero's remark on receiving his petition : 

OuKonv ^Sr], Nepcoi/a TVTTTail', civtov KaTfXPWoTO ; 

mori: for this infin. after ' adactus est' see Intr. II 31. 

§ 3. rixaruni,&c.,' quarrels beginning moderately, and apparently 
those of ordinary individuals ' ; privata, as though ' privatorum.' 

sinerent, ' not interfere in.' 

§ 4. ludicram licentiam, 'disorder at the play.' 

fautores : equivalent to ' fautorum.' 

inpunitate, ' by the impunity (he afforded them) and the 
rewards (he gave).' 

oceultus, &:c., 'looking on from a place of concealment, and 
often in full view.' 

motus, ' disturbance.' 

histriones : the whole class apparently, not merely the offenders; 
of. Ann. xiv 21, 7. 

Ch. 26, § I. fraudibus, 'misconduct.' 

censerent, ' expressed their opinion ' in favour of the suggestion. 
For procedure in the senate, see ch. 49, 2. 

relationem incipere, ' to put the question,' and accordingly 
pass a formal resolution. 

ille, &c. The exact words of Med., which as they stand give 
no sense, are : 'ille an auctor constitutionis fieret ut inter paucos 
et sententiae adversos quibusdam coalitam libertate inreverentiam 
eo prorupisse frementibus vine an aequo cum patronis iure agerent 
sententiam eorum consultarent ac verberibus manus ultro inten- 
derent impulere vel poenam suam dissuadentes.' In the first 
sentence a verb of deliberation is required by ' an,' and ' consul- 
tavit' is proposed instead of the MS. ' ut,' which rnay possibly be the 
mutilated survivor of some such verb. ' Ut ' before ' vine ' is re- 
quired by ' eo ' ; ' sententiam consultarent ' will make sense though 
it is not a satisfactory Latin phrase ; and the other alterations, 
' diversos ' for ' adversos,' ' impudenter ' for ' impulere,' and ' sua- 
dentes' for 'dissuadentes,' improve the general sense of the 
passage, which gives the substance of a debate in the private 
council of the emperor, the opinions of one side being introduced 
in this chapter (after 'frementibus'), and those of the other side 
in ch. 27. ' He debated whether he should make himself re- 
sponsible for an ordinance on this subject with a few advisers who 
differed in their views, some complaining that the disrespect of 
the freedmen, fostered by indulgence, had gone to such lengths that 
they asked their patrons' opinion whether they should deal with 
them (their patrons) by force or on terms of legal equality, and 
actually raised their hands to strike blows, in their impudence 
even recommending their own punishment.' 

sententiae : gen. of respect, with ' diversos.' So ' morum di- 
versus,' An/i. xiv 19. 

verberibus : dat. of purpose. 



§ 3. concessum : probably by an edict of Augustus, who is 
known to have regulated the rights of patrons and others towards 
freedmen. This power of 'relegatio' without the intervention of 
a magistrate was a survival of the ancient ' patria potestas' held 
by the head of a family. 

ut centesimum : [Med. gives 'vicesimum/ without * ut.'] 
One hundred miles is known to have been in later times the limit 
of the jurisdiction of the ' praefectus urbi,' and as a limit of banish- 
ment was of older and perhaps even Republican date. ' To banish 
beyond the hundredth milestone — to the coast of Campania ! ' (one 
of the most delightful parts of Italy, where the fashionable holiday 
resorts were situated). 

ceteras, &c. : i.e. except for this power of 'relegatio,' which 
was no punishment at all, the patron only had the ordinary legal 
procedure available, in which they stood on equal terms. 

§ 4. nee grave, &c., ' it was no oppressive burden for the dis- 
charged to preserve their freedom by the same obedience as that 
by which they had earned it.' 

retinendi : genitive depending on the idea of a substantive im- 
plied, such as ' onus,' (from 'grave'). So Ann. xv 5, 3, ' Vologesi 
vetus et penitus infixum erat arma Romana vitandi,' where a subst., 
' habit,' is implied from 'vetus et penitus infixum ' ; (Intr. II 26). 

Ch. 27, § I. id corpus: i.e. the mass of freedmen. 

§ 2. hinc, ' it was from these to a great e.xtent that the tribes 
were drawn.' The four urban tribes are probably meant. 

decuriaa : associations of public servants, such as lictors, 
clerks (' scribae '), auctioneers (' praecones '), servers of summonses 
(' viatores'). 

ministeria : abstr. for concrete, ' attendants ' other than those 
enrolled in the ' decuriae,' such as court ushers (' accensi') and criers 

cohortes : the ' vigiles,' a police force consisting of seven co- 
horts, each 1,000 strong, half a cohort being allotted to each of the 
fourteen ' regiones ' into which Rome was divided. 

plurimis, &c., ' most of the knights, very many of the senators, 
derive their origin from no higher source.' Under Tiberius the full 
privileges of Roman knighthood had been restricted to ' ingenui ' 
of three generations ; but the rule must have always had excep- 
tions, and was now much relaxed. 

libertini : adjectival form, denoting freedmen as a class. ' If 
freedmen were made a distinct class, the scarcity of free-born citizens 
would be too noticeable.' 

§ 3. ovua dignitatem, &c., ' while they admitted distinctions in 
the honours accorded to different ranks, they made freedom the 
common possession of all.' 

§ 4. manu m.ittendi, &c. : the distinction is between full and 

partial manumission. The former (' iusta manumissio ') was effected 

by a ceremony in presence of a ct)nsul or praetor (or proconsul or 

propraetor), when the slave was touched by the lictor's wand 


BOOK XIII. CH. 26, § 3 — CH. 28, §§ 1-2 

(vindicta), and a formal declaration of his freedom was pro- 
nounced. Full freedom could also be granted by will, and, till 
the censorship lost its Republican functions, by enrolment of the 
slave on the citizen list by the censor. Partial manumission was 
a private affair, effected either (i) 'inter amicos,' by a declaration 
before five witnesses, or (2) ' per epistolam,' by a letter countersigned 
by five persons, or (3) ' convivio,' by reception of the slave as a 
guest at his master's table. These forms were often followed by 
the ' iusta manumissio ' ; cf Plin. Epp. 7. 16, ' si voles vindicta libe- 
rare quos proxime inter amicos manumisisti.' 

paenitentiae, ' change of mind' : not that partial manumission 
was revocable, but it remained in the power of the patronus to 
refuse the further concession (novum beneficium) of the ' iusta 

velut vinclo, &c. : those who had received 'iusta manumissio' 
became Roman citizens ; those otherwise manumitted were by an 
act of Tiberius given ' Latin rights,' such as ' ius commercii,' but 
were still of servile condition, in so far that they were unable 
to contract a legal marriage, to make a will, or inherit property 
under a will. 

§ 6. privatim, ' that they should deal with the case individually, 
as often as a frcedman was blamed by his patron, without inflicting 
any disability on the whole class.' 

§ 7. amitae : Uomitia, see ch. 19, 4. 

quasi, ' by an abuse of civil justice, which brought disgrace on 
the emperor, by whose order a decision that he was free-born had 
been effected.' Paris had bought his freedom, and then claimed 
to recover the sum paid, on the ground that he was free born ; the 
court, to please Nero, decided in his favour. 

Ch. 28, § I. nihilo minus: in spite of Nero's terrorism over 
the senate and the courts. 

rei publicae, ' a commonwealth.' 

VibuUium : presiding praetor at the 'ludi.' 

Antistium : Antistius Sosianus, praetor in 62 A. D., and exiled 
for libel {Ann. xiv 48-49); recalled (xvi 14, i); described as 
'pravitate morum multis exitiosus' {Hist, iv 44, 3). 

inmodestos, ' disorderly.' 

§ 2. conprobavere, 'approved the order of the praetor.' The 
tribune was acting within the old lines of his official right, so that 
the power here assumed by the senate to annul his interference 
and censure him is noticeable. 

ius praetorum, &c. : this does not mean that the tribunes lost 
their right of ' interpellatio' against a magistrate's decree, but they 
were forbidden to intervene in a case coming on before other 
magistrates by transferring its cognizance to themselves. 

vocare, &c., 'to summon from Italy (to Rome) persons liable 

to a suit at law.' This is a check on another usurpation on the 

part of the tribunes, whose power did not properly extend beyond 

the city. Varro (ap. Geh. 13. 12) distinguishes the right of sum- 



moning an absent person ('vocatio') from that of arresting one 
present ('prensio'i, and maintains that tribunes had the latter 
power only, as distinct from magistrates with ' imperium,' who had 
both, and from such as quaestors, who had neither. 

§ 3. Ii. Piso : mentioned again in ch. 31 as colleague of Nero, 
and in Ann. xv 18 as appointed one of the three commissioners in 
charge of the public revenues. 

ne quid, &c., 'that they should inflict no penalty officially 
within their houses.' Though the tribune's house was to be open 
night and day to those who wanted to invoke his help, the actual 
intervention was to be exercised in public, usually by the ' colle- 
gium ' of tribunes sitting together (cp. ' ad subsellia tribunorum res 
agebatur,' Liv. xlii 33) ; their usual place of meeting being at the 
'rostra' or in the ' Basilica Porcia.' 

aerarii : a fine was registered at the ' aerarium ' before payment 
was exacted. In the same way a decree of the senate did not 
take effect till it had been registered at the ' aerarium ' after a nine 
days' interval. 

deque eo, &c., ' appeal should lie with the consuls.' These appear 
to have had, in virtue of 'potestas maior,' the right to reverse 
decisions of other magistrates. 

§ 4. aedilium potestas : the ' cura ludorum ' and ' cura annonae' 
had been taken from the aediles, who now held only a partial ' cura 
urbis,' the regulation of markets and prices, and the control of places 
of public resort. 

quantum, lic, ' to what extent they might distrain on property 
or inflict fines,' i. e. in dealing with offenders against their regula- 

§ 5. Helvidius Priscus : probably not identical with the famous 
person of that name in xvi 28, 2. 

Obultronium Sabinum : mentioned in the Histories (i 37, 5) 
as put to death in Spain by Galba. 

exercuit, ' vented personal dislike on O. S. (by interfering with 
his action) on the ground that he was pushing his right to sell up 
the property of defaulters to the treasury ("ius hastae ") to cruel 
lengths against the poor.' Instances occur in early history of inter- 
ference on the part of the tribunes with the collection of dues for 
the treasury ; if their demands were not complied with, they would 
refuse to permit a ' delectus ' to be held. For tamquam see 
Intr. II 50. 

praefectos : drawn from senators of praetorian rank, see ch. 29, 
3. As ' praefecti ' they would be responsible to the emperor alone, 
and independent of tribunician interference. 

Ch. 29, § I. varie habita, &c., 'the regulation of that 
department had been in different hands, and had been often 
changed.' eius rei, the public treasury, as distinct from both the 
'fiscus' and the 'aerarium militare.' forma, cf. ch. 4, ' formam 
futuri principatus.' 

nam Augustus: under the Republic the 'aerarium' had been 

BOOK XIII. CH. 28, § 2 — CH. 30, §§ 1-2 

in the charge of quaestors; Julius Caesar transferro'd it to two 
aediles ; Augustus, in 28 B. c, gave it to two officers of praetorian 
rank, who were styled ' praefecti ' but were elected by the senate. 

suspecto, 'owing to apprehensions of corrupt practices in the 

sorte : the change is dated by Dio 23 B.C. 

praetorum : two were thus chosen annua'ly, termed 'praetores 
aerarii ' or 'ad aerarium.' Tiberius did not alter the regulation 
of the treasury, but appointed another board of three senators 
(' curatores tabularum publicarum ') to manage the record office 

praeessent : subj. indicating purpose. 

§ 2. quaestores : Claudius made this change in 44 A. D., when 
he abohshed the four ' quaestoriae provinciae ' in Italy ; these were 
the districts entrusted to the " quaestores classici ' when the Roman 
conquest of Italy was complete, 267 B. c. (cf. Aftn. iv 27 and 
xi 22). 

rursum implies that the change was a reversion to ancient 
custom ; however, the period of office of these two ' quaestores 
aerarii ' was three years, and they were selected by the emperor, 
not popularly elected. 

honores : the higher magistracies ; if approved in their office, 
the ' quaestores aerarii ' passed on at once to the praetorship without 
the intervening step of tribunate or aedileship. 

ne metu, &c., 'lest through fear of incurring unpopularity they 
might be remiss in their administration.' 

§ 3. experientia probatos, 'men of proved experience,' lit. 
' approved of on the score of experience.' Cf. ' experientia cognitos,' 
ch. 6, and Intr. II 20. 

delegit: Nero made the selection himself; Augustus had left it 
to the senate. 

Ch. 30, § I. isdem eonsulibus: i.e. Volusius and Scipio, ch, 25. 
These gave their name to the whole year, though their office would 
not extend throughout it, owing to the institution of consules 
suffecti. See Intr. Ill 9, note. 

Sardiniam. This island, with Corsica, was at this time governed 
by an imperial procurator, but in 67 A. D., during his tour in Greece, 
Nero proclaimed the freedom of the senatorial province of Achaia, 
and gave both islands to the senate in compensation. 

avare habitam, ' administered extortionately.' 

Cretensibus : for Med. ' credentibus.' Another proposed 
emendation is 'cedentibus' (relinquishing the prosecution). 

§2. Clodiua Quirinalis : Ravenna on the Adriatic and Misenum 
on the Mediterranean were the headquarters of the imperial fleet 
' classis praetoria ') ; each division was under a ' praefectus ' directly 
responsible to the emperor. The praefectus was usually of eques- 
trian rank. Clodius Quirinalis was a knight and had been 'primi- 
pilus ' of the twentieth legion. 

veneno, See. : Romans often anticipated condemnation by suicide, 


because capital punishment disqualified the victims from burial and 
rendered their wills invalid : these disabilities did not apply to 
suicides {An?!, vi 29). 

§ 3. Caninius Rebilus : an emendation which substitutes the 
name of a well-known family for the unknown G. Aminius Rebius 
of Med. 

ex primoribus, &c., ' eminent for his legal knowledge and vast 

cruciatus : ace. plur. of the substantive. 

haud ci'editus : see Intr. II 33. 

§ 4. Ii. Volusius : father of the consul for 56 A. D. fch. 25). He 
waslegatus of Dalmatia under Tiberius and Gains, and at his death 
was ' praefectus urbis.' 

cui, &c., ' the span of whose life amounted to ninety-three years, 
and who had enjoyed exceptional wealth honourably acquired, with- 
out having come into conflict with the malevolence of the many 
emperors (under whom he had lived).' 

Ch. 31, § I. Nerone : this was the consulship to which he had 
been designated in 51 A. D. [Ann. xii 41). 

Pisone : mentioned in ch. 28. 

nisi cui libeat, &c. : this is evidently a disparaging allusion to 
some historian, possibly to the elder Pliny, who in his Natural 
History (xvi 40, 76, 200) mentions a larch beam of remarkable size 
brought to Rome many years before and worked into this amphi- 
theatre, and may have described it also in his general history, which 
is not extant. 

cum, &c., 'whereas it is regarded as suitable to the dignity of the 
Roman people to reserve notable events for history, and such trifles 
for the daily journals.' 

repertum, 'regarded as an established principle' either (l) by 
Tacitus personally, or (2) by historians in general. 

diurnis urbis actis : for these daily gazettes cf. Intr. I 3. 

§ 2. Capua atque Nueeria: both in Campania; the former 
received the constitution of a colony from Julius Caesar, and the latter 
from Augustus. 

congiarium, ' dole,' derived from ' congius,' a vessel containing 
about a pint. The word originally denoted a present of wine, oil, 
&c. (Livy XXV 2), but later on such gifts took the form of money. 
Cp. ' sportula,' the gift of a wealthy Roman to his clients. 

quadringeni : a larger amount than had been given since the 
earlier largesses of Augustus. 

sestertivim quadringentiens : supply 'centena millia, '40,000,000 
sesterces, about ^333,000. 

ad retinendam, &c., ' to sustain the public credit.' In the 
same way Augustus had subsidized the public treasury to tiie 
extent of 150 million sesterces. The subvention made by Nero on 
this occasion must be distinguished from that given annually; see 
Ann. XV iS. 

§ 3. vectigal, &c., ' the duty of four per cent, on the sale of 

BOOK XIII. CH. 30, § 2 — CH. 32, §§ 1-3 

slaves.' The proceeds from this went to the 'aerarium militare ' 
(Dio). Under Augustus the tax was two per cent., ' quinquagcsima 

specie, &c., ' an apparent rather than real benefit, because, the 
seller being ordered to pay it, the purchasers found it added on as 
part of the price ; ' i.e. the change was simply that the tax was 
collected from the slave-dealers (' mangones ') instead of the buyers, 
and the former took care that it caused no diminution in their 

§ 4. magistratus : governor of a senatorial province, a pro- 
consul or propraetor ; procurator governor of an imperial province, 
appointed by and directly responsible to the ' princeps.' 

in provincia . . . ludicrum : the provincial ' ludi ' mentioned 
in inscriptions were given by the emperor through his ' procurator.' 

§ 5. nam ante : i.e. these shows were a kind of 'ambitus,' 
whereby they secured partisans, who either prevented the op- 
pressed from prosecuting the governor, or frustrated the prose- 
cution by a counter-demonstration ; so that this ' largitio ' was itself 
a means of oppressing the subjects by making redress more difficult. 

dum, &:c., ' screening their guilty self-indulgence by thus curry- 
ing favour.' 

Ch. 32, § I. senatus consultum : an extension of an earlier 
measure passed in 10 A. D., 'domino occi?o de ea familia quaestio 
habenda est quae intra tectum fuerit vel certe extra tectum cum 
domino eo tempore quo occidebatur.' An instance of the wholesale 
execution of the household of a murdered Roman is given in A/in. 
xiv 42-45- 

ultioni, &c., ' providing alike for punishment and a sense of 
security ' ; dat. of purpose, see Intr. II 11. 

§ 2. Lurius Varus : being a consular, he had probably been 
proconsul of Asia or Africa, and had been expelled from the senate 
for extortion. This had no doubt been mentioned in its proper 
place (in the lost part of the Annals), so as to make further explana- 
tion here needless. 

§ 3. A. Plautius was a distinguished general who carried out suc- 
cessful campaigns in Ilritain under Claudius, 43-47 A. D., bringing 
under Roman government the part of the island south of a line 
fiom the mouth of the Severn to that of the Nen. 

qtieni ovasse rettuli : the part of [[iq Annals covering Plautius' 
conquest of Britain is lost to us. The ovation of Plautius took place 
on his return in 47 A.D., and Claudius is stated to have ridden in 
the procession by his side (Suet. CI. 24). 

superstitionis externae : the phrase is general and might refer 
to any non-Italian religion, but the belief that she was a Christian 
derives support from the account of her habits of life (§§ 4, 5). The 
retirement and sobriety of a Christian might well appear a kind of 
'perpetual mourning' to the dissolute society of the Neronian 
period. (There are also Christian mscriptions of 150 years later, 
naming Pomponius Graecinus and Pomponius Bassus, probably her 


descendant:.) if she was a Christian, this is likely to have been 
made the ground of a charge of conjugal inhdelity, and for this 
reason judgment was left to her husband ' pristo institute' 

§ 4. propinqviis coram, ' in the presence of relations,' including 
representatives from the wife's family as a check on the otherwise 
absolute authority of the husband. 

de capite, &c., ' investigated the charge as it affected her legal 
status and her honour.' 

§ 5. luHam : the great-granddaughter of Pomponia, daughter 
of Atticus, through whom this Pomponia Graecina was probably 
related to her. Julia was mother of Rubellius Plautus (ch iq). 
Messalina is stated by Dio to have caused her to be put to death 
in 43 A. D., out of jealousy {(t]\oTvnt]a(i(xa}. 

quadraginta annos : this shows her to have lived on to the 
reign of Domitian. 

cultu, ' dress ' ; egit,' lived.' 

inpune : used as an adjective. Cf. Ann. i 72, 'dicta inpune 
erant ' (Intr. II 49). 

Ch. 33, § I. P. Celerem : seech, i. His trial probably took 
place in the emperor"s private court, as he had been a ' procurator 

traxit, ' let his case drag on.' 

§ 2. obtegefcat, ' cast into the shade.' His chief crime had been 
in Nero's service. 

§ 3. Cossiitianus Capito was a notorious 'delator' under Claudius 
and Nero. In 47 A. D. he strongly opposed the enforcement of the 
' lex Cincia ' against the payment of advocates {Ann. xi 6). On 
the present occasion he was condemned by the senate, by whom 
he was tried, and was expelled from that body; four or five years 
later he was restored through the influence of Tigellinus, his father- 
in-law. For his attack on Antistius, 62 A. D., and on Thrasea, 
66 A. D., see Ann. xiv 48, and xvi 28, 33. 

Cilices : the formation of Cilicia as a province distinct from Syria 
is ascribed to Vespasian, but it may have been temporarily placed 
under a separate governor earlier. 

maculosum foedumque, ' stained with foul crimes.' 

pervicaci accusatione, ' by the determination of his accusers.' 

§ 4. Eprio Marcello : the notorious 'delator' of Nero's time, 
and a confederate of Cossutianus {Ann. xvi 26, 28, 33). His 
full name was T. Clodius P^Jrius Marcellus ; he was proconsul 
of Asia 70-73 A. D., and conspiring against Vespasian was com- 
pelled to commit suicide in 79 a.d. 

Lycii : Lycia was formerly a free state, but was taken into the 
empire by Claudius and added to the province of Pamphylia. 

periculuni : used here (as often) for the danger involved by 
a criminal prosecution ; cf. ch. 42. So also ' salus ' often = 

Ch. 34, § I. tertium: used adverbially, 'for the third time.' See 
ch. II. 


BOOK XIII. CH. 32, § 3 — CH. 35, §§ 1-3 

proavum : great-grandfather. ' Abavus,' = great-great-grand- 

Corvinum: full name, M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus. He 
was a celebrated friend of Horace, Ovid, and Tibullus ; was consul 
with Augustus in the year of the battle of Actium (31 B.C.), and 
died about 9 A. D. 

abavo : as father of Julia, who was the grandmother of Agrip- 
pina, Nero's mother. 

meminerant : i.e. they could remember Corvinus as the man 
who had been Augustus' colleague, hardly the consulship itself, as 
it was eighty-nine years ago. 

§ 2. quingenis sestertiis : the sum granted was 500,000 
sesterces, slightly over ^4,000. 

innoxiam, 'blameless,' i.e. without trying to enrich himself by 
corrupt practices when in office, or by informing against fellow- 

§ 3. Cottae : he was also descended from Corvinus. 

Haterio : son of Haterius Agi ippa, who was grandson (on his 
mother's side) of Agrippa, Augustus' minister, and a relation of 
Germanicus {Ann. ii 51). 

§ 4. mollibus, &c., ' (the war) which had so far dragged on feebly 
at its commencement, was now taken up vigorously.' See Intr. V. 

alienae, &c., ' to hold it as a gift from a foreign power,' i. e. by 
acknowledging the suzerainty of Rome, as evidently the Romans 
had ordered him to do. 

parta olim, &c. : at the close of the war with IMithridates 
(74-63 B. C), the Armenians accepted a king nominated by 

§ 5. ambigua fide, * vacillating in their allegiance ' (now to 
Rome, now to Parthia). 

illud : i. e. subjection to the Parthians. 

Ch. 35, § I. This process of disciplining the legions and re- 
cruiting in Galatia and Cappadocia must have occupied the chief 
part of the time since Corbulo was sent out : Intr. V 3, ad Jin. 

§ 2. Suria : two of the four Syrian legions had been handed 
over to him (ch. 8j, viz. the third and sixth (ch. 38), with detach- 
ments from the tenth (ch. 40). 

munia castrorum : duties required by active service in a hostile 

§ 3. stationem . . . vigilias : ' stationes,' pickets detached on 
guard both in the daytime and at night ; ' vigiliae ' were on duty by 
night only, and may be distinguished from the former as being 
either (i) the night-patrol gomg round the camp, or (2) the 

sine galeis, &c. : not wearing full armour, as being in peaceful 
provinces. So the troops in Rome, even when on duty, did not 
wear full equipment except on special occasions {Ann. ii 4 ; Ilisi 
i 38 ; see also Ann. xvi 27, i). 

nitidi, iS:c., ' sleek money-makers.' 

31 N 


§ 4. per Galatiani Cappadociamque : the citizen population of 
these provinces would recruit the legions, the rest the auxiliaries. 

ex Germania legio : not mentioned in the expeditionary loice 
(ch. 40), so it was probably sent on to Syria to make up for the 
detachment from the tenth legion sent to Corbulo. 

cum equitibus, &c. : ' alariis,' belonging to the ' ala,' the wing 
of cavalry furnished by 'socii'; ' peditatu cohortium,' 'infantry 
consisting of cohorts,' also ' socii.' The whole phrase means the 
complement of auxiliaries both of horse and foot attached to this 

§ 5. retentus, iS:c., ' was kept under tents,' instead of being 
quartered in houses for the winter. They were now encamped in 
the enemy's country, which they entered in the preceding year, 
57 A.]). See Intr. V 3 and 4. 

obducta : abl. with 'glacie ' ; efFossa, nom. with ' humus.' 

§ 6. ambusti refers to frost-bite, the effect being similar to 
a burn, 

adnotatus : Intr. II 33. 

praerigviisse, 'to have got frozen at the extremities (prae-), 
namely his hands ' (' manus,' ace. of respect). Cf. ' prae-ustus.' 

§ 7. ostendere : applied by zeugma to ' laudem ' and ' solacium ' 
as well as ' exemplum.' 

§ 9. venia, nom. 

§ 10. usu salubre, &c., 'was proved by experience to be 
salutary,' ' turned out practically effective.' 

Ch. 36, § I. ver: that of 58 A.D., see ch. 35 and Intr. V 3, 4. 

pugnam: Tacitus frequently uses a noun (so 'pra.e\ium,' Ann. 
iv 49, ' oppugnationem,' ii 12) instead of the usual infinitive after 

primi pill, &c., ' who had served as first centurion of his 
legion.' Under the empire this officer enjoyed much honour and 
dignity ; he had charge of the legionary eagle, with large emolu- 
ments ('locupletem aquilain,' Juv. xiv 197); ranked next to the 
' tribuni,' and was with them admitted to the council of the 
general. The primipilatus might even be the first step in the 
equestrian career, leading to the tribunate of the cohorts of the 
city soldiery, and then on to procuratorships. 

§ 2. casum, ' opportunity.' 

§ 3. turmae, ' squadrons of horse.' Their arrival gave him 
a pretext for taking the offensive. 

§ 5. increpiUrm, 'reprimanded.' 

tendere, ' to encamp outside the lines,' a regular punishment in 
the Roman army ; cf. Livy x 4. 

nee nisi, &c., ' and were only released on a petition from the 
whole army.' 

Ch. 37, § I. clientelas, 'vassal states.' 

Vologesi : genitive. See Intr. II 62. 

§ 2. frustra habitus, 'eluded,' ' baftled.' 

circumferre bellum, ' to enlarge the area of his operations.' 

BOOK XIII. CH. 35, § 4 — CH. 39, § i 

Antiochum: see ch. 7. 

praefecturas, 'departments,' for purposes of military organiza- 
tion ; there were 120 of these in Armenia. The word is also 
apphed in Ann. xi 8 to the divisions of Parthia, 

§ 3. Pharasmanes : King of Iberia, to whom Rhadamistus fled 
on his escape from Armenia, ch. 6. 

quasi proditore : he now thought it pohtic to disavow Rhada- 
mistus whom he had previously supported. 

quo, &c. ; dependent on ' exerc'ebat.' 

§ 4. Moschi : at the SE. corner of the Euxine, about the sources 
of the Phasis. 

soeia : referring probably to assistance rendered by them to 
Trajan in Tacitus' own time. 

incursavit : attracted into the sing, by the intervention of 
*gens ' in apposition to ' Moschi.' 

beneficiis : favours from Rome ; vetere, ' long standing.' 

§ 5. ideo, &c., ' for this reason only had Vologeses as yet made no 
movement, that they preferred to negociate rather than take violent 

Arsaeidis, (dat. plur. of the patronymic), ' the house of Arsaces,' 
founder of the royal house of Parthia, c. 250 B. c. 

saepius . . . clade : referring to the defeat of Crassus 53 B, c, 
and of Antonius in 36 B. C. 

§ 6. Hyi'cania was at the SE. angle of the Caspian. 

suadet adgredi : see Intr. II 31. 

posse, &c., ' he might set his kingdom on a secure basis and 
avoid bloodshed if, abandoning remote and distant possibilities, he 
would follow the better policy immediately open to him.' 

Ch. 38, § I. in summam pacis, ' towards the general result 
of peace.' 

ipsorum, ' the generals themselves.' 

§ 2. dum, 'provided that.' 

in faciem, ' so as to give the appearance of.' 

§ 3. ideo, &c., ' (it was clear) that a small number was suggested 
on the side of the Parthians and a larger on that of the Romans, 
for the very purpose of arranging a treacherous attack.' 

equiti, with 'obicerentur '; profuturam, sc. ' Romanis.' 

§ 5. colles, &c., ' hills rising gently up (suitably) for the recep- 
tion of the infantry lines.' aecipiendis, dat. of purpose, varied in 
the next clause by ' ad ' with accus. 

§ 6. regum : Antiochus and Agrippa, ch. 7. 

pro cornibus, ' at the extremity of each wing.' 

sextam: from Syria, ch. 35. 

tertianorum : men of the third legion. 

quasi, &c., ' as if there were but one legion in sight.' 

Ch. 39, § I. fraudem, ' an attack.' 

Pontico, &c., ' coming by way of the Euxine and from Trapezus,' 
the modern Trebizond, from which point the land transport would 
begin. Trapezus was a flourishing port when the Ten Thousand 


struck the sea there on their retreat, Xen. Anab. v 5, and was now 
a free city. 

discedit : first northwards towards Trapezus, and then, on the 
failure of his plan, towards Artaxata. 

§ 2. Volandum : exact site unknown ; it stood W. of Artaxata 
and S. of the Araxes. 

Cornelio Flacco : not elsewhere mentioned ; he was evidently 
' legatus legionis.' Insteiua Capito, now promoted from centurion 
(ch. 9) to the post of ' praefectus castrorum.' 

§ 4. in testudinem conglobatoa : massed together with their 
shields locked above their heads. 

subruendo : dat. of purpose. 

incutere = ' conicere.' 

§ 5. libritoribus : these worked the artillery engines (' tor- 
menla'j ; the 'funditores' were armed with a sling ('funda'). 

glandes : leaden balls. 

§6. obices portarum, (i) 'barricades at the gateways,' like 
'obices viarum,' Liv. ix 3 ; or (2) 'the obstacle presented by the 
gates,' like ' se vasti Proteus tegit obice saxi,' Verg. Georg. iv 422. 

escensu : ott. tXp. 

§ 7. sub corona venundatum, ' were sold as slaves,' the profits 
going to the state. It was the custom for captives to be crowned 
with wreaths when being sold as slaves. 

cetera, &c., ' all the rest, some through fear, others voluntarily ' ; 
the omission of ' alia ' before ' terrore ' implies that the majority were 
influenced by fear. 

§ 8. si . . . transgrederentur . . . dabantur : the indicat. (instead 
of ' darentur ' or ' dati essent ') vividly states the unrealized tendency 
as though realized in fact : cf. ch. ii I. 

procul et latioribus vadis : a condensed expression, ' further 
off where the river was broader and so fordable ' (because more 

Ch. 40, § I. concessisset, ' should he have offered no resistance 
to the siege.' 

date die, ' when a fit day offeied itself.' 

§ 2. non ignaro, &c., ' without taking our general unawares, 
since he had arranged his army ready alike for marching or 
fighting ' ; for the datives cf. ch. 32 ' ultioni iuxta et securitati.' 

§ 3. decumanorum : the main body was left with Ummidius, 
ch! 8. 

quibus iusserat : cf. ch. 15, 3. 

non eequerentur, ' non ' used for ' ne ' to emphasize the negation 
of the particular word ' sequerentur ' rather than of the whole 
phrase : cf. ' non Teucros agat,' Verg. Aen. xii 78. ' proinde . . . 
non ad unum omnia deferrent,' Ami. i 11. 

§ 4. prodvxctiore, &:c., ' the left wing extending out further.' 

fronte simul et sinu, ' in front and on the flank simultaneously '; 
'sinu,' the 'fold' or 'bay' in which the extended left wing would 
envelop the enemy making a frontal attack on the centre of the line. 

BOOK XIII. CH. 39, § I — CH. 42, § i 

§ 5. ex diverse : liere = ' ex adverse.' 

ad ictum, ' within range.' 

diveraos, ' when separated.' 

§ 6. ubi nihil, &c., ' when no rash act brought on disorder, and 
nothing more happened except that a commander of a ' decuria ' 
of horse, &c.' (Intr. II 58). 

Ch. 41, § I, in loco, ' where he was' ; agitavit, ' deliberated.' 

§ 2. Medi: those of Media Atropatene, SE. of Armenia. 

Albani : extending from Iberia to the Caspian. 

§ 3. ignis inmissus : Corbulo probably passed the winter there 
and destroyed Artaxata next spring. 

nee id, &c., ' we had not sufficient forces to be divided for 
forming a strong garrison and prosecuting the war.' 

vel si: introducing a third alternative instead of the more usual 
' sin vero.' 

§ 4. miraculum : the ensuing description is hardly applicable 
to the solar eclipse of 59 A. D. {A;tn. xiv 12), seen in Armenia by 
Corbulo (Pliny A'. //. ii 70, 72, 182), but rather to a striking eftect 
of cloud and sunshine noticed during a thunderstorm. 

cuncta Artaxatia tenus : for Med. ' cun ta extra tectis actenus.' 
Other corrections are 'cuncta extra, tectis tenus'; 'cuncta extra 
tecta hactenus ; ' or ' cuncta hactenus,' 'extra tecta' being omitted 
as a gloss. 

discretum, ' parted off from the rest' (cf. ' velo discreta,' ch. 5) ; 
rather than 'seamed.' 

§ 5. consalutatus,&c., 'Nero was hailed imperator,' by Corbulo's 
soldiers. This honour was often paid by a victorious army to the 
effigy of the ' princeps,' when he himself was not present, in 
acknowledgement of his supremacy over the army. (So in 16 A. D. 
Germanicus' soldiers hailed Tiberius imperator after their victory 
over Arminius, A/ifi. ii 18.) 

eontinui, ' in successive years.' Nero did not accept this. 

quo relatum, 'on which the matter had been discussed' in the 

adeo, ' proceeding to such inordinate flattery.' 

C. Cassius : a celebrated jurist. He had preceded Ummidius 
in the government of Syria : he was exiled in 65 A.D. {A fin. xvi 9). 
His ironical suggestion he:e does not seem to have been resented 
by Nero. 

pro, ' proportionately to.' 

eoque, &c., 'and accordingly holy days and days of business 
must be marked off, so that they might attend to religious duties 
without interfering with the affairs of this world.' (' quis ' as though 
'quibus ita divisis.') 

Ch. 42, § I. invidia, 'feeling against.' 

terribilis ac venalis, ' a terrible instrument of corruption.' 

Suillius : formerly quaestor serving under Germanicus, and 
exiled by Tiberius in 24 A.D. for taking a bribe 'for a judicial 
decision' {Aiifi. iv 31), Under Claudius, as Messalina's agent, he 


attacked Valerius Asiaticus, whose estates she coveted, 47 A.D 
{Ann. xi i) ; and there was an outcry in the senate for the enforce- 
ment of the ' lex Cincia ' about the same time, because he had, as 
advocate, exacted a large fee from a client and then betrayed his 
cause (xi 5 ). He was proconsul of Asia towards the end of Claudius' 
reign, see ch. 43, where also the names of his chief victims are given. 

quantum... cuperent, 'to such an extent as his enemies wished'; 
a 'limitative' use of the subjunct. after a relative, developed Ironi 
the 'generic' use seen in the next clause, 'qui . . . mallet/ 'the sort 
of man who preferred.' See also Intr. II 41. 

demissus : humbled. 

§ 2. senatus consultum : see note on ch. 5, i. 

§ 3. praeter, &c., ' adding the freedom of extreme age to his 
naturally hot temper.' 

exilium : see note on ch. 2, I. 

§ 4. studiia inertibus, &c., 'accustomed to academic pursuits 
and the society of raw striplings, he was jealous of those who 
employed a practical and incorrupt eloquence in the defence of 
fellow-citizens.' As a man of affairs, practising in the Courts, 
.Suillius sneers at Seneca as a mere professor (of poetry, philosophy, 
and rhetoric), living outside the world of action. 

adulterum : this was Messalina's pretext for his banishment. 

§ 5. sponte : advocates evaded the penalties for high fees by 
the fiction that what they took was a present ; of. ch. 5, i. 

§6. quadriennium : i.e. since Nero's accession. For Nero's 
gifts to Seneca, see ch. iS and xiv 53-54. 

§ 7. testamenta et orbos, 'the wills of childless persons.' 
Hendiadys, see Intr. II 54. 

indagine, ' in his net,' a metaphor from hunting. 

provincias . . . hauriri : possibly an allusion to the story men- 
tioned by Dio that one of the causes of the British rebellion of 61 a.d. 
{Ann. xiv 29) was the pressure put on Seneca's debtors in Britain. 

§ 8. crimen, &c., 'accusation, trial (see ch. 33), anything.' 

toleraturum . . . submitteret, ' quam ' with subjunct. (as though 
= 'quam ut') frequently in Livy follows a future in expressions with 
* potius,' ' prius,' &c. So also Sail. Jug. 106 ' mansurum potius 
quam . . . vitae parceret.' 

subitae felicitati, ' the success of an upstart.' For the use of 
the abstr. word, cf. §4 ' iuvenum imperitiae,' and ch. I, I 'domina- 

Ch. 43, § 2. inquisitioneni annuam, 'a year for the collec- 
tion of evidence.' Cf. ch. 52. A considerable interval between the 
notification of intention to prosecute and the actual trial was usually 
given for this purpose. Cicero when attacking Verres used only 
filty days in collecting his witnesses, thus baffling an attempt of the 
other side to get the trial put off to an occasion more favourable to 

urbana, ' relating to his actions in the city.* 

otvii, 'on the spot.' 


BOOK XIII. CH. 42, § I — CH. 44, §§ 2-9 

§ 3. Pomponiura: he became consul suffectus on the death of 
Gaius,4i A.u., and exhorted the senate to re-estabhsh the Repubhc, 
or at least to set up a worthy emperor, which may have furnished 
ground of accusation against him and driven him to join the con- 
spiracy of Camillus Scribonianus, the failure of whose designs upon 
the principate caused so many executions (42 A. D.). 

luliam : see ch. 32, 5. 

Sabinam Poppaeam : mother of the woman who became Nero's 
wife later on. Messalina had her executed, regarding her as a 
rival for the affections of her paramour Mnester {Ann. xi i, 2). 

Valerium Asiaticum : see ch. 42. 

Lusium Saturninum : mentioned by Seneca among the victims 
under Claudius, but nothing further is known of him. 

Cornelius Lupus was governor of Crete and Cyrene under Ti- 
berius, and consul suffectus in 42 A.D. He and Saturninus were prob- 
ably executed for participation in the plot of Camillus Scribonianus. 

iam, ' and further,' pointing to a climax. 

equitum agmina : more than 300, according to Suet. C7. 29. 

§ 4. defendebat, ' urged in defence.' 

commentariis, ' the private journals ' of Claudius. 

§ 5. vocem praeberet, 'lend himself to be the mouthpiece.' 

delegent, ' impute.' 

§6. parte, 'half.' Cf. Ann. iii 17. Usually such 'deportatio' 
involved complete loss of property. 

filio : Nerullinus. nepti, probably the daughter of the other 
son Caesoninus. matris aut aviae, i.e. the mother of Nerullinus 
and grandmother of Caesoninus' daughter. 

Baleares: attached to the imperial province Hispania Tarra- 

copiosa : an exile even after confiscation of his goods often 
received a considerable portion back again as 'viaticum.' 

§ 7. repetundarum : he may have been ' legatus ' to his father 
when governor of Asia. In 70 a.d. he was himself proconsul of 
that province. 

Ch. 44, § 2. vacua, ' free,' by divorcing her husband. 

exuere, ' disclaim,' ' repudiate.' 

§ 3. salutem . . . arbitrio, S:c., 'putting his life completely in 
her hands.' 

§ 4. modum, 'moderation.' 

§ 6. exprobratio satisfactio, ' reproaches, apologies.' 

ex qua qviasi incensus, 'after which, as though in a fit of 
passion' (although the deed was really premeditated), 'he stabbed 
her.' Med. gives ' et quastim census.' Other corrections are ' ex 
qua incensus,' 'ex qua statim incensus,' ' et quasi istinc cessurus.' 

§ 8. commoverat, ' he had won some credence by the greatness 
of his devotion.' For 'commoverat' cf. ch. 21, 9. exempli, 
a deed worthy of being taken as an example ; cf. xv 63, 3 (contrast 
xiv 44, 7, where ' exemplum' = 'exemplary form of punishment '). 

§ 9. apud eonsulea : as presiding over the senate, which at 


this time, as high criminal court, took cognizance of murder (see 
Intr. Ill 8). 

postquam, &c., 'on the expiration of his term of office.' 

lege : the ' lex Corneha ' of Sulla, which prescribed the penalty 
of ' deportatio' and forfeiture of all property. 

Ch. 45, § I. insignia; conspicuous, as occurring in high life. 
' An equally scandalous piece of wickedness,' &c. 

Poppaei Sabini : consul in 9 A. D., and subsequently one of 
the most trusted of Tiberius' provincial governors: he held first 
Moesia, and then Achaia with Macedonia, winning triumphal 
honours, ' contusis Thraecum gentibus' (A/tn. \v 46), in 26 A D. 
He died in 33 A.D., having governed important provinces for 
twenty-four years. 

honoribus nondum functum : Ollius had been quaestor (Suet. 
Ner. 35), so that 'honores ' = 'the higher magistracies.' Cf. ch. 25, 2. 

pervertit, ' was his ruin.' His name is not mentioned in the 
extant narrative of that period. 

§ 2. mater: Poppaea. See ch. 43, 3. 

comis, 'pleasing.' nee absurdum ingenium, 'a brilliant 
enough wit.' 

modestiam, &c., ' she could profess modesty yet practise mis- 

§ 3. faraae, &c., 'she ne\er had been careful of her reputation, 
making no difference between husbands and paramours ; never 
swayed by affection, in either herself or another, wherever there ap- 
peared a prospect of advantage, thither she transferred her favours.' 

ostenderetur : frequentative. Intr. II 41. 

§ 4. agentem, ' living,' cf ch. 32, 5. 

Rufri Crispini : formerly praefect of praetorians, and suc- 
ceeded by liurrus in 51 A. D. (An;!, xii 42). He was banished 
after Piso's conspiracy, 65 A. D. (xv 71), and on being condemned 
next year he committed suicide (xvi 17). 

filium : drowned by Nero's orders (Suet. Ner. 35). 

Otho : see ch. 12. Tacitus here seems to be correcting the 
earlier version that he gave in the Histotics (which is also given 
in Suet., Dio, and Plut.), that Otho first married .Poppaea to 
facilitate Nero's adultery with her, and was then banished on 
becoming enamoured of her himself. 

flagrant issimua : the word denotes strength in something evil , 
' was notorious for his close friendship with Nero. 

Ch. 46, " 

§ 3. aecepto aditu, 'on obtaining access to him first proceeded 
to gain influence by the arts of flattery, pretending to be mastered 
by her passion and captivated by Nero's beauty.' 

ad superbiam vertens, ' turning supercilious.' 

amittere, ' give up.' 

§ 4. ciiltu, ' refinement.' ibi = ' apud ilium,' ' there she saw 
a style of life worthy of the highest position.' 

BOOK XIII. CH. 44, § 9 — CH. 48, §§ 1-3 

paelice, &c., 'bound to a menial concubine in his intimacy with 

contubernio, ' connexion.' The word denotes the union of a 
male and female slave, who could not contract legal marriage. 

§ 5. familiaritate, ' intimacy.' congresau et comitatu, attend- 
ing his levees and accompanying him on journeys. 

aemulatua : (i) ace. plur. of subst., after 'ageret ' = ' aemuli 
partes sustineret,' or (2) participle, ' live in the city as one who 
had been his rival.' 

Lusitaniae : north-west of Spain, including also Portugal. 

ad civilia arma: up to 68 A. D., when he joined Galba, governor 
of Hispania Tarraconensis, against Nero. 

procax, &c., ' profligate in his leisure, but fairly self-controlled 
in his official life.' The genitives are somewhat bold applications 
of the genitive of reference, such as ' integer vitae,' Hor. Od. 
i 22. I ; ' modicus voluptatum,' Tac. Ann. ii 73. temperantior, 
more self-controlled than one would expect from his previous life. 

Ch. 47, § I. Sullam : see ch. 23, § i. 

socors, &c., 'setting an opposite construction on his apathetic 
disposition, and characterizing him as a cunning dissembler.' The 
ablat. of the gerund is co-ordinated with the pres. partic. for 
variety. See Intr. II 22 (b). 

§ 2. libertis Caesaris: see ch. 12, § i. 

U3U, &c., 'a master in the intrigues of the imperial palace owing 
to his age and experience from Tiberius onwards.' For abusqtie 
cf. Intr. II 46. 

intendit, ' intensified.' 

pons Mulvius: two miles outside the city, on the 'via Fla- 
minia,' which ran northwards through the Sabine country on to 

Celebris, &c., 'the haunt of nightly debauchery.' (Notice the 
rare masculine form.) 

§ 3. regredienti ; with ' compositas,' ' laid for hiin if he came 
back along the via Flaminia.' 

Sallustianoa : laid out between the Quirinal and Pincian hills 
by the historian Sallust, and probably left by his adoptive son to 
Tiberius. To reach them Nero would turn off from the Flaminian 
way to the left. 

inanem: i.e. without injuring them. 

§ 4. abhorrebat, ' was inconsistent with the charge.' 

Ch. 48, § I. Puteolanorum : the people of Puteoli (the ancient 
port of Cumae). 

quas, t&c, ' which had been sent by the council and populace 
in opposition to each other.' ordo, sc. ' decurionum,' the muni- 
cipal senate. 

ad senatum : see ch. 4, 3. 

primi cuiuaque, ' their leading citizens.' 

§ 2. C. Cassiua : see ch. 41, 5. 

§ 3. Scribonios fratres : Rufus and Proculus, for some years 


contemporaneously legati of Upper and Lower Germany ; sum- 
moned to Greece by Nero and forced to commit suicide in 67 A. D. 

data cohorte praetoria : by Nero. 

Ch. 49, § I. vulgarissimtim, 'most commonplace.' 

egredi : for the infin., cf. Intr. II 31. 

numerum, ' to exceed the number fixed for shows of gladiators.' 
It is not clear whether Tacitus means (i) the number shown in a 
single performance, or (2) the number of performances annually 
permissible. Augustus limited the number of shows in Rome to 
two annually, and the number of gladiators at each to 120 .pairs. 
Tiberius made a further reduction, but Gains relaxed the rule. 
The number permissible in Italian towns is not known : an in- 
scription at Pompeii mentions thirty to thirty-five pairs contending. 

Paetus : full name, P. Clodius Thrasea Paetus. He was consul 
in 56 A. v., and was conspicuous for his independent attitude in the 
senate (see ^/wi.xiv 12, and 48 ; xvi2i; and for his death in 66 A. D., 
xvi 33-35)- 

arguendae, * for attacking his vote.' 

§ 2. quibusque, etc., 'and the other things on which the state 

licere, &;c. : procedure in the senate was that the presiding 
consuls brought forward ('referre') the subject of discussion, asking 
individual senators for their opinion ('sententia '). In his answer a 
senator might go beyond the subject (' egredi relationem ') and bring 
uj) some other matter which he thought important, as Cato used to 
finish all his speeches, no matter what the subject might be, with 
' delenda est Carthago.' There would, however, be no vote of the 
house on a subject thus raised, unless the consuls chose to add it 
to their ' relatio.' Cf. ch. 26, 2. 

§ 3. largius, 'too profusely.' partes, 'departments.' 

§ 4. summa : neut. plur. dissimulatione, ' by ignoring them.' 
inanibus, 'trifles.' 

§ 5. non . . . ignarum, ' it was not because he was unaware of 
the present situation that he (attempted to) correct.' 

sad, &c., ' but he paid this tribute to the honour of the senate.' 

curam, &c., ' that they would not repress their interest in im- 
portant affairs.' 

Ch. 50, § I. publicanoruin : the associations ('societates') of 
' equites' who bought from the treasury the right of collecting the 
taxes in the various districts of the empire, 

vectigalia : indirect taxes, viz. (i) ' portoria,' customs duties 
levied at the frontiers of the empire and of the districts into which it 
was divided for financial purposes; (2) ' scriptura,' the dues paid for 
use of the public pastures ; (3) harbour-dues, and royalties on 
mining and on the manufacture of salt. Roman citizenship did not 
carry with it immunity from ' vectigalia,' though it did from ' tributa,' 
the direct taxes, laid on subject-peoples, which consisted of the 
'decumae,' i.e. payment of one-tenth of the produce of land occupied, 
or ' tributum capitis,' an income tax paid by such as had no land. 

BOOK XIII. CH. 48, § 3 — CH. 52, §§ 1-3 

§ 2. impetum, 'impulse.' sequens: sc. 'esse,' 'the next thing 
would be that.' 

§ 3. a consulibus, &;c. : i. e. by ' lej^es ' or ' plebiscita ' proposed 
on the occasion of the organization of new provinces, when to collect 
the new revenues fresh ' societates ' would have to be enrolled and 

aeri, 'being still in full vigour.' 

reliqua mox, &c., ' next had followed arrangements whereby the 
amount of duties levied should be balanced with the necessary 

§ 4. acerbitatibus, ' acts of oppression.' 

Ch. 51, § I. ut leges: 'that the regulations about each tax, 
which had hitherto remained unpublished, should be publicly posted 
up.' ' Leges ' = the contracts made by the ' publicani,' with the rules 
as to the collection of the tax (' publicum '). 

petitiones, &c., ' (revenue) claims which had been allowed to 
drop should not be taken up after a year's interval.' 

Romae . . . essent : referring to the ordinary judicial tribunals at 
home and abroad. ' Qui pro praetore aut consule essent ' = governors 
of provinces both imperial and senatorial. (No particular mention is 
made of the ' procuratores' who governed minor imperial provinces : 
these however seem to have been subordinated to the nearest imperial 
' legatus,' so that special mention of them is hardly needed.) 

extra ordinem, ' should give prior hearing to suits against 
the tax collectors.' 

militibiis, 'soldiers should have their immunity (from ' vectigalia') 
preserved, except -in the case of goods kept for purposes of trade.' 
For the trading of Roman soldiers in time of peace, cf. ch. 35, 3. 

frustra habita, ' evaded.' 

§ 2. quadragensimae quinquagensimaeque, ' duties of 2J 
and 2 per cent.' ; fictions under which the ' publicani ' made illegal 

§ 3. subvectio, &c., 'the conveyance of corn was rendered 
easier,' by lightening duties and removing restrictions. 

ne censibus, &c., ' that the ships of merchants should not be 
assessed in their property, and that they should not pay property- 
tax upon them.' (Taxes on ships would increase the cost of 
transport.) This concession benefited foreign corn-dealers; Roman 
citizens were in any case free from 'tributum.' 

Ch. 52, § I. Camerinum : consul suftectus 46 A. D. ; put to 
death by Helius (see ch. i, 3) during Nero's absence in Greece. 

Silvanum : consul suffectus 45 A. D. ; mentioned as ' legatus ' of 
Delmatia, Hist, ii 86. 

abaolvit : the trial would be in the senate, and Nero by voting 
first would secure acquittal. 

§ 2. tempus : cf. ch. 43, 2. 

ilico, 'at once.' defend! : for the infin. see Intr. II 31. 

§ 3. orbitate: cf. ch. 42, 7. His supporters of course hoped 
to profit by his will. 



ambitu : cf. ch. 6, 6. 

Ch. 53, § I. ad id tempus : the last notice of affairs in Ger- 
many relates to 50 A. D. {Aufi. xii 27-28). The period covered by 
the ensuing chapters begins earlier than 58 A. D. ; the canal of 
Paulinas (§ 3) having been begun 55 A. D., and the events of chs. 
54, 55 falling in 57 and 58 A. D. 

pervvilgatis, 'having become vulgarized' by being given on 
inadequate grounds. (Cf. Ann. xi 20 ; xii 3.) 

§ 2. Paulinus : legatus of Lower Germany ; father (or brother) 
of Seneca's wife {Ann. xv 60). 

Vetus : consul 55 A. D. (ch. 11). He would go to his province 
during the same year, on being succeeded by a ' consul suffectus.' 
He aprarently only held his province for a year (see ch. 56, 4). 
§ 3. a Druso : he died in 9 B. c. 

aggerem : to prevent inundation on the Gallic side {Hist, v 19). 
copiae, ' merchandise ' ; not troops, as these were drawn from 
the provinces rather than dispatched in any numbers from Italy, 
navigabilia, ' open to communication with each other by ship.' 
§ 4. Belgieae : between the Seine and the Rhine, 
studiaque, &c., ' and court popularity with the Gallic provinces.' 
formidolosum, &c , 'saying that the emperor would regard 
such an act with apprehension, (an argument) by which noble 
enterprises are often hindered.' 

Ch. 54, § 2. lacus : now absorbed in the Zuyder Zee. 
ripae : of the old Rhine. 

sepositos : set apart as pasturage for beasts kept for provision- 
ing the troops ; ch. 55, 3. 

Verrito et Malorige : perhaps ' Werreit ' and 'Malrich' in 

in quantum, &c., ' so far as the Germans are subject to kings.' 
§ 3. Dubiua Avitus : consul suffectus with Thrasea in the latter 
months of 56 A. D. He is mentioned by Pliny (A'. H. xxxiv 7) as 
' legatus ' of Aquitania, which province he held before his consulship, 
suscipere : Intr. 11 31. 

§ 4. aliis curia intentum, ' absorbed in other business.' 
Pompei tlieatrum : the first permanent theatre in Rome, 
dating from Pompeius' second consulship, 55 B.C. 
§ 5. per otium, ' being unoccupied.' 

neque enim, &c., 'for not understanding it they were not 
amused with the performance.' 

conaessum eaveae, &c. : the general body of the audience, 
contrasted with those who had special seats ('discrimina ordinum') ; 
i.e. the knights, who had the first fourteen rows, and the senators, 
who sat in the ' orchestra.' 
quia : sc. 'scdibus.' 

percontantiir : applied by zeugma to ' consessum ' and 'dis- 
crimina,' as well as to ' quis eques, ubi senatus.' (Cf. ch. 35, 7.) 

amicitia Eomana, ' friendship towards Rome.' This privilege 
was given anciently to the Massilians, and was also given by Julius 

BOOK XIII. CH. 52, § 3 — CH. 55, §§ 1-5 

Caesar to Hyrcanus and his sons. Augustus forbade the introduction 
of foreigners into the senate's seats, but his prohibition had evidently 
come to be disregarded. Suetonius relates the same incident as 
having happened in the reign of Claudius {CI. 25), describing the 
ambassadors whom the Germans saw as Parthians and Armenians. 

§ 6. comiter, 'good naturediy.' 

quasi, &c., 'as (a mark) of primitive impetuosity and (an act of) 
praiseworthy rivalry.' 

Ch. 55, § I. agros : the district referred to lay between the Rhine, 
the Lippe, and the Ems. 

Ampaivarii : the name is connected with 'Amisia,' the ancient 
name of the river Ems. 

Chaucis : a powerful German tribe whose invasion of Lower Ger- 
many was stopped by Corbulo, about 47 A. D. (Attn, xi 18). Their 
proper territory lay on either side of the lower Weser {Germ. 35). 

§ 2. aderat iis, ' came to plead for them,' as their advocate. 

rebellione Cherusca : the rising against Varus, headed by 
Arminius, in 9 A. D., after which Tiberius was general in Germany 
for two years, and Germanicus from 13 to 16 A. D, The Cherusci 
were NE. of the Chatti, and held the countiy between the Elbe 
and the Weser, i. e. portions of Hanover and Brunswick. 

quinqiiaginta : reckoning from Varus' disaster, 9 A. D. 

subiceret, ' kept obedient ' through all that time. 

§ 3. quo . . . iacere, ' to what purpose was so vast a space left 
vacant ? ' Cf. ' quo mihi fortunam, si non conceditur uti ? ' ( Hor. Ep. 

in quam, &c., 'that the flocks and herds of the soldiers might 
occasionally be sent across to it .'^ ' i.e. why leave so much ground 
unoccupied when it was so seldom used ? Med. ' quotani partem,' 
&c., ' how small a fraction of the land was that to which the flocks 
were now and then sent ' ; i. e. how small a part was ever used for 
its alleged purpose. Taken thus, ' iacere ' may be regarded as a 
gloss for ' esse ' understood. 

§ 4. servarent sane, &c. : sarcastically; 'by all means let them 
keep preserves for their flocks while human beings were starving, 
only let them not prefer an uninhabited wilderness to friendly 
tribes (in their neighbourhood).' receptus and famem are cor- 
rections for ' receptos ' and 'famam.' If we retain the two latter 
words, we may render. Met them preserve them, received among 
their flocks (i.e. give them a refuge with their cattle), within 
range of a human voice,' or 'amid human report ' (i.e. still known 
among men) ; but the latter expression is unnatural. 

§ 5. Chamavorura : mentioned in Germ. ^-^ ; in Tacitus' time 
they had moved further into the interior from their original position 
near the Rhine. 

Tubantum : a tribe who had originally lived near the Yssel and 
migrated in a south-easterly direction to a position south of the Ruhr. 

Usiporum: the Usipi (also written 'Usipetes') are usually 
mentioned in conjunction with the Tencteri {Germ. 32); they 


fronted the Rhine through a considerable part of Lower Germany. 
In the time of Domitian they furnished a cohort for service in 
Britain {A£-?\ 28). 

vacuae, 'unoccupied.' publieas, 'common property.' 

§ 6. mare superfunderent : an imprecation natural to a bar- 
barian familiar with the inundations of the Low Countries. 

Ch. 56, § I. commotus, 'was impressed.' 

patienda : sc. ' ait.' 

§ 2. in publicum, 'addressed to them as a nation.' Cf. 'in 
commune,' xv 63, I. 

§ 3. deesse : sc. ' potest.' 

in vitam : = 'in qua vivamus.' MS. gives ' terram vivam.' 

§ 4. Bructeroa : these joined Arminius, 9 A. D., and captured one 
of Varus' eagles, which was recovered A. D. 15 [Ann. i 60). They 
lived on the Lippe, near Miinster. 

Tencteros : a tribe who lived along the Rhine, next to the 
Usipi, and wei'e famous as cavalry (Germ. 32). 

socias bello : predicatively, ' to join them in war.' 

Curtilivrm Manciam : successor to Vetus (cf. ch. 53, 2). 

§ 6. Chattos : their name is thought to survive in the modern 
Plessen, which, with part of Nassau, represents their locality (part 
of the ' Hercynius saltus'). 

Cheruscos : see ch. 55, 2. 

errore longo, &c., 'in their long wanderings being first received 
hospitably, then left destitute, and then treated as foes, their fighting 
men were massacred in an enemy's country.' For the case, see 
Intr. II 22. 

Ch. 57, § I. Hermunduros: inhabiting parts of Franconia and 

flumen : probably the Werra, the eastern branch of the Weser, 
near which are the salt springs of Salzungen. 

vi trahunt, ' each forcibly appropriate.' 

religione insita, ' through a deeply-rooted superstition that.' 

propius, 'from a nearer point.' Woods, groves, and streams 
were generally looked on as the abode of deities by the Germans ; 
and Tacitus implies that the Germans held this spot to be 
especially sacred from the presence of salt, as a divine gift. 

§ 2. eluvie, &c., ' from a pool left by the sea when the water 
evaporates.' fusa : abl. abs., sc. ' unda.' 

ex contrariis, &c. : the elder Pliny gives a similar description : 
'Galliae Germaniaeque ardcntibus lignis aquam salsam infundunt.' 
The fire would cause speedy evaporation and salt would be de- 
posited, but the process described is so rude and wou'.d yield so 
little as to suggest that the water was really boiled down in pans. 

§ 3. victores, 'either side in the event of victory.' 

diversam aciem, * the army of the enemy.' So in xiv 30, I. 

Mai-ti ac Mercuric : Tin or Ziu, and Wodan or Wuotan, names 
from which respectively are derived ' Tuesday ' and ' \\ ednesday.' 

§ 4, minae hoatiles, &;c., ' threats on the part of our foes proved 

BOOK XIII. CH. 55, § 5 — CH. 58 

disastrous to themselves.' The Chatti were enemies of Rome, and 
the Hermunduri friendly. 

Ubiorum : their capital was converted into * Colonia Agrippinen- 
sis' (Koln, Cologne) in 50 A. D. (Afi?i. xii 27). 

§ 5. terra editi : possibly from the burning of a peat-moor. 

§ 6. ira cladis = ' ira ob cladem.' Cf. Verg. Aen. ii 413 'ercptae 
virginis ira.' 

iacere : historic infin., unusual after 'donee' (Intr. II 34). 

reaistentibus, ' coming to a standstill.' 

§ 7- oppressura, &c., 'as likely to quench the flames, the 
commoner and more soiled by use they were.' 

Ch. 58. Euminalem : the ' ficus Ruminalis' was believed 
to have been that under which the wolf suckled the twins, the 
name being derived from ' rumis ' or ' ruma,' an old word for 
' mamma,' which gave its name to a goddess ' Rumina.' It was 
believed to have stood originally in the ' Lupercal,' on the Palatine, 
but to have been miraculously removed by Attus Navius, the augur 
of Tarquinius Priscus, to the 'comitium,' i.e. the part of the Forum 
nearest to the Capitol, where the bronze group of the wolf and 
twins stood near it. 



A. U. C. 812, A. D. 59. C. Vipatanus Apronianus, C. Fonteius 
Capito, C033. 

Ch. 1-13. Murder of Agrippina. 

I. Nero urged against his mother by Poppaea. 2. Story of her 
schemes for the recovery of her influence. 3. Difficulty of per- 
petrating the murder: a ship contrived for the purpose by 
Anicetus. 4. Nero receives her at Bauh with great show of 
affection. 5, 6. Her friends Crepereius Gallus and Acerronia 
killed ; she escapes with life. 7. Nero in alarm consults Seneca 
and Burrus. 8. Anicetus, with a body of ' classiarii,' kills her. 9. 
Her burial : prediction of her fate. 10. Nero's terror composed 
by his courtiers. 11. Story made up to the senate by Seneca. 12. 
Servility of the senate except Thrasea : persons exiled by Agrip- 
pina restored. 13. Nero received in Rome with public demon- 
strations : he plunges into various excesses. 

Ch. 14-19. Affairs at Rome. 

14. Nero exhibits himself as a charioteer. 15. The Juvenalia: 
demoralisation of Roman society. 16. He composes verses, and 
listens to disputations. 17. Riot at Pompeii. 18. Pedius Blaesus 
condemned ; Acilius Strabo acquitted. Death of Domitius Afer 
and M, Servilius. 

A. U. C. 813, A. D. 60. Were Caesar IV, Cornelius Cossus 
Lentulus, coss. 

Ch. 20-22. Affairs at Rome. 

20, 21, Institution of quinciuennial Greek games at Rome, and 
opinions on them : the prize of eloquence awarded to Nero. 22. 
Appearance of a comet : Rubellius Plautus induced to go into 
voluntary exile : illness of Nero ascribed to divine displeasure. 

Ch. 23-26. Affairs in the East. 

23. Corbulo advances from Artaxata and chastises the Mardi. 

24. He escapes assassination and occupies Tigranocerta. 25. 



He takes Legerda and receives a friendly embassy from the 
Hyrcanians. 26. Tigranes sent from Rome and set up as king 
of Armenia : Corbulo retires to the government of Syria. 27. 
Earthquake at Laodicea ; Puteoli made a colony : colonists 
sent to Antium and Tarentum. 28. Election of praetors 
arranged : regulation of appeals to senate : Vibius Secundus 

A. U. C. 814, A. D. 61. L. Caesennius Paetus. P. Petroniua 
Turpilianus, coss. 

Ch. 29-39. Affairs in Britain. 

29-30. Suetonius Paulinos attacks and overcomes the Druids 
in Mona. 31. Causes of the insurrection of the Iceni, under 
Boudicca, and of the Trinovantes. 32. Camulodunum sacked : 
the Ninth legion cut to pieces. 33. Suetonius reaches but 
abandons Londinium : great massacre there and at Verulamium. 
34-37. Great battle : speeches of Boudicca and Suetonius : the 
Britons defeated with great slaughter : suicide of Boudicca by 
poison, and of Poenius Postumus, in command of the Second 
legion. 38. Complaint by the procurator Classicianus of the 
extreme severity of Suetonius. 39. Polyclitus the freedman 
sent to inspect and report : Suetonius succeeded by Petronius 

Ch. 40-47. Affairs in Rome. 

40, 41. Condemnation of Fabianus, Antonius Primus, and others, 
on charges connected with a forged will. 42. Murder of Pedanius 
Secundus, the praefectus urbis, by one of his own slaves. 43-45. 
Question respecting the execution of the whole household ; speech 
of C. Cassius ; the sentence carried out with difficulty. 46. Con- 
demnation of Tarquitius Priscus for extortion : census held in 
Gaul. 47. Death and character of Memmius Regulus : a gym- 
nasium dedicated. 

A. U. C. 815, A. D. 62. P. Marius, L. Afinius, cosa. 

Ch. 48-65. Affairs at Rome. 

48, 49. Revival of the law of ' maiestas,' after long interval, against 
L. Antistius the praetor ; Thrasea speaks against the punish- 
ment of death ; his opinion followed by the senate and allowed 
by Nero. 50. P'abricius Veiento banished for libels and venality. 
51. Death of Burrus, alleged to be by poison: Faenius Rufus 
and Sofonius Tigellinus made praefecti praetorio in his place. 
52-56. The position of Seneca imperilled by accusers ; inter- 
change of speeches between him and Nero ; his retirement from 
publicity. 57-59. Murder of Sulla at Massilia and Rubellius 
47 o 


Plautus in Asia at the instigation of Tigellinus : mockery of 

senatorial sentence after their deaths. 60. Divorce of Octavia 

notwithstanding the break-down of the charge against her : 

marriage of Nero to Poppaea. 61. Popular rising in favour of 

Octavia ; alarm of Poppaea. 62-64. New charge fabricated by 

Anicetus: Octavia banished to Pandateria and there murdered : 

servile decrees of the senate. 65. Deaths of Pallas and Dory- 

phorus, supposed to have been poisoned by Nero : charge of 

Komanus, leading to the conspiracy of Piso. 

Ch. 1, § I. C. Vipstanvis Apronianus is mentioned in Hist. 
i 76 as proconsul of Africa, in 69 A. D. 

C. Fonteius Capito, legatus of Lower Germany in 68 A. D., 
bore an evil name for avarice and other vices, and was killed by 
his own officers {Hist, i 7, &c.). 

flagrantior, 'becoming more ardent daily in his love for Poppaea.' 

Poppaeae : of xiii 45. 

crebris criminationibus : coupled with 'per facetias' as adverbial 
adjunct to 'incusaret': 'would frequently ply Nero with reproaches 
and at times jestingly rally him as a mere ward.' 

incusaret : subjunct. after ' quae ' either as denoting repeated 
action, which is indicated in the antecedent sentence by ' flagran- 
tior in dies,' or perhaps causal ; cf. Intr. II 41. 

§ 2. avo3 : the plural is an exaggeration (cf. ' saepe ' xiii 6, I ; 
' Lucullos ' XV 14, 3). She refers to the triumph of Poppaeus 
Sabinus. Cf. xiii 45, For her child, cf ibid. § 4. 

verum animum, ' sincere affection.' 

§ 3. iniurias patrum, ' her insults on the senate.' Cf ch. 11, i. 

§ 4. Otho was probably now in Lusitania; xiii 46, 5. 

audiret : final, after 'ubi.' imperatoris : objective gen. 

viseret : ' rather than have them before her eyes, herself involved 
m his peril.' inmixta : nom. fem. 

§ 5. penetrantia : sc. 'animum Neronis.' 

Ch. 3, § I. igitur: i.e. owing to Acte's representations. 

aut: the contrasted alternatives are (i) her (suburban) gardens, 
or (2) one of her estates away from Rome, such as that at Tusculum 
or Antium. 

horto3 : probably ' the gardens of Lucullus,' the chief orna- 
ment of the Pincian hill. They became imperial property when 
Messalina procured the death of their owner Asiaticus, 47 A. D. 
{A7i7t. xi 3). 

Antium : an ancient colony and favourite imperial residence. 
It was the birthplace both of Gaius and Nero. 

§ 2. praegravem, ' unduly dangerous.' 

hactenus, 'deliberating on this question only,' i.e. as to the 
method of killing her, her murder being already decided upon. 

§3. temptare, 'tamper with,' i.e. bribe to administer the 

arduum, ' too difficult,' ' impracticable.' Cf. Cicero's use of 
' longuni est ' : ' it is too long,' ' it would be tedious.' 

BOOK XIV. CH. 1, § I — CH. 4, §§ 1-7 

praesumendo, &:c., 'had fortified her system by a previous 
course of antidotes.' 

§ 4. metuebant : subject understood, ' Nero and his advisers.' 

§ 5. obtulit ingenium, ' brought his ingenuity into play.' 

iibertus : a ' praefectus classi ' was usually but not invariably of 
equestrian rank, of. Ann. xiii 30, 2 ; Hist, i 87, 2. For the imperial 
naval stations cf. Ann. xiii 30, 2. 

pueritiae : cf. xiii 2, 2 ' rectores imperatoriae iuventae.' 

educator: TrmSaywyos-. Cf. xiii 15, 6. 

mutuis, &c., 'fully reciprocating Agrippina's dislike.' 

§ 6. per artem soluta, ' artificially ' (or ' ingeniously) giving way.' 

nihil, &c., 'nothing gave such an opening for accidents as the 

§ 7. iniquum, ' ill-disposed.' 

quod, <S:c., ' what was the fault of the wind and waves.' 

defunctae : take with ' templum et aras ' rather than immediately 
with 'additurum.' 

Ch. 4, § I. Quinquatruum : a festival of Minerva, held March 
19-23. Ovid mentions it as being especially celebrated by workers 
in the arts and by children [Fasti iii S09 and foil.), and derives it 
wrongly from the fact that it lasted five days. The name (accord- 
ing to Varro) properly comes from a Tusculan word equivalent to 
' quintus,' and denotes that the feast began on the fifth day, 
reckoning inclusively, from the Ides. 

frequentabat, 'he (Nero) used to attend.' 

§ 2. ferendas, Sec, 'that children must bear their parents' anger 
and allay their temper.' 

facili, &c., ' with a woman's ready credence for pleasant news.' 

§ 3. Antic : she came thence by ship. Suetonius says that on her 
arrival at Baiae Nero had her own ship disabled as though by 
accident, and then put at her disposal, during her visit, the ship 
that had been designed for her murder. 

Baulos: a villa just beyond Baiae in the direction of Misenum. 
The name of the place was believed to be derived from its 
having been the resting-place of Hercules and the herds of 
Geryon (/3o(u'Xia). Tacitus' account makes Nero conduct her 
from Baiae to Bauli, which is her residence during this visit : he 
invites her to dinner at his own villa at Baiae, whither she goes in 
a litter: for her return she is persuaded to use the fatal ship, 
which Nero had put at her service (§ 5). 

§ 4. Baianum lacum : the innermost portion of the bay, 
between Baiae and Putcoli. 

flexo mari, ' by a bend of the sea.' 

§ 5. sueverat: i.e. before her estrangement with Nero. 

classiariorum remigio, ' with a crew of marines of the fleet 

§ 6. ambiguam, ' doubting.' 

§ 7. blandimentum, ' Nero's attentiveness.' 

super ipsum: according to the ordinary arrangement of the ' tri- 
clinium,' 'infra' is the position of a person reclining (on the left 


below) with his back turned to the person ' supra,' and the host 
took the position 7 in the diagram, 'below' the most honoured 
guest who was at 6 : — 

lectus medius 




4 3 










In this case probably Nero and Agrippina, owing to their rank, 
occupied the Meatus medius ' alone. 

§ a. pluribus sermonibus : abl. instr., with ' tracto.' 

familiaritate iuvenili : abl. of description, having the nomina- 
tive adj. ' adductus ' ( = 'grave') co-ordinated with it, for variety, 
instead of another similar abl. expression : see Intr. II 64 (f). 

artius, &c., ' (kissing) her eyes and clinging closely to her 

explenda simulatione, ' by way of fdiing up the measure of his 
hypocrisy.' For the abl. see Intr. II 22 (b). 

quamvis : take with 'fcrum,' 'even his savage heart.' 

Ch. 5, § 2. super pedes, &c. : Acerronia was sitting on a lower 
seat and leaning over (' reclinis ') the feet of Agrippina, who lay on 
a couch. 

ruere : historic infinitive. 

loci : the cabin on the deck where Agrippina was resting. 

§ 3. eminentibus, Szc, ' thanks to the framework of the couch 
projecting and happening to be strong enough to resist the weight 
(of the falling roof).' 

§ 5. remigibus : i.e. those of the rowers who were in the plot. 

inclinare : sc. 'se,' ' to throw their weight.' 

ipsis, the conspirators ; alii, those not in the plot. 

promptus, &c., 'did not act together with sufficient promptitude 
for this sudden stroke.' 

dedere, Sec, ' made it possible for her to slip gently into the 

§ 6. inprudentia, 'in her ignorance of the situation,' hoping to 
be saved by passing as Agrippina. 

§ 7. lenunculorum : small fishing-boats. 

villae suae : i.e. BauH. 

Ch. G, § I. summa sui parte, 'in its upper part,' abl. of the 
part affected. 

concidisset, &c., 'had given way, just as any mechanism on dry 
lanil might have done'; i.e. the sea had nothing to do with 


BOOK XIV. CH. 4, § 7 — CH. 7, §§ 1-5 

causing the accident. The verb is subjunct. as giving Agrippina's 

fortuna eius, ' thanks to his good fortune.' 

§ 2. securitate, ' freedom from anxiety.' 

obsignari, 'to be sealed up,' indicating some kind of formal 
inventory being taken, a measure prepaatory to executing the 
legacies under the will. 

id tantum, &c., 'in this alone acting without pretence.' She 
probably knew that Acerronia had left her something, and at once 
took measures towards securing her legacy, not losing her love of 
money ('ingenita avaritia,' xiii iS, 3) even in this crisis. 

Ch. 7, § I. hactenus. Sec, 'having gone far enough in peril 
to have no doubt as to the instigator.' This use of 'ne' in intro- 
ducing a result is peculiar, but is perhaps explicable as containing, 
half ironically, 2i final shade of meaning, i.e. that the plot seemed 
to have failed thus for the very purpose of showing up Nero's guilt 
(cf. ch. 5, I). 

§ 2. vindictae : probably genit. So also 'irae properum,' xi 
26, 4. 

sive . . . sive: the alternatives Nero anticipates are (i) an 
immediate rising effected by an appeal to the soldiers and sailors, 
(2) an attempt to set the constitutional forces of senate and people 
against him. sive . . . sive introduce protases to ' quod subsidium 

obiciendo : dat. of purpose. 

nisi quid : understand a verb, ' might suggest something.' For 
similar disjointed and elliptic language in strong excitement cf. 
ch. 8, § 4(Intr. II 27). 

The text given here is corrected from Med. ' expergens giios 
statim acciverat incertum an et ante ignaros.' Other suggestions 
are (i) '■expedirent: quos statim acciverat,' &c., and (2) 'quos statim 
acciverat incertum an aperiens (' disclosing his plot ') et ante 
ignaros.' Notice that the final adjective is in agreement with ' quos,' 
and is unaffected in case by ' incertum an,' which qualifies its 
meaning, ( = ' perhaps '). If (2) be adopted 'incertum an' only 
qualifies ' aperiens.' 

§ 3. igitur : because of Nero's terror, which made them hesitate 
to dissuade him from the murder as they felt argument would be 
in vain with him. 

an, &c., ' or perhaps they really thought that things had come to 
such a pass that ' ; cf. ' eo ventum ut,' xi 26, 2. 

§ 4. hactenus promptius, ' was so far the readier as to look at 
Burrus and ask.' 

militi: the praetorians in attendance. 

§ 5. totidomui: the military ' sacramentum ' bound the soldiers 
to the protection of all the memljers of the imperial family. The 
expression here, however, might denote merely personal attachment. 

summam sceleris, ' the chief part in executing the crime.' 
Cf. 'Antonio permissa summa expeditionis,' Hist, i 87, 2. 


§ 7. ultro, &c., ' took it on himself to make up a stage effect to 
support a charge.' 

Ch. 8, § I. interim: the narrative is taken up from the end 
of ch. 5. 

vulgato . . . quasi, ' made known as the result of an accident.' 
See Intr. II 50. 

decurreie: historic infinitive. So also 'scandere,' &c. in § 2. 

§2. moliumobiectus = 'obiectas moles'; Intr. II 57. Cf.'strata 
viarum' in Vergil, Aen. 1422. The words denote embankments 
to reclaim land from the sea, like those referred to in Horace, 
Od.n 18, 20. 

ut ad gratandum: this use of 'ut' like that of 'tamquam' 
and ' quasi ' (see Intr. II 50) need not imply that the intention was 
insincere, but merely that such an intention was to be inferred from 
the act. 

§ 3, servoruna : partitive genit. 

exterritis, 'frightened away,' cf. xiii 56, 5. 

§ 4. anxia : abl. abs. In the following clauses, which express 
Agrippina's thoughts, supply 'veniret' after 'quod/ and 'esse' 
with ' solitudinem.' 

laetaerei: corrected from Med. ' laetaeret.' 

§ 5. respicit, ' looks behind her and sees.' Cf. Verg. Aen. v 167 
' Cloanthum j respicit instantem tergo.' 

triei-archo: for this title see note on xv 51, 2. 

classiario : Anicetus brought sailors because the land troops 
could not be relied on to act against Agrippina. 

ac, (S:c. : the following words are in oratio obliqua. 

§ 6. in mortem, 'for the death-blow.' 

ventrem feri : 'naif Tavrrjv (i.e. ti]p yaaitpa) on Nepcoi^a freKtv,' 
Dio Ixi 13, 5. 

exelamavit : we must understand that her cry was uttered as 
the centurion drew his sword and before she received the blow on 
the head from the trierarch. 

Ch. 9, § I. aspexeritne, &c.: instead of the infin. which we should 
expect after ' tradiderint,' a form of expression is used as if ' incertum 
est ' followed. Cf. xii 52, 3 ' morte fortuita an per venenum 
extinctus esset, ut quisque credidit, vulgavere.' Cf. Intr. II 58. 

formam: Dio describes Nero as saying ovk jjdeLv on ovtco kuXIju 
firjTepa et\ov.' 

§ 2. convivali : a couch taken from the dining-room, instead of 
a proper ' lectus funebris.' 

congesta aut clausa, 'raised in a mound or enclosed in stone- 
work.' Some sort of ' tuniuhis,' however, marked her burial-place 
from the first," ch. 10, 5. 

§ 3. mox : a few years later. The ' levis tumulus ' might be 
a small stone structure. 

villam Caesaris: Seneca {E/>. 51. 11) refers to villas on the 
heights overlooking Baiae, owned by Marius and Pompeius as well 
as Julius Caesar. 


BOOK XIV. CH. 7, § 7 — CH. 11, §§ 1-4 

§ 5. contempserat, ' had made light of,' 

Chaldaei, 'astrologers,' called also by Tacitus ' mathematici ' 
and 'periti coelestium.' This prediction was perhaps the one 
made by the son of Tiberius' astrologer Thrasyllus (vi 

Ch. 10, § I. perfecto demum, Sec, ' not till the crime was com- 
pleted was its enormity grasped by Nero.' [Intr. II 21 (c).] 

reliquo noctia : see Intr. II 15. 

§ 2. centurionum tribunorumque : those of the praetorians in 
attendance, who constituted the chief source of his danger ; cf. 
ch. 7, 5. 

§ 3. municipia : used of the Italian towns in general. 

§ 4. diversa simulatione, 'with an opposite kind of pretence,' 
i.e. he assumed grief while they professed gladness, Cf. 'diversa 
fama,' ' with an opposite kind of talk,' cf, xvi 2, 2. 

§ 5. vultus, 'looks,' altering in expression : facies, 'aspect,' the 
permanent features. 

obversabaturque, &c., 'and the sight of that sea and shore ever 
before his eyes was dreadful to him.' 

percussorem : predicative, ' with murderous intent.' 

conseientia, &c., 'from the guilty consciousness of having plotted 
murder,' quasi introduces the substance of Agrippina's supposed 
reflections ; cf. ch. 8, I ' vulgato . . . quasi , . . evenisset,' and 
Intr. II 50. 

Ch. 11, § I. repetita, 'harking back to far previous occur- 

consortium imperii, * a partnership in empire,' meaning a formal 
recognition of joint sovereignty with Nero, beyond the privileges 
which she actually enjoyed. 

iuraturas in verba : the ordinary ' sacranientum ' taken by 
army, senate, and people to the ' princeps,' extended in some 
measure to all the members of the imperial family ; cf. ch. 7, 5 : 
here Agrippina is charged with having aimed at more than this, 
viz., to receive an independent oath of allegiance co-ordinate with 
that taken to her son. 

idem dedecus : that of taking the oath to her. 

donativum : on his accession (xii 69, 3). 

congiarium : in his second consulship (xiii 31, 2). 

pericula, &c. : referring to her murder of Silanus and the other 
intended murders described in xiii chs. i and 2. 

§ 2. ne inrumperet, &c. : cf. xiii 5. 

obliqua insectatione, ' making an indirect attack on.' 

§ 3. namque: the sequence of thought is 'no wonder Nero 
represented her death as an accident attesting Rome's good fortune, 
for he even told the tale of her shipwreck as though that also was 
a special intervention of Heaven to rid Rome of her.' 

cohortes , . . classes : rhetorical exaggerations for the one 
praetorian cohort in attendance and the fleet at Misenum. 

§ 4. omnium, &c,, ' was beyond all terms of remonstrance.' 


adverse rumore: abl. of quality, cf. ' claio riimore eiat,' xv 48, 2. 

confessionem : i.e. the story was so flimsy that the letter 
amounted to a confession of murder. 

Ch. 12, § I. svipplicationes . . .pulvinaria: this usual formula 
also occurs in Cic. Cat. iii 10, 23 and denotes that sacrifice was 
offered in every temple in which a ' lectisternium ' (to gods) or 
' sellisternium ' (to goddesses) was held. 

Minervae : because the ' Quinquatrus ' were held in honour of 
this goddess. 

dies natalis : Nov. 6 (a. d. viii Id. Nov.). 

§ 2. Thrasea Paetus : see xiii 49, i, and also chs. 48 and 49, 
where Tacitus seems to somewhat disparage his conduct. 

transmittere, ' to let pass.' 

ac sibi, &c., ' exposed himself to danger without leading the rest 
to assert their independence.' 

§ 3. ini'ita, 'ineffective,' in the sense that the interpretation put 
upon the prodigies was not borne out by the event. 

sol obscuratus : an eclipse, April 30, 59 A.D., which is mentioned 
by the elder Pliny as seen in Italy soon after noon, and by Corbuio 
in Asia three hours later, iam here, like ' iam vero,' marking 
a climax ; so in xiii 43, 3. 

regiones : the ' wards,' fourteen in number, into which the city 
was divided for administrative purposes. 

§ 4. quae adeo, &c., ' so far were these occurrences from being 
due to divine intervention that . . .' 

§ 5. gravaret, 'aggravate,' 'intensify.' 

lunia Calvina was sister of L. Silanus, who was originally 
betrothed to Octavia and committed suicide on Agrippina's mar- 
riage with Claudius, 49 A.D. (xii 8). 

Calpurnia was banished through Agrippina's jealousy of her 
beauty, 49 A.D. (xii 22, 3). 

Valerius Capito and Licinius Qabolus are otherwise un- 

§ 6. liollia Paulina was exiled and then put to death for having 
been Agrippina's rival for marriage with Claudius, xii i and 22, 4. 

§ 7. nam: the mention of Iturius and Calvisius naturally leads 
to that of Silana, with whose case they were connected (xiii 19 
and 22). 

longinquo, 'distant.' 

Ch. 13, § I. quonani mode: dependent on 'anxius.' an... 
an ' are not opposed, but repeated, by anaphora. 

deterrimus quisque, &c., ' all the most depraved (courtiers), of 
whom no palace ever had a greater abundance.' 

praegredi exposcunt: see Intr. II 31. 

§ 2. promptiora, &c., 'a servility exceeding what they had 

per sexum, <S:c., 'ranged according to age and sex.' 

qua incederet, frequentative subjunct., cf. Intr. II 41. speeta- 
culorum, &c., ' tiers of seats erected at every stage of his route.' 

BOOK XIV. CH. 11, § 4 — CH. 14, §§ 1-5 

§ 3. superbua, &c., ' proudly celebrating his victory over the 
enslaved public' servitii victor: the genitive shows in what his 
victory consisted, just as ' vincere publicum servitium ' would 
express 'to win a victory consisting in the servility of the 

libidines, ' vicious extravagances,' especially those acts described 
in the following chapter, evidently regarded by Tacitus as indicating 
the lowest depths of degeneracy. 

quas, Sec, ' which, though repressed with difficulty, he had 
nevertheless deferred from a certain respect for his mother.' 

Ch. 14, § I. currieulo = 'currui ' ; so xv 44, 7. 

ludicrura in modum, * in the manner of a public performer'; 
cf. ' ludicrae artes,' ' accomplishments as a performer,' ch. 16, i. 

concertai-e equis : this is a correction from Med. 'cum celaret 
^s.' The manuscript has ' cenaret ' written above ' celaret ' ; ^s. is 
abbreviated for ' quis.' 

regium : cf. //. 23, 287 and foil., for the funeral games of Patro- 
clus, in which Greek princes personally contend in chariot-races. 
In historical times princes, like Hiero, and individual citizens, like 
Alcibiades (included here under the term 'duces'), sent to the 
games chariots entered in their name. 

vatum : such as Pindar, and other lyric poets, who wrote 
panegyrics on victorious athletes. 

deorum honori datum: the chariot-race was part of the 
worship of the god in whose honour the games were held. 

§ 2. enimvero : the particle here lays stress on what follows as 
a still more important consideration. 

tali ornatu : that of a citharoedus, in which Nero was often 
represented on coins. 

§ 3. utraque, ' lest he should carry both points.' 

§ 4. clausum . . . spatium : a circus begun by Gaius, and 
standing in part of the space now occupied by St. Peter's. An 
obelisk with which Gaius adorned it now stands in the Piazza. 

baud promisee, ' the sight not being open to all.' Cf. ' promiscas 
scaenas,' xv 33, i. 

§ 5. evulgatus pudor, 'the publicity of his shame.' 

molliri, ' to be mitigated.' 

nobilium : Julius Caesar had forced the knight Laberius to 
appear on the public stage ; this was forbidden to 'nobiles ' under 
Augustus by a ' senatus consultum,' and Tiberius punished with 
exile those who broke the decree. 

ne nominatim : Dio mentions Furii, Fabii, Porcii, and Valerii 
as appearing in this way, and adds that the provincials present 
pointed in scorn to the descendants of their conquerors. Cf. also 
Juv. viii 191. 

nam et : this gives another reason for withholding names, — the 
disgrace was Nero's rather than theirs. 

quam ne delinquerent : cf. xiii 34, 2, where Nero followed the 
policy Tacitus recommends ! 



§ 6. operas, 'their services in the arena,' i.e. as gladiators or 

nisi quod: qualifying the idea that these gifts were merely 
inducements, — 'were it not that payment from one who can command 
carries the force of compulsion.' 

Ch. 1-5, § I. ne tamen adhuc : Nero ceased to confine his 
performances to semi-private entetainments in 64 a.d. (xv 33), 
when he exhibited himself as a public singer at Naples. 

instituit ludos : the first clipping of a young Roman's beard 
was the occasion of a festival in his family : Nero marked this 
event in his own case by the institution of the ' Juvenalia,' and 
repeated the festival annually in his own private grounds, himself 
taking part in the performances given. 

passim nomina data, ' names were given in from all classes,' 
by persons wishing to compete. The phrase is a metaphor from 
soldiers answering to the conscription : cf. also xv 48, i. 

§ 2. Graeci . . . histrionis : referring to the performance of 
Greek tragedies modified so as to consist of gesticulation and song 
(cf. ' gestus modosque,' below). P^or ' histrio ' cf. xiii 19, 4. 

§ 3. deformia, &c., ' studied degrading parts.' 

nemus : this was laid out by Augustus round the ' stagnum ' 
across the Tiber, where contests of ships were exhibited. Cf. Mon. 
Anc. iv 43 'navalis proeli spectaclum populo dedi trans Tiberim 
in quo loco nunc nemus est Caesarum.' 

conventicula, ' assembly rooms.' 

stipes : (i) ' doles ' from the emperor, to be spent then and there, 
or (2) ' payment ' coming from the public in the shape of entrance 
money. The following clause ' spent by the good under compul- 
sion, and by the vicious from vanity' seems to favour (2). Gloria, 
a reprehensible exultation in having made small gains by their own 
degradation : consumerent, frequentative. 

§ 4. inde, &c., 'to this was due the spread of abomination and 
infamy, and nothing brought more corruption to our already 
depraved manners than did the filthy herd thus swept together.' 

nee ulla : the fem. adj. is used rather than 'quidquam' under 
the anticipation of the final word 'colluvies.' 

§ 6. multa cura, &c., 'tuning his lyre with intense care, and 
singing his prelude with his instructors at hand.' 

phonascis is reconstructed from Med. 'facies,' on the supposition 
that this is a corruption of 'foascis.' The correction is supported 
by a passage of Suetonius describing Nero as never addressing 
soldiers or people 'nisi astante phonasco' {Ner. 25). 

§ 7. maerens ac laudans, ' distressed and yet applauding.' An 
adversative meaning is taken by a copulative conjunction when the 
words joined are sufficiently opposed in meaning, cf. i 38, 4 
' turbidos et nihil ausos.' So also xiv 65, 2 ' magna moles et 

§ 8. Augustianorum : called by Dio Ai-yo/oTetot, and described 
as a avaTijixa (S TTfVTaKia^iXiovs orpaTicoraf. 

BOOK XIV. CH. 14, § 6 — CH. 18, § i 

pars ingenio, &c., 'some piofli:-jate by nature, others acting so 
in the hope of obtaining influence.' 
§ 9. personare, ' kept up a din.' 

deum vocabulis, ' calling him by names of gods.' Dio gives 
some of their cries ; 6 /caXoj Kalaap, 6 'ATr.'AXtuf, 6 Avyovcrroi, ds 
ioi IlidiOi. Sacrifices offered for his 'divine voice ' are mentioned, 
xvi 22, I. 

agere = ' se gerere.' 

Ch. 16, § I. adfectavit, 'aspired to the pursuit of poetry.' 
The Latin verb may imply pretence, but more usually denotes 
genuine aspiration. 

necdum inaignis erat. hi cenati : this is a correction from the 
corrupt Med. text ' necdum insignis aetatis nati ' with full stop 
before ' necdum.' 

§ 2. et adlatos, &c., ' strung together lines which they had brought 
in or composed on the spot, and polished up his own casually 
dropped utterances, as is indicated by the actual appearance of the 
poems, which do not run with any dash and inspiration or as the 
work of one mind.' 

flaens : agreeing with ' species ' by hypallage, like ' purpurarum 
sidere clarior . . . usus,' Hor. Od. iii i, 42. Suetonius passes 
a different judgment on Nero's verse : he says that the poems 
published in Nero's name were evidently the emperor's own work, 
as he had himself seen the tablets on which they were composed, 
showing words erased and rearranged in Nero's own handwriting 
{A'er. 52). 

§ 3. utque : the final clause should be regarded as another circum- 
stance coupled with ' post epulas,' ' and that he might find amuse- 
ment in the disputes of men maintaining opposite assertions.' (The 
text is here corrected from Med. 'adseverant turn discordiae 

tristi, ' serious.' The men referred to here would be professional 
Stoics or Cynics. 

Ch. 17, § I. Nucerinos : on Nuceria see xiii 31, 2. 

rettuli : in some part of the lost portions of Tacitus' work. Livi- 
neius Regulua is unknown except for mention here. 

§ 2. oppidana, ' usual in country towns,' where disturbances at 
games appear to have been frequent. Cf. Cic. pro Phutc. xii 30 
(of an act of violence at Atina) ' vetere quodam in scaenicos iure 
maximeque oppidano.' 

sumpaere : applied by zeugma to ' probra,' cf. xiii 35, 7. 

apud quos : i. e. in the amphitheatre at Pompeii. 

§ 4. I'elata : sc. ' a consulibus,' who inquired into the facts and 
referred the question of penalties to the senate. For the jurisdiction 
of senate and consuls over Italian towns cf. xiii 4, 3. 

collegia, ' associations,' ' clubs.' 

Ch. 18, § I. Pedius Blaeaua was restored by Otho, Hist, i 
77, 6. Cyrene was united with Crete as a senatorial province of 
the second rank. 



thesaurum, 'treasures (in the temple) of Aesculapius.' 

pretio, Sec, 'and that he had been guilty of bribery and 
favouritism in his conduct of the military levy.' 

§ 2. praetoria potestate, &c., *a man of praetorian rank sent 
by Claudius to decide the question of the lands, once the hereditary 
possessions of King Apion, and left with his kingdom to Rome ; 
these the neighbouring landowners had appropriated, and then 
rested on the indulgence so long shown to their encroachment as 
though on right and justice.' 

Ftolemaeus Apion, last king of Cyrene, died in 96 B. C, 
making the Roman people his heirs. The legacy was not accepted 
at the time, and the province was not constituted till 74 B. C. 

licentia et iniuria: hendiadys ; cf. xiii 13, 2. 

§ 3. abiudicatis, 'taken away by his judgment' from the 

§ 4. usurpata, ' what they had occupied.' 

Ch, 19, § I. Domitius Afer was a 'delator' under Tiberius, 
and a flatterer of Gains. 

M. Servilius Nonianus was consul in 35 A.D. ; his history is lost. 

elegantia, &;c., ' the refinement of his life, which he rendered 
the more illustrious as he excelled in character the other whom he 
equalled in ability.' 

moruin : cf. ' sententiae diversos,' xiii 26, 2. 

Ch. 20, § I. quinquennale ludicrum : called ' lustrale cer- 
tamen ' in xvi 4, i. Nero's design was to celebrate the fulfil- 
ment of each complete period of five years of his rule, as his 
predecessors had celebrated their 'decennia imperii.' 

varia fama : abl. of accompanying circumstance, * (provoking) 
different criticisms, as novelties usually do.' The innovation on 
former precedents consisted chiefly of the addition of ' musical ' 
contests, i.e. in poetry, rhetoric, and music. 

§ 2. Pompeium : for his theatre cf xiii 54, 4. 

a senioribus, ' by the older men (of his day).' 

§ 3. nam antea, &c. : it is recorded that a permanent theatre 
was in course of construction in 155 B.C., but was destroyed by 
order of the senate and chief pontiff P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica ; 
and the prohibition of sitting at the games was at the same time 
renewed and enforced. 

theatre : local abl. ignavia : modal abl. continuaret, * should 
spend whole days.' 

§ 4. Bpectaculorum quidem, &c. : the speakers deprecate 
having fresh games other than those held annually by the praetois, 
and complain of the compulsion of citizens to compete, and of the 
introduction of Greek gymnastics as being likely to supersede the 
necessary military exercises. 

§ 5. ceterum, &.C., 'however, the morality of our fathers, 
gradually undermined, was now being absolutely subverted by vice, 
which had been imported so that every possible object and instru- 
ment of wickedness might be seen in the city.' 

BOOK XIV. CH. 18, § I — CH. 21, §§ i-8 

exercendo : taken by zeugma with ' gymnasia ' in the sense of 
'frequentando.' Cf. xiii 35, 7. For ab1. see Intr. II 22 (b). 

§ 6. quid superesse, &c. : the games included gymnastic con- 
tests of all sorts, but hitherto noble Romans took part in the 
' musical' competitions only. 

§ 7. iustitlam auctum iri : for Med. 'ius titia augurii.' 

decurias equitum : i. e. the ' decuriae iudicum,' the latter con- 
sisting practically entirely of ' equites.' 

fractos : effeminate, falsetto, perite, ' like experts.' 

Ch. 21, § I. pluribus, 'the majority.' 

praetendebant, ' disguised it under specious phrases.' 

§ 2. quoque non = 'ne . . . quidem.' obleetamentis : ablat. 

pro fortuna, &c., ' in proportion to the wealth of the times.' 

a Tuscis : in 364 B. c. Cf Livy vii 2-. 

Thurii was founded near the site of Sybaris by colonists from all 
parts of Greece, but especially from Athens, in 443 B. c. Tacitus 
follows an otherwise unknown tradition, opposite to that of Livy 
(i 35), who states that horse-racing was introduced into Rome 
from Etruria in the days of Tarquinius Priscus. 

possessa, 'taken under dominion.' Achaia became a Roman 
province after the fall of Corinth, 146 B.C., as did Asia after the 
capture of Aristonicus, 129 B.C. 

curatius, ' more elaborately ' ( = ' accuratius ' : see alsoxvi 22, 6). 

nee quemquam, &c., 'and no one at Rome of noble birth had 
stooped to become a professional player.' Previous appearances 
of senators and knights (as in ch. 14) are counted as amateur 

Mummii : the conqueror of Corinth, 

id genus: Greek performances, more especially those of the 
stage, for Greek athletes had been exhibited at Rome in the games 
given by M. Fulvius Nobilior, 186 B.C. 

§ 3. quani = ' quam ut.' Cf, xiii 42, 8, 

§ 4, perinde, ' as much ' (as formerly). The argument is, now 
that the people had the Neronia, the expense of which was borne 
by the treasury, they would not expect elaborate spectacles, in- 
cluding Greek contests, to be given by the magistrates at personal 

§ 5, vatum, 'poets.' grave, 'degrading,' 'demoralising.' 

§ 6, laetitiae, ' merriment.' laseiviae, ' profligacy.' 

§ 7. ac, &c., ' there was hardly even a moderate amount of excite- 
ment roused in the populace.' 

quamquam : following ' redditi,' by anastrophe. 

redditi: the expulsion of the ' histriones ' is mentioned in 
xiii 25, 4. 

certaminibus sacris : the Neronia. The phrase is an imita- 
tion of (e,)0( (i)&jrfs-, the term applied to the Greek festivals. 

§ 8. primas : sc. ' partes,' ' the first prize for oratory.' The prize 
was awarded to Nero though he had not delivered a speech in 
the competition. 



exoleverunt, ' dropped out of fashion.' The meaning apparently 
is that during the festival not only the competitors, but the majority 
of the spectators, appeared in Greek dress, which thus became 
vulgarized and regarded as unfashionable. 

Cli. 22, § I. sidus cometes : spoken of by Seneca as having 
been visible for six months, and as having belied the superstition 
that regarded a comet as a sign of evil (' cometis detraxit infamiam,' 
(2u. Nat. vii 17, 2). (For the syntax see Intr. II i.) 

opinio, tamquam . . . portendat : for the use of ' tamquam' by 
Tacitus cf xiii 28, 5 and Intr. II 50. 

regis : used as a general term under which the Roman ' princeps ' 
is comprehended. (The title being unusual as applied by the Roman 
populace to their ruler, Bentley has suggested ' regnis,' from Lucan 
i 529 ' mutantem rcgna cometen.') 

§ 2. Rubellius Plautus : see xiii 19, 3. 

§ 3. placita=f5oy/iaTa. ' He held to the ideas of our ancestors, 
his manners being austere, his house pure and secluded, while the 
more he sought obscurity through fear, the more did he add to his 
reputation.' He was also a Stoic, cf. ch. 59, 2. 

§ 4. vanita'.e, 'superstition.' discumbentis, 'reclining at 

Simbruina stagna : three lakes formed by the upper waters of 
the Anio, below which was Sublaqueum, the site of Nero's villa. 
'Anio in monte Trebanorum ortus tres lacus amoenitate nobiles 
qui nomen dedere Sublaqueo defert in Tiberim' (Pliny, A'. H. iii 12, 
17, 109). 

hunc ilium, 'believed that he must be the man destined.' 

fovebant, ' and he began to receive the attentions of many of 
those who show an eager and usually mistaken obsequiousness in 
paying premature court to new and doubtful fortunes.' 

§ 5. diffamantibus, ' spreading evil reports.' 

inturbida, 'without causing disturbance'; cf. 'turbidus,' th. 

59, 5- 

Antistia: in full, 'Antistia Pollitta,' daughter of Antistius Vctus 
(xiii II, i), with whom she suffered death (xvi lo-ii) three years 
after the death of her husband (ch. 59, 3). 

§ 6. luxus, ' self-indulgence.' 

fontem : the main stream supplying the aqueduct that carried 
the 'aqua Marcia.' This was constructed by the praetor L. Marcius 
Rex, in 149 B.C., and was restored by Agrippa and augmented by 
Augustus. It started in the Sabine hills near the thirty-sixth 
milestone on the ' via Valeria.' 

nando : dat. of purpose. 

caerimoniam loci : the sources of rivers, and springs rising 
suddenly from the ground were regarded as sacred (Seneca, Ep. 
41, 3). As the 'aqua Marcia' supplied Rome with drinking 
water, it was well to insist on the sanctity of its source. 

anceps valetudo, ' severe indisposition.' 

Ch. 23, § I. at Corbvilo, &c. : this narrative is resumed 

BOOK XIV. CH. 21, § 8 — CH. 25, §§ 1-2 

from xiii 41, and appears to deal with the two years 59 and 60 A.D. 
See Intr. V 3 and 4. 

recenti terrore : the terror caused by the destruction of 
Artaxata would be recent even if we suppose he had wintered there 
after its surrender. 

intenderet, ' intensify.' 

infenso, 'in hostile fashion.' 

remissa cura, ' relaxing precautions.' 

gnarus, &c., ' well aware that this people, so ready to change, 
could be treacherous when opportunity offered, just as it shrank 
back in the face of danger.' 

§ 3. diversis artibus : a curious application of the ablat. of 
description, ' misericordia ' and ' celeritate ' standing in apposition 
to 'artibus.' Cf. Intr. 11 22 (a). 'Employing opposite methods, 
leniency towards the suppliant but summary measures against the 

§ 4. praegredientem = ' praetergredientem.' 

Mardi : a race living on Mount Niphates, ancestors of the 
modern Kurds. The name is preserved in ' Mardistan.' 

Hiberis : the Hiberi were voluntary allies of Corbulo from hatred 
of the Armenians. Cf. xiii 2>7f 3- 

vastavit: Tacitus uses ' vastare aliquem ' = ' vastare alicuius 
terram.' Cf. ch. 38, 2, and xv 1,2. 

externo sanguine : without sacrifice of Roman lives. 

Ch. 24, § I. fatiscebant, ' were becoming exhausted.' 

carne pecudum : to a Roman soldier corn meal was the great 
necessity of life, and the substitution of animal food for it was 
prejudicial. So Caesar {B. G. vii 17, 3) speaks of meat as famine 
diet, ' ut complures dies milites frumento caruerint, et pecore . . . ex- 
tremamfamem sustentarent.' For 'adigere' with infin. cf. Intr. II 31. 

§ 2. ad hoc : Trpoy toiVok, ' besides.' 

§ 4. Tauraunitiura : genit. plur. rather than ace. sing. The 
name indicates that the district was in the country belonging to the 
Taurus range : it was probably the district of Mush, west of Lake 

§ 5. ordinem, 'the details'; cf. xiii 20, i. 

§ 6. Tigranocerta : see Intr. II 62. 

^ 7. accepitque, &c., ' he received it with appreciation, and no 
damage was done to the city, that the inhabitants being uninjured 
might maintain a more willing obedience.' 

Ch. 25, § I. Legerda: corrected from Med. 'legerat,' owing to 
the mention by Ptolemy (v 13, 20) of xiy^p^n as a place between 
the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates, and thus west or north- 
west of Tigranocerta. 

pro muris, ' outside the walls.' 

aggeri : a mound constructed against the walls to make it possible 
for the besiegers to climb over, such as that described in Thuc. (ii 
75) at the siege of Plataea. 

§ 2. Hyrcano belle : cf xiii 37, 6. 


§ 3. mai'is rubri : the Persian Gulf ('Epu^pi; OdXaa-crn, Hdt. i 1 80), 
so in ii 61. The envoys returned from Syria along the west 
bank of the Euphrates to the sea, and so back to Hyrcania by 
a route beyond the eastern hmit of the Parthian power. 

Ch. 26, § I. per Medos : cf. xiii 41, 2. Verulaniis is men- 
tioned again xv 3, i. 

citis, 'proceeding by forced marches.' amittei-e, 'to give 

subegit : with infinitive. Cf. Intr. II 31. 
possessionem ustirpabat, ' was seizing possession of.' 
Tigranes: presumably grandson of Alexander the son of Herod 
the Great. Archelaus was established king of Cappadocia by 
Antony, 36 B. c. He was descended from the general of Mithridates 
who bore the same name, and who apparently gave his daughter in 
marriage to Alexander the grandfather of the Tigranes here men- 

nepos, ' descendant,' he was great-grandson of Archelaus. 
usque, &c., ' humbled to the submissiveness of a slave.' 
§ 2. durante, &c. : Tiridates was preferred, as being a nearer 
representative of the house of the Arsacids, with which Tigranes 
was nevertheless himself connected. 

§ 3. quo facilius, &c. : the kings next mentioned would have an 
interest in protecting the Armenian frontiers, by having districts of 
Armenia attached to their kingdoms. 

pars Armeniae, &c. : the text is reconstructed from Med. ' pars 
Armenia eunt cuique finitima pars nipulique.' Pharasmanes was 
king of Iberia, cf. xiii S7, 3 ; Polemo was king of Pontus with part 
of Cilicia. For Aristobulus and Antiochus see xiii 7. 

§ 4. morte, &c. : Anteius had been appointed successor to Um- 
midius five years before, but had been detained in Rome ; cf. xiii 
22, 2. sibi perniissam = ' left to itself.' 

Ch. 27, § I. Laodicea : an important commercial city on the 
borders of Phrygia and Caria, on the Lycus, a tributary of the 

§ 2. Puteoli: a colony of 300 Roman citizens had been settled 
there in 194 B.C., and the place appears from an inscription to have 
been again colonized by Augustus. Tacitus' words here probably 
mean that the ' vetus oppidum,' the old community, existing, with 
municipal status only, side by side with the colony, was now raised 
to colonial rank. The distinction between 'colonia' and ' muni- 
cipium ' had however by now ceased to have any real importance. 

cognomentum : the town added to its name ' colonia Claudia 
Augusta Neronensis,' which was afterwards altered to ' colonia 
Flavia Augusta.' 

§ 3. adscript! : the word is used of the enrolment of additional 
settlers to an already existing colony. Tarentum had become a 
colony in 122 B. C. ; Antium was originally a Latin colony and was 
resettled in 338 B. C. Nero regarded this town with special favour 
as being his birthplace ; cf. xv 23. 

BOOK XIV. CH. 25, § 3 — CH. 29, § I 

infrequentiae, * lack of population.' 

stipendia expleverant : Augustus had ordained sixteen, and 
then twenty years, as the limit of military service ; the soldiers were 
however usually kept on past that time as reserves (' sub vexillo 
retenti '), exempt from ordinary camp duties, but liable to be called 
up for active service in emergencies. 

§ 4. ut olim : this old custom prevailed from the time of Sulla 
to that of Augustus, who had himself been greatly helped by the 
Campanian military colonies of the former. 

sui cuiusque ordinis, ' of their own distinct century,' i. e. grouped 
in their proper centuries. (This is a genit. of quality, answering to 
the abl. of quality, ' diversis manipulis,' below). For a similar 
construction of ' suus quisque,' taken as a single word ( = ' distinct,' 
' several '), cf. Caes. B. C i 83 ' cohortes , . . suae cuiusque legionis.' 

ut, &c., ' to form a community in virtue of their esprit de corps.' 

quasi, &c., ' as though drawn suddenly together from any other 
class of people, (proving) a mere mob rather than a colony.' 

collecti : participle, ' deducebantur' being supplied. 

numerus, ' a mere aggregate.' Cf. Hor. Ep. i 2, 27 ' nos 
numerus sumus.' 

Ch. 28, § I. arbitrio senatus: elections to magistracies 
were transferred from the comitia to the senate in the first year of 
Tiberius' reign, 14 A. D. (Intr. Ill 7). 

supra numerum : there were twelve praetorships, for which the 
princeps usually ' commended ' four candidates, thus leaving eight 
places to be filled up by the free election of the senate. On this 
occasion there were fifteen competitors for the twelve vacancies. 

praeficiendo : appointing each to the post of ' legatus legionis.' 
They would be able to take a praetorship afterwards, if they desired. 

§ 2. a privatis iudicibus, ' from civil tribunals.' 

eiusdem pecuniae : the caution-money to be lodged on appeal 
was fixed at one-third of the sum at which the action was laid, and 
this was forfeited if the original judgment was confirmed. The 
absence of any such regulation in appeals to the senate would 
render them liable to frivolous appeals. 

vacuum, 'open.' 

§ 3. Vibius Secundus had been procurator of one of the two 
provinces into which, in the reign of Claudius, Mauretania had been 

Vibius Crispus is known as a 'curator aquarum ' 68-71 A. D., 
and mentioned by the elder Pliny as proconsul of Africa. Tacitus, 
in the Histories, mentions his fame as an orator and his evil repute 
as an accuser. He was intimate with Domitian, under whom he 
reached the age of eighty (Juv. iv 81-93). 

Ch. 29, § I. Caesennio : corrected from Med. ' Cesonio,' on 
the supposition that he was the same as the person mentioned in 
XV 6, 4, <S:c. 

Turpilianus : mentioned in ch. 39 and in xv 72, 2 ; he was 
put to death by Galba [Hist, i 6, 2). 

63 P 


A. Didius : governor 52-57 A. D. An account of his doings is 
given in xii 40, 7. 

Veraniua died in the course of his first year of command in 
Britain, 58 A. D. 

Siluras : the Silures extended over South Wales, Monmouth- 
shire, and Herefordshire. Their chief town was Burium (Usk). 
Tacitus believed them to be of Iberian extraction ' A^r. 2, 11). 

testamenti : descriptive genit., ' in his last words as expressed in 
his will.' 

ambitionis manifestus, ' betraying vanity ' ; cf. xiii 23, 2 ' vani- 
tatis manifestus,' = ' clearly guilty of falsehood.' 

subiecturum, &c., * that he would have completed the subjection 
of the province,' by overcoming the resistance in the west and north. 
§ 2. Paulinus Suetonius : as legatus in Mauretania he had put 
down a rebellion (41-42 A. D.); he had probably been a consul 
before his appointment in Britain, as he is called ' vetustissimus 
consularium ' in NtsL ii 37, 2, refen-ing to the year 69 A. D. In the 
civil war he was conspicuous as a supporter of Otho. 
perduellibus : an archaic word. 

§ 3. Mona.m : Anglesea, Miom in Dio. (The Mona of Caes. 
B. G. V 13 is probably the Isle of Man.) 
piano alveo, ' flat-bottomed.' 

breve et incertum : sc. ' maris,' ' the shallow and shifting 
(because tidal) depth' (see Intr. II 51). 
§ 4. adnantes, ' swimming beside.' 
Ch. 30, § I. pro litore, ' along the shore.' 
diversa, ' of the enemy,' cf. xiii 57, 3. 

in modum, &c. : cf. Strabo's description of the inhabitants of the 
* Cassiterides,' fxe\nyx^(^>^voL . . . ofioioi -ah rpayiKois Uoii'iiis. 

Druidae : described in Caes. B. G. vi 13-14. According to the 
elder Pliny, Tiberius took measures to suppress them in Gaul (be- 
cause of their human sacrifices), as did Claudius after him, according 
to Suetonius. 

preces fundentes : a Vergilian expression, cf. Aen. v 233 ' Ni . . . 
Cloanthus | fudissetque preces. . . .' 

§ 2. igni suo involvunt, ' envelope in the flames of their own 
torches,' by driving the torch-bearing women in upon the mass. 
§ 3. praesidium : a fort and garrison. 
saevis superstitionibus, ' savage rites.' 

cruore captive = 'captivorum.' Cf. ' extcrno sanguine,' ch. 23, 4. 
adolere aras : an archaic and poetical expression, cf. Vergil, 
Aen. vii 71 ' castis adolet dum altaria taedis . . . Lavinia.' The 
meaning of the verb is uncertain, the various senses of 'piling,' 
' honouring,' ' making to burn/ being all possible, though perjjaps 
from different bases. 
fibris = ' extis.' 

fas habebant, ' it was their religious custom.' 
Ch. 31, § I, The Iceni extended over Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cam- 
bridgeshire. Their town Ovfvra, ' Venta Icenorum,' is Norwich or 


BOOK XIV. CH. 29, § I - CH. 32, §§ 1-2 

Caistor, and their name may be traced in Ickworth and Icknield. 
Another form of the name, seen on coins, is ' Eceni ' (probably 

longa = 'diiiturna,' so ch. 53, 5 ' longa decora.' 

§ 2. vertit : intrans., so xiii 32, 5. 

centuriones . . . servos : the respective agents of the legatus 
and the procurator, the former enforcing the conscription (cf. Agr. 
31, I ) and punishing general disobedience, the other exacting the 
fiscal imposts and inheritance. 

§ 3. iam primum, 'to begin with.' 

JBoudicca : probably the correct form of the name, which appears 
in Dio as \!>ovvhnvi<a and BovSovikh, and in Agr. as ' Voadicca' and 
'Voaduca' ; it is equivalent in meaning to such a Latin name as 
'Victorina.' The form ' Boadicea ' is a popular perversion, like 
' Caractacus ' for ' Caratacus,' = Celtic ' Caradog,' ' Carthach,' 
(' McCarthy'). 

muneri : predicative dat. ' for a gift.' 

accepissent: 'Romani 'must be understood; the change of subject 
is very harsh. 

§ 4. in formam provinciae : becoming annexed to the province 
on Prasutagus' death. 

rebellatio : a rare variation for ' rebellio.' 

Trinovantes : this people lived in Suffolk and Essex, having 
Camulodunum (Colchester) for their capital. They were the most 
powerful of the southern tribes in Caesar's time, and represented 
the centre of resistance in the invasion under Claudius. The name 
means ' battle-stabbers.' 

pepigerant: with infin. Cf. Intr. II 31. 

§ 5. recens deduct! : in 50 A. D. (' recens,' adv.). 

appellando : an ablative of attendant circumstance, used 
as a variant for ' appellantes ' or ' cum appellarent.' See Intr. 
II 22 b. 

inpotentiam, ' lawlessness.' 

§ 6. templum divo Claudio : erected in his lifetime, as were the 
provincial temples to Augustus. 

sacerdotes : taken from provincial subjects of good family. 

omnis fortunas : as though 'omnium fortunas.' For 'effundere,' 
' to spend money not one's own,' cf. Cic. Tusc. iii 20, 48 ' C. Gracchus 
cum effudisset aerarium.' The heavy contributions levied by the 
priests for the service of this temple became a national grievance. 

§ 7. amoenitati, ' beauty of situation.' 

Ch. 32, § I. palam : its position gives adjectival force, 'for no 
apparent reason' (Intr. II 49). 

§ 2. canebant, 'prophesied.' 

exteriios, ' barbarian.' 6povs vvktus (BapjjapiKos fitra yeXcaros . . . 
firjdevos avdpMTTciiv (pdeyyopevov, Dio. 

curia: the hall where the ' decuriones ' of the colony met. 

eoruni = ' Camulodunensium,' supplied from the name of the 



Tamesae, &c. : for the river (' Tamesis ' in Caesar), Dio employs 
the same form as Tacitus, ot/cuu li nves eV roj Ta^^aa nora^o) vcp- 
vbpoi iMpmno ; his account of the appearance (whatever it was) 
indicates something different from the explanation one might put 
on Tacitus' words, viz. an appearance of Camulodunum at the 
mouth of the Thames due to reflexion under peculiar atmospheric 

iam : cf. xiii 43, 3. 

dilabente, 'ebbing.' 

corporum effigies, ' the appearance of human bodies,' sand- 
heaps taking what was fancied to be the form of corpses. 

^ 3. iustis, 'proper,' 'regular.' 

§ 4. tutela templi : this implies that the temple precinct was 
an enclosure of some strength. 

neque metis, &c. : the negation applies both to ' niotis ' and 
'restitit' ; 'nor were the aged and the women removed, the men of 
fighting age alone remaining to defend it.' ' Motis' = 'remotis,' 
cf. ch. 60, 5. 

§ 6, Petilius Cerialis was a distinguished general, prominent 
under Vespasian ; later on legatus of Britain {Agr. 8, 2), and also 
held appointment in Germany. 

nonae : this legion, it is thought, was stationed at this time at 
Lindum (Lincoln). 

quod peditum: sc. *ei erat.' Cf. xv 26, 2 'quodque alarum 

in casti-a : probably back to the station from which they had 
marched (not to Camulodunum, where the temple had been 

§ 7. avaritia eius : Uio states that he demanded a restoration 
of the money which Claudius had given to the chief men. Tacitus 
ignores the story of the exactions of Seneca, see xiii 42, 7. 

Ch. 33, § I. Londiniuni: here mentioned for the first time in 
classical literature. 

cognomento, &c., 'not (yet) distinguished by the title of colony, 
but crowded with numbers of merchants and abundance of 

§ 2. circumspecta, &c., ' having considered the small numbers 
of his troops, and the fact that Petilius' rashness had been checked 
by warnings sufficiently severe ' ; the infinitive depends on ' circum- 
specto' supplied from 'circumspecta.' Cf. Intr. il 21 b. 

§ 3. quin, iSic, 'could not be dissuaded from giving the order 
to start, taking those who would follow as part of his column.' 
He would not stay to defend the place, but would escort fugitives 
to a place of safety. 

§ 4. Verulamio : the remains of Verulamium closely adjoin 
St. Albans. It was probably the same as the ' oppidum Cassive- 
launi ' in Caes. B. G. v 21. 

inliitum : here like a passive partic. ' unguarded ' rather than as 
adj. ' insecure.' 


BOOK XIV. CH. 32, § 2 — CH. 35, §§ 1-4 

laboriim segiies : gen. of reference, like 'irae properus' (xi 26, 5), 
so also xvi 14, I. See also Intr. II 24 c. 

§ 5. civium et socioium ; i. e. Romans, Romanized Britons, and 
Gaulish and other traders. 

§ 6. capere, &c. : the infinitives may be regarded as depending 
on some such idea as ' curabant ' supplied (by zeugma) from ' festi- 
nabant ' ; ' commercium ' stands alone, for variation, instead of with 
an infin. such as ' exercere ' or ' facere.' Quod, is the indef. pro- 
noun (adj. form) ; see Intr. 113 b, 

belli commercium : referring to the ransoming of captives 
(cf. Verg. Aeri. x 552). 

patibula, 'gibbets.' ' Patibulum' also means a heavy wooden 
beam in which the hands and head were fixed as in a pillory ; 
cf. ' patibulatus ferar per urbem, deinde adfigar cruci,' Plaut. frag. 

tamquam, &c., 'feeling that they were destined to suffer retribu- 
tion, and snatching meanwhile at the vengeance within reach.' 

Ch. 34, § I. cvim vexillariis vicensimanis, ' with a de- 
tachment of the 20th legion' (not necessarily the 'veterani sub 

§ 2. locum : there is no means of identifying this place for 
certain, though it is generally taken to have been somewhere 
between London and Colchester: Haynes Green, between Maldon 
and Colchester, has been suggested as resembling the description 

apertam, ' that the plain (in front) was open,' i. e. contained no 

§ 3. frequens ordinibus, ' in closely massed ranks.' 

circum, ' on each side.' pro cornibus, ' at the extremity of 
each wing ' (xiii 38, 6). 

§ 4. quanta non alias, ' greater than ever before.' 

fei'oci, ' confident.' 

plaustris inponerent : the women of the Cimbri are described 
as having followed the men into battle in a similar way. 

Ch. 3.5, § I. solitum Eritannis ; cf. Agr. 16 ' neque enim 
sexum in imperils discernunt.' 

sed tunc, iSic, ' but now she was not as a queen of noble lineage 
seeking vengeance for loss of kingdom and wealth, but like one of 
the humblest burning to vindicate the loss of liberty, the infliction 
of the scourge upon her body, the outrage on her daughter's 

§ 2. ut non corpor-a, &c., ' that they spared the person of none, 
leaving not even age and innocence unassailed.' 

§ 3. adesse, &c., ' at hand to exact a righteous vengeance.' So 
V 72, 5 ' qui tributo aderant ' (i. e. ' tributo exigendo '). 

ceteros: the 2nd legion, ch. 37, 6, and perhaps also the rest of 
the 20th (ch. 34, I), and the survivors of the 9th (ch. 32, 6). 

eircumspicere, ' were watching for a chance of.' 

§ 4. impetus et manus, ' the shock of their encounter.' 

bscum expenderent, 'reflect upon.' Similar outrages would 


recur, and they might not always have the same means of resist- 

vel : for 'aut' so in oh. 6i, 6, and 62, 5. 

Ch. 36, § 2. ubi . . . adgnovissent, 'as soon as they, so often 
routed, recognized the steel and the valour of their conquerors.' 

§ 3. in multis, &c., 'where many legions were present, it was 
only a few soldiers who gave the decisive impulse to battles.' 

§ 4. et pilis, (S:c., ' et ' couples ' conferti ' with all the following 
words down to ' gladiis.' 

continuarent, ' keep up incessantly.' Cf. .xiii 53, I. 

eessura : so, ' praeda victoribus cessit,' xiii 39, 7. 

§ 5. intorquenda, 'hurling.' 

multa experientia : abl. of quality. 

certus eventus : so ' matrimonii certa,' Afin. xii 3, 2. 

Ch. 37, § I. gradu, 'position.' 

angustias : cf. ' locum artis faucibus,' ch. 34, 2. 

in propius suggressos hostis : for Med. ' propius suggrcssus 
hostis,' which would require ' exhauserat ' to be unnaturally strained 
to the meaning 'received upon themselves all the missiles.' 

certo iactu, ' with deadly effect.' 

§ 3. terga praebuere : a variation for the usual 'terga dederunt ' 
(possibly to avoid the he.xameter ending). For ' abitus,' ' outlet,' cf. 
Verg. Aen. ix 379 ' omnemque abitum custode coronant.' 

§ 4. auxerant : expressing what had come to pass at a time soon 
after that spoken of. Cf. the use of ' auxerant,' Ann. i 63, 3 and 
' aboleverat,' Hist, ii 5, 3. In such uses the pluperfect denotes 
an action prior not to that of the preceding verb of it^ own clause 
(as ' saepserant ' above denotes something prior to ' praebuere 'j, 
but to the subsequent action described. 

§ 5. octoginta milia : such numbers are usually guesswork, 
but the slaughter of the Teutons and Cimbri by Marius and that 
inflicted on the Gauls by Caesar are instances of the tremendous 
carnage a disciplined force could inflict on an undisciplined mass of 

veneno : Dio (Ixii 12, 6) says she died of disease. 

§ 6. praefectus castrorum : in command of the legion in the 
absence of the legatus. 

secundae legionis : in its head quarters at Isca Silurum (Caer- 

Ch. 38, § I. nonani : belonging to the legion cut to pieces 
under Cerialis (ch. 32, 6). 

§ 2. vastatum : used similarly in ch. 23, 4. 

§ 3. ineuriosos : so with dat. in Hist, ii 17, I ' melioribus incu- 
riosos'; more frequently with genit. as Ann. v 31, i ' incuriosum 

et: i.e. besides their general tendency to neglect agriculture, on 
this occasion not even the old had remained at home to cultivate 
the land. 

§ 4. 8ucce3sor Cato : cf. ch. 32, 7. The procurator was apt to be 

BOOK XIV. GH. 35, § 4 — CH. 40, §§ 1-2 

at variance with the legatus (cf. A^r. 9, 5) and was often intended 
to be a check upon him. 

dispersei'atque, ' put it abroad that . . . ,' ' circulated the talk 
that . . .' 

Ch. 39, § I. igitur: i.e. in consequence of the procurator's 

Polyclitus : his rapacity is noted in the Histories, and appears 
to have been exercised chiefly when he was left in Rome with 
Melius (cf. xiii i, 3) during Nero's absence in Greece (Dio). 

barbarum : so Med. for ' barbarorum ' (on analogy of ' fabrum ' 
and 'liberum,' shortened to avoid the repetition of 'r' in the longer 

§ 2. nee defuit, &c., ' and Polyclitus, whose enormous train had 
been oppressive to Italy and Gaul, did not fail, on crossing the 
ocean, to inspire terror, by his coming, among our soldiers too.' 

§ 3. apud quos, 'among whom the spirit of freedom was still 
strong and who had not yet realized the power of the freedmen.' 

§ 4. cunctatamen, 'yet' (in spite of the unfavourable impression 
he produced on the army and the province) 'in his report to the 
emperor he put a more favourable construction ' (than had Classi- 
cianus) 'upon things in general.' For 'in mollius relata,' cf. xiii 
14, I. 

detentus rebus gerundis, 'having been retained in his appoint- 
ment ' ; 'rebus,' dat. of purpose. 'Detentus' does not here imply 
reluctant detention ; cf. Agr. 9, 6 ' minus triennium in ea legatione 

quod postea, &c. : to be taken apart from the preceding words 
and in connexion with ' iubetur.' He was not superseded then and 
there, but soon afterwards a trifling disaster was made the occasion 
for this to be done, as though a state of war still existed and he 
was not competent to restore peace. 

Petronio Turpiliano : see ch. 29, l. He is also mentioned 
in XV 72 as receiving triumphal honours, 65 A. D., but had returned 
to Rome earlier, as he was ' curator aquarum ' in 63 A.D. 

§ 5. segni otic, 'unenterprising inactivity.' 

Ch. 40, § I. senatoris: referring to the principal culprit 
Fabianus, described below as 'capessendis honoribus destinatus,' 
i.e. a man in the same position as Julius Montanus (xiii 25, 2). 
'Senatoris,' to be taken with ' audacia,' to which ' servili ' (by 
variation for ' servi ') is also joined. 

alterum : described in ch. 42. 

erat : cf. xiii 45, i. 

§ 2. subdidit, ' forged.' 

Antonium Primxim: afterwards a partisan of Vespasian {Hist. 
ii 86, 2-3). 

Aainium Marcellum : consul 54A.D., grandson of Asinius Gallus 

the son of C. Asinius PoUio. The last-named was a supporter of 

Julius Caesar, and acted as Antony's lieutenant in Cisalpine Gaul in 

41 B.C. In 40 B.C. he was consul, and with Maecenas negotiated 



the treaty of Brunduslum between Antony and Octavian, by which 
after two generations of civil war the peace of Italy seemed to be 
secured. He was a patron of Horace and Vergil, and founded 
a library on the Palatine. See Hor. Od. ii i and Verg. Eel. iv and 
iii 86. 

§ 3. audacia promptus : so ch. 58, 2 'aut numero validos aut 
animo promptos.' 

morum spernendus : of. ' morum di versus,' ch. 19. 

§ 4. tabulas sociis : for Med. ' tabulas iis.' 

aliis : presumably three, the attestation of seven Roman citizens 
being requisite to a citizen's will. 

§ 5. convictum, ' was proved.' 

lege Cornelia: a law of Sulla, passed in 81 B.C. against forgery 
or falsification of wills or suppression of a true will. The penalty 
was deportation to an island with complete loss of property for 
the principal offender, and exile, relegation, or expulsion from the 
senate for his accessories. Antonius suffered only expulsion from 
the senate, to which he was subsequently restored by Galba, who 
also made him commander of a legion {Hist, ii 86, 2). 

exemere, ' rescued from punishment but not disgrace.' 

Ch. 41, § I. is dies: there is a similar personification of 
'nox' in xiii 17, i. 

iuvenem quaestorium : he was thus a senator, but of the 
lowest rank. 

tamquam : not necessarily a fictitious charge. See Intr. II 50. 

Hispania : his name suggests that he was of a Spanish family 
enfranchised when Pompeius Magnus held Spain. 

§ 2. pari ignominia: probably meaning exclusion from Italy 

reos : meaning perhaps the 'minus illustres' of the preceding 
chapter, but it is strange that these confederates should not have 
been tried in the senate with the other offenders (ch. 40, 5), and 
Tacitus' language would equally well apply to persons under trial 
on another charge. 

apud praefectum urbis: the jurisdiction of this magistrate was 
originally restricted to ordinary police cases and criminals of the 
lowest rank, but it was extended as time went on, and at this period 
its sphere was so far from being strictly defined that an attempt to 
forestall other accusers from bringing a case before the praefect, by 
taking preliminary steps to bring it before the praetor, could 
be defended by an appeal to the letter of the law ('specie 

interim, ' for a while.' The jurisdiction of the praetor being less 
summary than that of the praefect, Ponticus would be able to gain 
time for collusion with the other side ('praevaricatio'). It is note- 
worthy that here the senate punished the presumed intention to 
commit a crime, before its actual accomplishment. 

§ 3. senatus consulto : meaning, perhaps, the ' senatus con- 
sultum Turpilianum,' named after the consul of the year (ch. 29, i). 

BOOK XIV. CH. 40, § 2 — CH. 43, §§ 1-4 

This was a measure providing comprehensively against forgery 
and fraud in the matter of wills. 

talem operam : i. e. the attempt to frustrate a charge by such 
means as Ponticus had employed. 

publico iudicio, Sic, 'as if convicted of calumny in a criminal 
cause.' In legal phraseology, ' calumniari ' = to bring a false charge, 
*praevaricari' = to suppress a true one, and 'tergiversari' = to aban- 
don a charge without just cause. The old penalty for ' calumnia ' was 
branding with the letter K, apparently imposed by the ' lex Rem- 
mia,' which is of uncertain date, and referred to in Cicero, /w 
Roscio. In later times the penalties were, in civil cases, a fine of 
one-tenth to one-fourth or even one-third of the amount involved, 
and in criminal cases exile, relegation, or loss of rank. 

Ch. 42, § I. Pedanium Secundum: consul suffectus in 43 A.D. 
The ' praefectus urbis ' was always a senator of consular rank. 

pretium pepigerat : slaves were allowed to accumulate a sum 
from their 'peculium' to purchase their freedom, but until later 
had no remedy at law if their master broke the compact. 

§ 2. vetere ex more : a letter to Cicero [ad Fain, iv 12, 3) shows 
such a decree existed in republican times. Cf. xiii 32, i. 

protegebat : the tense implies beginning or intention. So 
' ducebantur,' ch. 45, 3 ; ' decernebat,' xv 74, 4 ; ' damnabatur,' 
xvi 21, 2. 

C. Casaius : cf. xiii 41, 5. 

sententiae loco, ' when his turn for speaking came.' 

Ch. 43, § I. super, ' in the case of ' == 'de ' : cf. xv 5, 5. Intr. 
II 46. 

studium meum, 'my pursuit,' i.e. the profession of jurispru- 
dence, with the study of old precedents involved in it. 

extollere, ' make too much of . . .' 

§ 2. quidquid, &c., ' whatever this authority that I have may 
be.' Cf. ch. 55, 2 'quidquid illud et qualecumque.' For 'hoc . .. 
auctoritatis,' cf. ' si quid est in me ingeni ' (Cic. Arch, i i). 

crebris contradictionibus, ' by perpetual opposition.' 

ut, &c., 'that it might remain unimpaired, if ever the state had 
vital need of my advice.' 

§ 3. senatus consulto : the one embodying the ' vetus mos,' cf. 
ch. 42, 2. 

§ 4. ut quern, &c.: 'quern' and 'cui ' are interrogatives depend- 
ing on the consecutive 'ut'; 'vote in heaven's name for their 
impunity, with the result that who is to be defended by his rank 
(i. e. that no one can be) when the office of city-praefect has been un- 
availing to its possessor? that who is to be protected by the number 
of his slaves .' ' &c. So Livy xliv 39 ' dimicassemus ; ut quo victores 
nos reciperemus ? ' Cic. pro Font, x 22 ' iurare malitis ? quid ut 
secuti esse videamini?' 

in metu : when they have the fear of such punishment hanging 
over them. 

advertit, 'pays attention to.' 



§ 5. 'paterna pecvmia,' ' avitum mancipium ' : ironical refer- 
ences to the supposed reasons for the crime. By strict law a slave 
bad no rights to inherit or hold property or to enter into contracts 
(' transigere'), so that ' iniuria' was an absurd term to apply in the 
case of a slave. 

ultro, ' let us go further and say.' 

Ch. 44, § I. libet, &c., 'do you wish to hunt up arguments in 
a matter already decided by wiser heads ? ' 

aniinum sumpsisse, ' formed a resolution.' 

lit non, &c., 'without letting fall some threatening expression.' 

§2. sane: concessive, 'even grant that he concealed his 

excubias : the slaves guarding the bedroom. 

§ 3. multa, SiC, ' many premonitory signs precede a crime.' 

servi si prodant, &c., 'if our slaves betray their fellows' plots, 
we can live, single amid a crowd, safe among the anxious, and 
finally, if we have to perish, not unavenged among the guilty.' The 
argument is ' If the old law remains in force it will prompt slaves 
to give information of any plot against their master, and we shall 
be safe,' but the actual words do not express this clearly, and, if 
the text is sound, the language has sacrificed sense to brevity. 
An emendation suggested, ' servis si pereundum sit ni prodant,' 
removes the difficulty, but is somewhat violent. 

anxios : careful that no unrevealed plot against their master 
should involve them in wholesale destruction. 

§ 4. etiam cum, (S:c. : in old households most or all of the slaves 
were born in the house ('vernae'). 

statim, iS:c., 'and conceived an affection for their masters from 
their earliest years.' 

§ 5. postquam, (Sic, 'now that we have different nationalities in 
our households, possessing religions other than ours, some barbarian 
forms of worship or none at all ..." 

§ 6. at = ' at enim.' 

nam et, ' yes, for even . . .' 

cum decumus quisque, &c,, ' decimatio ' as a military punish- 
ment is mentioned in Livy as early as 469 B. c. (Livy ii 59, 4). 
Tacitus mentions the 'decimation' of a cohort for cowardice in 
Africa, in 20 A.D. ; A ft ft. iii 21 ' decumum quemque ignominiosae 
cohortis sorte ductos fusti necat.' 

sortiuntur, ' draw the lot ' for punishment. 

§ 7. omne magnum exemplum, ' every exemplary punishment 
on a large scale involves a certain amount of injustice, which is com- 
pensated by the public advantage as set against (the wrong done 
to) individuals.' For ' exemplum ' see xv 20, 2 ; contrast xiii 44, 8. 

Ch. 45, § I. nemo imus, 'no one in particular,' i.e. coming 
forward individually. 

aetatem : in later times young boys and girls were exempted 
from this general execution. 

§ 2. obtemperari, &c., ' the sentence could not be carried out.' 

BOOK XIV. CH. 43, § 5 — CH. 48, §§ 1-2 

§ 3. ducebantur, ' were to be taken,' ingressive imperfect, like 
'protegebat,' ch. 42, 2. 

§ 4. deportarentur : the severest form of exile. 

intenderetur, ' should be strained.' 

Ch. 46, § I. Tarquitius Priscua : he had, in 53 A. D., accused 
Statilius Taurus, the proconsul of Africa under whom he had 
served, at the instigation of Agrippina, who coveted his estates 
(Ann. xii 59) ; and the senate had expelled him from their ranks. 
Probably however he was afterwards restored as otherwise he could 
hardly have become governor of Bithynia. 

interrogantibus : the verb is similarly used, xiii 14, 2. 

§ 2. census . . . acti : ' censum agere ' = to receive the returns of 
property which the subjects had to furnish, on which rested the 
apportionment of the great tribute of 40,000,000 HS laid on Gaul. 

Q. Volusio: see xiii 25, i. 

Sextio Africano : see xiii 19, 2. 

Trebellio Maximo: consul with Seneca in 58 A.D., and 
legatus of Britain as successor to Turpilianus (ch. 39, 4). 

supra tulere : raised above the position natural to him. 

Ch. 47, § I. Memmius Regulus : consul in 31 a.d., and 
governor of the combined provinces of Moesia, Achaia, and Mace- 
donia prior to the year 44 a.d., when the two latter were restored 
to the senate. He was husband of Lollia Paulina one of the 
victims of Agrippina's jealousy, Attn, xii 22. 

si quid fato pateretur : euphemism, like /x»; rt ttu^oi Horn. 
//. V 567, or ' si quid accideret,' Cic. P/iiL i 4. 

§ 2. quiete, ' unobtrusive life ' ; cf. ch. 56, 3. 

nova : he was not a man of dangerous 'nobilitas.' 

invidiosis : great enough to excite the emperor's cupidity. 

§ 3. gymnasium : built for the Neronian games in the Campus 

Graeca facilitate : one of the Athenian XnTovpyun was the 
'gymnasiarchia,' involving the expense of supplying persons pre- 
paring themselves for contests at public festivals with the requisites 
of their training. 

Ch. 48, § I. P. Mario: probably father of Marius Celsus; 
see XV 25, 5. 

memoravi : see xiii 28, i. 

celebri, ' crowded.' 

Ostorium Scapulam : son of the legatus of Britain who con- 
quered Caratacus, Attn, xii 31-39. 

§ 2. Capitone : see xiii 33, 3. 

Tigellini : see ch. 51, 5. 

maiestatis: sc. 'laesae'or 'minutae.' This statute was originally 
designed against treason in the ordinary sense of the word : ' si 
quis proditione exercitum aut plebem seditionibus, denique male 
gesta re publica maiestatem populi Roinani minuisset : facta argue- 
bantur, dicta impune erant,' Ann. i 72, 3. Under Tiberius, ac- 
cording to Tacitus, the law was extended to words spoken against 


the emperor, and became an instrument of persecution, any word 
or deed that cou'd Ije constiued as an insult to the emperor pro- 
viding material for accusation to the informers (' delatores '), who 
were rewarded on the condemnation of their victim by one-fourth 
of his property. The penalty on condemnation was exile with loss 
of property, but in the later years of Tiberius death was inflicted. 
Trials on this charge were, according to Dio, discontinued by 
Claudius, after being nominally abolished by Gaius. 

§ 3. ut, &c., ' that after condemnation by the senate he might 
be reprieved from death by the emperor's tribunician veto ' ; cf. 
Intr. Ill 3. 

§ 4. pro testimonio dixisset, ' gave it as his evidence that.' 

consul designatus : i.e. to be 'consul suffectus' for the latter 
part of the same year. 

more maiormn : by scourging. (Such a sentence was even- 
tually passed on Nero, who asked what it meant, and was told 
' nudi hominis cervicem inseri furcae, corpus virgis ad necem 
caedi,' Suet.) 

§ 5. Thrasea: cf. xiii 49, i. 

§ 6. carnificem et laqueum : referring to the ordinary execu- 
tion by strangling in the Tullianum. As this had been abolished, 
much more would the ferocious sentence advocated by MaruUus 
be out of place. 

infamia, &c., ' without casting disgrace on the times in which 
they lived.' 

§ 7. in insula : Paetus recommends that the sentence of ' de- 
portatio ' with loss of property should not be exceeded ; cf. note on 
' maiestatis ' above. ' In exile on an island, his property confiscated, 
the longer he dragged on his guilty life, the more would he per- 
sonally suffer, and be the greatest possible proof of the clemency 
of the State.' 

Ch. 49, § I. disceasionem . . . permiserat, 'allowed the senate 
to divide.' It was within the discretion of the presiding magi- 
strate to rule whether a ' sententia ' should or should not be 
thus submitted to the house (cf. Cic. Phil, xiv 7, 21 'has in sen- 
tentias meas si consules discessionem facere voluissent . . . arma 
cecidissent'). The consuls could also refuse to give practical 
effect to what the majority had approved, by not making a formal 
announcement and registration of the sentence, with the names of 
the senators who signed it (' scribendo adfuere ') ; cf. § 2 ' perficere 
decretum senatus non ausi.' For procedure in the senate cf. also 
xiii 26, 2, and 49, 2. 

A. Vitellius : subsequently emperor. 

respondenti reticens, ' not daring a rejoinder to any who re- 
plied to him.' 

§ 3. cunctatus, ' after a struggle between.' 

pro, ' in proportion to.' par, ' it would have been right.* 

§ 4. impeditui-us : cf. ch. 48, 3. 

datam et, ' they might even acquit him if they so wished.' 

BOOK XIV. CH. 48, § 2 — CH. 52, §§ 1-2 

§ 5. ne, &c., 'so as not to appear to fix the odium (of a harsher 
sentence) on the emperor.' 

et ne, 'so as to live up to his reputation' (ht. 'that his glory 
might not fail '). 

Ch. 50, § I. Fabricius Veiento : well known under Domitian 
as a consular and an infamous accuser (Juv. iv 113). 

codicillorum : persons in their wills sometimes attacked the 
' princeps ' or others whom they had not dared to assail in their 
lifetime, and Augustus had forbidden the senate to punish this 
licence (by fining the legatees). Presumably Veiento's libel was 
a parody of a will of this sort. 

venditata : i.e. he received money for promising to use his influence 
with Nero to win persons the emperor's ' commendation ' to office. 

§ 2. suscipiendi, ' for trying the case personally.' 

depulit : the punishment would be ' relegatio.' 

conquiBitos, &;c., ' which were eagerly procured and read as 
long as it was dangerous to get them : when allowed, they were 

Ch. 51, § I. valetudo, 'ill-health,' ' sickness ' ; so ch. 22, 6. 

§2. in se, 'internally.' impedito meatu, &c., 'the passnge 
becoming blocked, respiration ceased.' 

§ 3. plures, ' the majority.' Suetonius and Dio assert as an 
unquestioned fact that Nero had Burrus poisoned, Dio giving as 
the reason Burrus' opposition to the divorce of Octavia. 

liactenus, ' no more than this.' 

ego : stress is laid on 'ego,' as he is made to contrast his own 
tranquillity with Nero's consciousness of guilt. 

§ 4. segnem innocentiam, ' inactive harmlessness.' 

flagrantissima flagitia, ' scandalous vices.' 

§ 5. duos : before Burrus' appointment, the command of the 
praetorian cohorts was divided between two officers, Ann. xii 42. 

Faenium Riifum : cf. xiii 22, i. 

Tigellinum : exiled under Gaius on suspicion of adultery, and 
permitted to return under Claudius. He won the favour of Nero 
by horsebreeding in Apulia, and became 'praefectus vigilum.' 
The account of his death, under Otho, is given Hisf. i 72. His first 
name, given by Med. as ' ofonium,' is corrected from the form 
6 2o(f)u>vio<i in Dio. 

secutus, ' attracted by.' 

§ 6. pro, &c., ' turned out according to their known characters, 
Tigellinus standing higher in the emperor's favour and being 
admitted to his most private debaucheries, while Rufus enjoyed 
popularity with the people and the soldiers.' For the ablative of 
quality, cf. ch. il, 4 'adverso rumore erat.' 

Ch. 52, § I. bonis artibiis, 'good influences.' 

duce : perhaps ' champion.' 

§ 2. tamquam, qtiod, and quasi (the last, by anastrophe, out 
of its usual position at the beginning of its own clause), introduce 
the three grounds of accusation. See Intr. II 50. 


privatum, &c., 'surpassing the position of a subject.' For 
Seneca's wealth cf. xiii 42, §§ 6, 7. 

§ 3. laudem, &c., 'reputation for eloquence was all monopolized 
by him.' 

§ 4. detrectare, ' depreciated,' ' disparaged.' 

voces, 'notes,' 'tones.' 

§ 5. quem ad finem, &c., 'how long must every glorious act of 
state be supposed to owe its origin to him ?' 

§ 6. exueret, 'let him shake off his pedagogue.' 

satis, &c., ' furnished as he was with sufficiently fine instructors 
in his ancestors.' amplis, many-sided, capable of serving as a 
pattern in all relations. 

Ch. 53, § 2. spei tuae, ' since I became connected with your 

ut, ' since ' ; a rare use of the word in this sense with the present 
tense. So Ovid, ' ut sumus in Ponto.' 

medio temporis : so xiii 28, 3. 

honores : Seneca was consul, with Trebellius Maximus (men- 
tioned ch. 46, 2), in the latter part probably of 58 A. D. 

moderatio eius, ' self-control in respect of it.' 

§ 3. meae fortiinae, ' belonging to my rank.' So ch. 60, 6. 

abavus : for Nero's pedigree see xiii 19, 3. 

Mytilenense secretum, ' retirement at Mytilene' (so ' Rhodi se- 
cretum,' Afin. iv 57, 3). Agrippa was appointed governor of Syria, 
probably with general proconsular power in the East, in 23 B.C., 
but left the province to his legati and lived in retirement at 
Mytilene, effacing himself to avoid rivalry with the young Marcellus. 
His retirement terminated on the death of Marcellus within the 

Maecenas : died 8 B.C., after a retirement of eight years, passed 
principally in his Esquiline viJla. The reason of his loss of 
Augustus' confidence is obscure. 

velut peregrinum, ' as though in a foreign country.' 

pluribus, 'more' (than ordinary), i.e. 'numerous,' 'a great 
number of.' 

pro: i.e. not surpassing them. 

§ 4. quid aliud, &c., ' what other claim could I establish on 
your bounty except those accomplishments, the result of what 
I may call my cloistered training?' 

ut sic dixerim : a variant for the classical ' ut ita dicam.' 
A similar rare use of the perf. subjunct. in a subordinate clause, yet 
referring to present time, occurs in Ann. vi 22, 6 ' ne . . . longius 

in umbra: i.e. not in public life. Cf. 'studiis inertibus,' 
xiii 42,4. So Quintilian speaks of an academic life as 'solitaria 
et velut umbratilis vita.' Cf. also Juv. vii 173 'ad pugnam qui 
rhetorica descendit ab umbra.' 

educata: agreeing with 'studia.' The verb is elsewhere always 
applied to persons by Tacitus. 


BOOK XIV. CH. 52, § 2 — CH. 55, §§ 1-7 

§ 5. gratiam, ' influence,' through his high rank in the State, 
and position as counsellor. 

pecuniam. : cf. xiii 18, i and 42, §§ 6, 7. 

plerumque volvam, ' often ponder.' 

provinciali loco : his father M. Seneca the rhetorician migrated 
to Rome from Corduba (Cordova), and became a knight. 

longa, &c., ' displaying a long roil of glories ' (i.e. of distinguished 

§ 6. exstruit : the term is used of laying out the ground and 
erecting buildings on it: cf. ' extollere,' Ann. .\i i, i and xiii 21, 6. 

suburbana, ' suburban villas.' 

lato faenore, ' capital out at interest far and wide.' 

Ch. 54, § 2. quae: referring to 'invidiam.' 'This, like all mere 
mortal things, does not rise to your exalted rank ; but it weighs 
heavily on me.' 

§ 3. adminiculum, ' a staff of support.' 

§ 4. procuratores : such as managed the ' res familiaris 
Caesaris,' cf. xiii i, 3. fortunam : here = ' ]:roperty.' 

praestringor, ' I am blinded.' The usual expression is 'prae- 
stringere oculos (or visum) alicuius ' rather than ' praestringere 

quod, &c., 'I will restore to my mind (i.e. its cultivation) all the 
time now set apart for the care of gardens or villas.' 

••§ 5. Buperest tibi, 'you have in abundance.' 

visum, &.C., 'the administration of supreme power has been 
watched by you through so many years.' The expression fastigii 
regimen for 'imperii regimen' is difficult to accept; and the MSS. 
are evidently corrupt here. Madvig reads 'nosti summi fastigii' 
on the supi osition that the first syllable of 'nosti' was lost in the 
preceding 'annos,' and that the second syllable, with 'summi' 
following, was corrupted into 'visum.' 

reposcere, 'to demand rest as our due,' corrected from Med. 
' respondere.' 

vexjsse : for the more usual ' provexisse.' 

Ch. 55, § I. meditatae, ' prepared.' occurram = ' respondebo.' 

id primum, (Sic, 'this is the first gift I have to thank you 

expedire, &c., ' to express my thoughts not only after considera- 
tion but also offhand.' 

§ 2. usurpare concessit : Intr. II 31. 

sed, &c., ' but only when he had reached a time of life that could 
sanction and justify whatever that gift may have been that he 

§ 4. tela et manus tuae, ' your personal service in the field,' 
cf. xiii 6, 5. 

ratione, 'forethought.' 

§ 5. faenus, ' capital ' (laid out at interest). 

I 6. plerique = ' permulti.' 

§ 7. libertiiios : especially Pallas, who was still living (ch. 65, l). 


fortuna : combining the idea of rank (as in ch. 53, 3) and 
wealth (as in ch. 54, 4). 

antecellis : with accus. In Cicero the verb is always used 
with dative, or absol. 

Ch. 56, § I. aetas : Seneca was now about sixty-five years old. 

rebus, &c., 'for the business of state and its rewards.' 

nisi forte, &c. : the argument is, ' you are not too old for the 
further advancement which I desire you to enjoy, unless you 
think yourself less worthy than Vitellius, who was thrice consul, 
or me less willing and able to reward my friends than Claudius 
(under whom Vitellius held his second and third consulship).' 
L. Vitellius was consul for the first time in 34 A. D., and* in the 
following year went out to Syria as ' legatus,' where he governed 
'prisca virtute,' vi 32, 6. He was recalled by Gains 40 A.D. 
Under Claudius he was conspicuous as a servile courtier and 
received two more consulships, the last in 47 A.D., the same year 
as his odious complicity with Messalina in compassing the death 
of Asiaticus {Ann. xi 3). He was father of A. Vitellius the 

Volusio: see xiii 30, 4. 

§ 2. quin, 'why not?' followed by indicative introduces a ques- 
tion equivalent to an exhortation. Cf. Cic. c. Rab. vi 18 'quin 
continetis vocem ? ' 

si qua in parte, &c., ' if my unstable youth ever is inclined to 
slip.' Cf. ' lubrica aetas,' xiii 2, 2. 

subaidio : with ' ornatum ' ; 'still more zealously direct my 
manhood, furnished with your support in reserve.' 

§ 3. quies, ' retirement.' 

§ 5. factus . . . exercitus velare : see Intr. II 35. 

§ 6. coetus salutantium : the visitors at the morning levee, 
'turba salutantium' slightingly spoken of by Seneca himself 
(£■/. xixil). 

comitantis: clients and others attending him when he went 
out. Cf. xiii 46, 5 ' congressu et comitatu.' 

rarus, 'seldom appeared in,' 

sapientiae studils, 'philosophical pursuits.' His Epistolae 
ad Luciliu}n arc referred to this period. 

Ch. 57, § I. promptum fuit, 'it was easy (for his enemies) 
to bring down Faenius Rufus, making his friendship with Agrippina 
a charge against him.' inminuere, 'degrade,' i.e. lower in Nero's 
estimation: he was not deposed from office, xv 50, 4. criminan- 
tibus : dat. after ' promptum.' 

malas artea, 'accomplishments in vice.' 

rimatur, ' pries out the causes of his fear.' 

Plautua: see xiii 19, 3. Sulla: xiii 47. 

huic = Plautus ; illi = Sulla. The ordinary reference of these 
pronouns is reversed in this passage. 

§ 2. diversas, &c., ' had an eye to hopes from opposite quarters ' 
(had a divided allegiance). He means that Burrus was under 

BOOK XIV. CH. 55, § 7 — CH. 58, §§ 1-4 

obligation to Agrippina, was never hearty in acting against her 
(xiii 20, s), and might even have sympathized with her scheme 
for Plautus. 

praesenti opera: emended from Med, 'presentiora,' an error 
probably arising from abbreviation. ' fie could be secured more 
or less from plots in the city by his (Tigellinus') diligence on the 

§ 3. ad, 'at the sound of,' 

dictatorium : this Sulla was descended from the great dictator. 

suspenses, 'excited by expectation,' corrected from Med, 
'suspec'os,' thus answering to 'erectas.' 

§ 5. magnis opibus : abl. of quality. 

praeferre, 'posed as an ancient Roman.' 

adsumpta, &c., 'and had further embraced the doctrines of the 
arrogant Stoic cect, which made men seditious and eager for 

adrogantia sectaque : Intr. II 54. 

negotiorum adpetentes : the popular idea of the Stoic 
ideal of conduct as contrasted with the Epicurean (Hor. Ep. 
'■ I, 16). 

§ 6. tamquam = if. 

Ch. 58, § I. spatium, iS:c., 'the long journey by land and 
sea, and the long time which had to intervene' (between the irsue 
of the order and the news of its execution), itineris : the journey 
by land as contrasted with that by sea. [Or one may regard 
' itineris ' as the journey as a whole, and ' ac maris ' as a specifica- 
tion of the part of it particularly subject to delay, ' the length of the 
route, especially of the part by sea.'J 

petitum, &c., 'that he had fled to Corbulo.' 

praecipuum, 'the most exposed.' 

§ 2. nee: the negation applies to 'aut . . . aut,' the sense being 
that of 'et . , . neque , . . neque.' 

numero : 60 ; cf. § 4. 

spes novas: = ' spem novarum rerum,' cf. xvi 23, 2, 

§ 3, credentium otio, ' by the indolence of the credulous,' 
i.e. by indolent credulity (cf. 'otiosum,' xiii 3, 3). 

ceterum = ' re vera autem ' ; so ako xv 52, 3. 

Antistii: cf. xiii 11, i. 

effugeret, &c., 'let him avoid a tarne end' (that of submiiting 
to the assassins) 'while there was yet a means of escape.' ' Dum 
suftligium esset,' with ' miseratione ' further on, is corrected from 
'otium suffugium et' with 'miseratione' (= 'miserationem'), in Med. 
An alternative, 'odium suffugium et . . . miserationem,' with colon 
before and after the phrase, gives fair sense ; ' the hatred felt for 
Nero and the pity aroused by Plautus' great name offered a means 
of escape.' 

§ 4. adusqiie : for ' usque ad,' a poetical form transferred to 
prose by Tacitus, like ' abusque ' in xiii 47, 2. Intr. II 46. 

evalescerent, iS:c., ' would be strong enough to result in war.' 
79 Q 


Ch. 59, § I. taedio, &c., 'sick of suspense about his future' 
(or perhaps ' shrinking from the uncertainty of the success of 
a rebelhon '). 

§ 2. tamquam, 'saying that,' cf. xiii 28, 5 and Intr. II 50. 

C. Musonius Rufus was a knight of Vulsinii and a renowned 
Stoic, the teacher of Epictetus. On the occasion of the conspiracy 
of Piso he was suspected of compHcityand banished, but had returned 
by 69 A.D. and took part in the pohtics of that time {Hist, iii 81 ; 
iv 10 and 40). He is mentioned by the younger Pliny as having 
been his friend. Of Coeranus nothing is known beyond his name. 

opperiendae mortis: defining genitive (Intr. II 26a). 

§ 3. nudus, &c., 'stripped for gynniastic exercises.' For the 
dative cf. Intr. II II. 

manipulo, 'a detachment'; the word is not here used in its 
strict technical sense of a body of two centuries. 

quasi, &c., 'like a sultan's slave in command of his retinue.' 

§ 4. cur, &c. : the missing words may have been ' hominem 
nasutum timuisti?' Dio gives oIk fi^eiv, icprj, on fj.€ydXr)v plvi 
ilx^v, (oanep cj)fia(ip(vos iw avrov el tovto nporjrTiuTnTo. Cf. his 
remark on Sulla (ch. 57) and Agrippina (ch. 9). Pop^jaea had 
been Nero's mistress now for four years (xiii 45, i). 

amoliri, 'remove'; so used also in Af!n. ii 42, i, of Tiberius' 
alleged intention to contrive the death of Germanicus. 

nomine, 'owing to her father's name,' causal abl. (Intr. II 19). 
The imperial prestige was hers in her own right as being daughter 
of Claudius, and so Nero viewed her with jealousy and suspicion. 

gravem, ' obnoxious,' to Nero (cf. ch. 39, 2). 

magna cura haberi, 'was watched over by himself with great 

§ 6. eo nomine, 'on that pretext'; i.e. for his vigilance in 
detecting the plots of these men. 

gravioribus, &c., 'the mockeiy (of this condemnation of dead 
men) seeming even more revolting than the crimes' (the murder 
itself), iam is here read for Med. 'ta' ( = 'tamen'), which would 
mean ' (a sentence) however more grievous as an insult than as 
a positive injury.' 

Ch. 60, § I. cuncta scelerum : cf. Intr. II 23 b. 

exturbat . , . coniungitur : these statements are anticipatory, 
the facts related in §§ 2-4 having taken place before the divorce 
was effected, and the divorce being stated again in its proper 
place at § 5. 

§ 2. diu: see ch. 59, 4. 'Long his mistress, and ruling Nero 
first as her paramour and next as her husband.' 

impulit . . . obicere : cf. xiii 19, 4 ; Intr. II 31. 

§3. canere tibiis: for Med. 'ptybias' = 'per tibias,' an un- 
exampled construction. 

^ 4. adnuerent =>' adfirmarent.' 

§ 5. movetur : simple for compound, cf. ch. 32, 4. 

civilis, &c., ' under colour of an ordinary legal divorce,' not as if 

BOOK XIV. CH. 59, § I — CH. 61, §§ 1-5 

convicted on a criminal charge, which, if sustained, would have 
amounted to 'maiestas.' The ground alleged was sterility (§1), 
and the estates assigned were probably given in satisfaction of her 
claim of dos.' 

domura Burri: inherited or purchased after his death by Nero. 

praedia Plauti : confiscated after his execution. 

§ 6. cui, &c., 'who show less prudence and run fewer risks, 
thanks to their humble station.' 

his . . . tamquam, &c. : the words in Med. are ' his quamquam 
. . . revocavit,' but are evidently faulty : ch. 61, 3 (ne . . . mutaretur) 
shows that Nero did not actually restore Octavia to her position, 
although Poppaea was fearing that the popular excitement might 
induce him to do so : it seems that the passage has lost words 
describing some modification of her ill-treatment which gave rise 
to a rumour that he had restored her. For ' tamquam ' see 
Intr. II 50. 

Ch. 61, § I. tandem : as though hitherto the prevalence of in- 
justice had shaken men's faith. 

spargunt floribus : an honour paid to persons on triumphal 

§ 2. repetitum venerantium : the reading is very questionable, 
but sense can be made of it by taking ' principis ' as objective 
genitive and 'venerantium' as subjective, with ' laudes,' while the 
elsewhere unknown substantive ' repetit;us ' may be defended on 
the analogy of other such nouns adopted by Tacitus (see Intr. 
II 51, a.). It will then mean 'recourse was had even to eulogies of 
the emperor on the part of those praising her recall.' 

quae verterant, ' the changes which they had made ' in respect 
of the statues. 

§ 3. provoluta genibus : the more usual phrase is ' provolvi ad 

loci : partitive genitive, with ' eo ' ; = ' her fortunes were not now 
in such a position.' 

potius : adjective. 

ausi : masculine Kara a-ivea-iv (notwithstanding the preceding 
' quae ') ; so Aftfi. iv 48, 5 ' auxilia . . . caesi.' 

§ 4. qui, (S:c. ' but he would be easily found once the rising was 
on foot, only let her leave Campania and come in person to Rome, 
since by her mere nod, even in absence, she could create a rebellion.' 
reperiretur: the conditional subjunctive is here retained in 
apodosis, in place of the regular ' quem . . . repertum iri.' 

§ 5. quod alioquin, &c. : the reasoning is, 'Otherwise, if this 
attack were really directed against me, instead of being a covert 
attack on Nero, some charge would be alleged against me. But 
what is that charge ? ' 

veram : ' true-born.' Her daughter was born in the following 
January (xv 23, i). 

tibicinis : njeaning Eucaerus, ch. 60, 3. 

induci, ' to be thrust into imperial grandeur.' 


§ 6. quam : 'potius' omitted. Cf. Intr. II 47. 

dominam, ' the wife whose slave he would be.' 

vel : lor ' aut.' Cf. ch. 35, 4. 

§ 7. illi, &c., 'will find her a husband' (to drive out Nero). 
The remedy for this danger was Octavia's execution. 

Ch. 62, § I. varius, &c., 'her various representations, adapted to 
his fear and anger, tilled him with terror and indignation.' 

elusa erat, ' had been frustrated ' ; the subject is ' suspicio.' in 
servo: 'in the case of the slave,' i.e. of adultery with Eucaerus. 

§ 3. memoravi : ch. 3, 5. 

gratia, odio : ablatives of quality. 

quia, &c., ' because the agents of our crimes seem to upbraid us 
when we look on them.' ('Facinus ' here simply = deed.) 

§ 5. manu, ' violence.' 

§6. insita vaecordia, 'natural perversity,' i.e. unreasoning 

facilitate, &c., 'with the same willingness as that shown in his 
previous crimes.' 

amicos : the judicial ' consiHum amicorum principis ' ; cf. xiii 
23, 4. [In the case of a wife, the investigation might have taken 
the form of a family trial, as in xiii yz, 4.] It is implied in ' velut ' 
that the process was a sham. 

fate obiit, 'died a natural death'; 'fatum' = what happens in 
the ordinary course of nature. 

Ch. (33, § I. in spem, 'with a view to the hope.' 

paulo ante: ch. 60, i. 

Pandateria : identified with the modern ' Vandotena,' a little 
to the north of the bay of Naples. 

§ 2. Agrippinae : the wife of Germanicus, banished by Tiberius 
in 29 A. D., died 33 A. D. {Ann. vi 25). 

luliae : daughter of Germanicus, banished by the influence of 
Messalina on a charge of adultery with Seneca, in 41 A. D., and 
soon afterwards put to death. 

§ 3. robur aetatis: this seems hardly true of Julia, who was only 
twenty-three years old at the time of her banishment, and probably 
no older than Octavia. 

§ 4. patre = Claudius, died in 54 A.D. the year after Octavia's 

fratre = Britannicus, died in 55 A. D., xiii 15, 16. 

ancilla - Acte. With these clauses supply some general notion 
like ' patienda fuerunt ' from ' huic fuit ' above. 

Ch. 64, § I. puella: so of a young wife, xvi 30, 3, and often 
in poets, as Hor. Od. iii 22, 2. 

vicensimo: incorrect. She was older than Britannicus, whose 
birth is dated twenty-one years or twenty before this year (cf. 
xiii 15, I). 

praesagio, (Sec, 'thoui;h already cut off from life by the fore- 
knowledge of her doom, did not yet find rest in de4th.' 

§ 2. iara viduam, 'no longer -\ wife.' 

BOOK XIV. CH. 61. § 6 — CH. G5, §§ 1-2 

sororem : because Nero had been adopted by her father Claudius. 

communes Germanieos : her gr^indfather Urusus was honoured 
at his death with the title Germanicus, to be borne by himself and 
his posterity. 

Diusus (surnamed Geimanicas) 

Germanicus Caesar „, ',. 

m. Agrippina 1 Claudius 

I I 

Agrippina II Octavia 


§3. pre33UB = 'repressus '; the simple verb for the compound, as 
•moveo' ch. 59, 6 and ch. iS, i (Intr. II 2t;). 

vapore, ' hot air.' (' Heat,' xi 3, 2, and xv 43, 5.) 

§ 4. dona, &c., ' As for the gifts to the temples decreed on this 
occasion, how long must I go on recounting (such hypocrisy) ' ? 
For ' quern ad finem ' cf. Cic. Cat. i i ' quem ad finem sese 
effrenata iactabit audacia?' The text thus emended gives a 
thoroughly characteristic sentence, combining the special con- 
sideration (' why describe the gifts decreed on this occasion ? ') 
with the genend reflection, 'how many more such acts mu ,t I 
recount ?' A MS. inferior to Med. gives ' dona . . . decreta : quod 
eum ad finem memorabimus ut,' &c. ; but this would require 
' finem ' to be taken in the unusual sense ' purpose,' ' design,' and 
makes the whole passage far less forcible. 

§ 5. auctoribus: ablative absolute. 

praesumptum habeant, ' let them take for granted.' For 
similar use of ' habere ' cf. xiii 21, 3. 

§ 6. neque tamen, &c., ' however, I shall not pass over in silence 
any decree of the Senate showing novel forms of flattery or sinking 
to the lowest depths of obsequiousness.' P'or ' postremus ' in this 
sense cf 'servitus postremum malorum omnium' Cic. Phil, ii 44. 

Ch. G5, § I. creditus est: Intr. II 33. Doryphorum : it ap- 
pears from Dio that he held the post 'a libellis' ( = secretary to 
attend to petitions to the Emperor), in which he probably succeeded 
Callistus, Ann. xi 29, i. 

quaai : this need not imply that the cause was a mere pretext ; 
see Intr. II 50. 

Pallautem : cf xiii 14, 1-2. Dio gives his wealth as 400 
million HS. 

detineret, ' was keeping from him.' Nero, as Palias' former 
master, would receive a portion of his wea th, by the 'lex Pap'a 
Poppaea,' if there were fewer than three children to inherit it. 

§ 2. Komanus : a proper name, mentioned without any further 
description, perhaps because particulars about hnn were given in 
the part of the Annals now loit. 



sociiim : we are expressly told that the real conspiracy of Piso 
took its first impulse from this incident. We must understand that 
no plot had yet been formed, but that Seneca's intimacy with I'iso 
was made the ground of an accusation which had some force owi^ng 
to the latter's distinguished position. 

sed, &c., ' but the same charge was turned on him by Seneca 
with greater force and he was himself crushed.' 

insidiaruru : described in xv. 48 and foil. 


Ch. 1-17. Affairs in the East. 

I. Vologeses summoned to help by Tiricktes and by Monobazus, 
governor of Adiabene. 2. He calls a council, crowns Tiridates, 
and prepares for war. 3. Defensive measures of Corbulo. 4. 
Tigranes besieged in Tigranocerta by Parthians under Monaeses. 
5. The siege raised in consequence of a message from Corbulo : 
Vologeses sends an embassy to Rome. 6. Caesennius Paetus 
sent to command in Armenia. 7,8. War renewed : Paetus rashly 
invades Armenia and gains some successes. 9-1 1. Corbulo 
takes a strong position on the Euphrates : the Parthian attack 
turned to Armenia, where the Roman force, weakened by dis- 
persion, is blockaded and reduced to extremities. 12-16. Corbulo 
comes to the rescue, but finds that Paetus had been forced to 
accept humiliating conditions. 17. Corbulo retires to Syria: 
Armenia left neutral, and an embassy again sent to Rome 

Ch. 18-22. Affairs at Rome. 

18. The reverses ignored at Rome; as also a great loss of corn 
by storm and fire. Nero's boast of his public munificence. 19. 
Decree of the senate against fictitious adoptions. 20-22. Charge 
against Claudius Timarchus of Crete : votes of thanks by pro- 
vincial subjects to their governors forbidden on the motion of 
Thrasea : portents and other minor events recorded. 

A. U. C. 816, A. D. 63. C. Memmius Regulus, L. Verginius 
Rufus, eoas. 

Ch. 23. Birth (followed soon by death) of Nero's daughter by 
Poppaea : public rejoicings : evidence of Nero's dislike of 

Ch. 24-31. Affairs in the East. 

24, 25. The embassy from Vologeses shows the true state of 
affairs : their terms rejected, and Corbulo appointed to command 
with extensive powers : Paetus contemptuously pardoned. 26, 
27. Corbulo takes the field in force, following the route of LucuUus, 
shows willingness to treat with Vologeses and Tiridates, expels 
the disaffected Armenian nobles from their strongholds. 28-31. 
Conference on the site of the defeat of Paetus : Tiridates agrees 
to lay down his diadem for the present, and to receive it fiom 
Nero at Rome : his visit to the camp, and subsequent journey to 
his brothers before departing for Italy. 

Ch. 32. lus Latii given to the people of the Maritime Alps : seats 
reserved for knights at the circus : more senators and women of 
rank enter the arena. 



A. U. C. 817, A. D. 64. C. Laecanius Bassus, M. Licinius 
Crassus Frugi, coss. 

Ch. 33-35. Nero appears on the sta^e of the j ubhc theatre at 
Naples, which falls just after the performance. He attends a 
show of gladiators given by Vatinius at Beneventum : Torqiiatus 
Silanus forced to suicide. 

Ch. 36, 37. He returns to Rome, and is deterred by some super- 
stitious fear from his- projected tour to the East. Ikinquet given 
by Tigellinus. Nero descends to the lowest depths of profligacy. 

Ch. 38-45. Great fire in Rome, and its results. 

38-41. Origin and progress of the fire: measures taken by Nero, 
and suspicion cast upon him, especially at its second outbreak : 
ancient temples destroyed. 42, 43. Magnificence of Nero's re- 
stored palace : grand schemes of his architects, Severus and Celer. 
Improvements made in rebuilding the houses of the city. 44. 
Expiatory ceremon'cs : Nero casts suspicion on the Christians; 
of whom a vast number are put to death with the utmost cruelty. 
45. Contributions of money and works of art extorted every- 
where : withdrawal of Seneca into greater privacy, and alleged 
attempt to poison him. 

Ch. 46, 47. Minor events: outbreak of gladiators: great ship- 
wreck : prodigies noted. 

A. U. C. 818, A. D. 65. A. Licinius Silius Nerva, M. Vestinus 
Atticus, coss. 

Ch. 48-74. Conspiracy of Piso, and its detection and suppression. 
4S-50. Character of Piso: names and motives of some of the 
leading conspirators, who are joined by several ofl'icers of the 
praetorian guard. 51-53- Epicharis tries to gain over an officer 
of the Misenian fleet and is betrayed. After various changes of 
plan, the plot is arranged to be carried out at the Circensian 
games. 54-57. Betrayal of the plot by Milichus a freedman : 
Scaevinus and Natalis are arrested and give up the names of 
others. Heroic death of Epicharis. 58,59. Military occupation 
of Rome and its suburbs : many arrests made : Piso rejects bolder 
counsels and commits suicide. 60-65. Execution of Plautius 
Lateranus. Seneca accused by Natalis: his last moments and 
death : preservation of his wife Paulina. Notice of a report that 
some of the conspirators had designed to make him emperor. 
66-70. Detection and e.xecution of the chief military conspirators. 
The consul Vestinus put to death without a charge. Death of 
Lucan and others. 71. Milichus rewarded: several others sen- 
tenced to minor penalties or pardoned. 72-74. Gift to the 
soldiers. The senate summoned to confer various distinctions. 
Notice of Nymphidius Sabinus. Minutes of evidence recorded. 
Peril of Junius Gallio. Offerings decreed to gods. Ill-omened 
flattery of Anicius Cerialis. 

Ch. 1, § 1. The narrative of Eastern affairs is taken up from 

BOOK XV. CH. 1, § I — CH. 2, §§ 1-2 

xiv 26, where it was carried down to the end of 60 A. D. Corbulo 
had set up Tigranes and arranged the affairs of Armenia, and had 
himself retired into Syria; the events here related begin in fhc 
following spring. 

regem . . . impoaitum : see xiv 26. (The ace. and infin. de- 
pends on 'cognito' supplied from ' cognitis' above, cf. xiv ^;^, 2.) 

alienigenam : so the pure Arsacidae term him, aUhough he 
was distantly related to that family. 

fdstigiutn, 'dignity,' 'sovereignty ' (cf. xiv 54, 5), 

continui foedeiia: a standing treaty had existed between Rome 
and Parthia since 20 B. c , and had been renewed by Artabanus 
with Tiberius and Caius (cf. xiii 9, i); the recent hostilities 
between the two empires had not been direct, but in support of 
opposing allies. 

defecfcione Hyreanorum : cf. xiii 37 and xiv 25. 

§ 2. ambiguum, ' hesitating.' 

nevus . . . nuntiua : by hypallage = ' novae contumeliae nuntius'; 
cf. Livy i I, 4 'ad maiora rerum initia.' (Intr. II 57.) 

Adiabenos : inhabiting Adiabene, the northern part of Assyria 
between the Tigris and its tributary the Lycus (Greater Zab\ 

latius, Sec, 'too extensively and permanently for a mere foray.' 
For ' vastare ' with personal object, cf. xiv 23, 4. 

gentuim = tribes composing the Parthian empire. 

obsidia : cf. xiv 26, i. 

§ 4. iam, &c., 'already Armenia was given up, and the border 
land was being appropriated.' Cf. xiii 57, i ' vi trahunt.' 

et niai, &c. : the sense is 'unless Parthia saves us, we must in 
our own interests surrender to Rome,' but it is put less bluntly, as 
a general statement, ' those who surrender get easier terms of 
subjection than the captured.' 

§ 5. regni profugus : so in Pliny (N. H.) 'vinculorum profugus.' 
Elsewhere Tacitus uses ablat. with this adj. 

gravior ex^at, ' made more impression.' 

contineri, ' are held together.' This, and the following words, 
give the substance of Tiridates' words (as following ' querendo'). 

in summa fortuna, &c., ' in the highest station, might is right, 
cf. xiii 6, 5. 

de alienis, &c., ' to set up a claim on what is another's.' 

Ch.2, § I. concilivim: consisting of the 'megistanes'; cf. ch. 27,4. 

summo, &c., ' had withdrawn his claim to the highest title (that 
of 'king of kings'). 

Vologeses is spoken of in Atin. xii 44, 2 as reigning ' concessu 
fratrum,' and as having been born of an inferior mother. Media 
and Annenia are here described as inheritances bestowed by the 
great king' upon his brothers Pacorus and Tiridates. 

§ 2. contra, &c., ' in refutation of the traditional hatred and 
rivalry between brothers.' Cf. ' antiquas fratrum discordias,' xiii 

lacesaitam, ' disturbed.' 



§ 3. ibo infitias : only found here in Tacitus, and before him 
chiefly used by Livy and the comic writers. 

causa, 'by right' or 'negotiation,' similarly opposed to 'armis' 
in xiii 37, 5. 

malueram: rhetorical for 'maluissem'; cf. Intr, II 38. 

§ 4. aestimatur, ' is taken into account.' 

§ 5. promptam, 'ready for service.' 

exturbare : for this infin. after 'mandavit' cf. Intr. II 31. 

vires intimas, ' his reserves.' 

molem belli, ' the main force of war.' 

Ch. 3, § I. Verulano Severe : cf. xiv 26, i. 

Vettio Bolano : he was consul suffectus with C. Calpurnius 
Piso, and in 69 A. D. became legatus of Britain. He seems also to 
have been proconsul of Asia at the end of Vespasian's life. He is 
described in a poem of Staiius (Sylv. v 2, 30-67). 

compositius, &c., 'with deliberation rather than despatch.' 

habere, ' to have war on hand rather than prosecute it ' (to 
a speedy conclusion). Corbulo desired to be retained in his com- 
mand in the East as \on% as possible, according to Tacitus, who 
elsewhere attributes selfish motives to him, cf. ch. 6, §§ 3, 6, and 
ch. 10, 7. 

§ 2. ingruente: the personal use of the verb is a reminiscence 
of Vergil's 'ingruit Aeneas,' Aen. xii 628. 

§ 3. reliquas : three. There were now six legions operating in 
the East (cf. ch. 6, 5). 

pro ripa, ' on the bank.' Cf. xiv 30, i. 

tumultuariam, 'hastily levied,' i.e. called out in this sudden 

ho3tiles ingressus, 'points where the enem^ might enter' (or 
possibly, ' invasions on the part of the enemy ' ; cf. ' hostiles minae,' 
xiii 57,4). 

qviia egena : i.e. the springs were so few that all could be guarded 
or destroyed, so as to deprive the Parthians of water. 

congestu harenae = ' congesta harena '; cf. 'molium obiectus,' 
xiv 8, 2; Intr. II 57. 

Ch. 4, § I. Monaeses : cf. ch. 2, 5. 

utfamam, &c., 'to anticipate the news of his approach.' 

§ 2. Tigranocertam : for variations in the form of this name see 
Intr. II 62. 

magnitudine moenium : the town had no doubt been dis- 
mantled by LucuUus, but had been subsequently refortified. 

§ 3. Nicephorius : if Pliny's mention of this river, in the A^. //., as 
a tributary of the Tigris is to be accepted, it might be the ' Bitlis-Su.' 
But the identification of Tigranocerta with 'Tell-Ermen' har- 
monizes best with the accounts of the place given in Tacitus and 
Strabo, in which case this river must be taken to be a branch of the 

Khabour,' itself a branch of the Euphrates. 

§ 4. milites : sc. ' Komani ' : Cc.rbulo left a force for the defence 
of Armenia in the previous year (xiv 26, 3). 

BOOK XV. CH. 2, § 3 —CH. 6, § I 

provisi, 'taken thought for.' 

quorum subvectu, = 'qui (commeatus) dum subvehuntur.' For 
a similar use of such a substantive cf. y4^r. 33, i ' procursu' ( = 'dum 
procun it '), and for a similar ablative cf. ch. 8, 3 ' percursando,' and 
Intr. II 22 b. 

repentinis, 'suddenly appearing,' i.e. 'by the unexpected ap- 
pearance of the enemy.' For the omission of the preposition where 
it is not so much the person as the person's presence that is meant, 
cf. Ann. vi 44 ' Tiridates simul fama atque ipso Artabano per- 

accenderant: applied by zeugma to 'metu '; cf. xiii 35, 7. 

§ 5. seinet frustratur, 'deceives himself,' by imagining that ' an 
occasional discharge of arrows ' could produce any effect. 

Ch. 5, § I. expostularent, 'to make complaint.' 

provinciae : i. e. Syi ia. Mention has not yet been made of the 
raids to which Corbulo refers. 

§ 2. Casperius : mentioned in Ann. xii 45 as having protested 
against the shameful way in which Pollio, a Roman ' praefectus 
castrorum,' was induced by Rhadamistus to put Mithridates in 
his power, 51 a.d. (Intr. V). 

Nisibis was the chief city of Mygdonia, a district in the north- 
east of Mesopotamia, and still exists as ' Nisibin ' or ' Nessabin.' 
(The distance here specified favours the view identifying Tigrano- 
certa with Tell-Ermen.) 

§3. vitandi : the idea of 'studium' or 'consilium' is to be 
understood from the neuter adjectives. Cf. xiii 26, 4 'nee grave 
manu missis . . . retinendi libertatem' (sc. ' onus'). 

prospere fluebant : cf. Cic. Off. i 26, 90 ' rebus prosperis et ad 
voluntatem nostram fluentibus.' 

§4. manu et copiis: referring to . the 'milites' and 'com 
meatus,' cf. ch. 4, 4. 

pro Suria, ' on the frontier of Syria.' 

inbecillum : the construction naturally passes to oratio obliqua 
since the preceding sentences embody the reflections of Vologeses. 

vis locustarum : so ' vi^ piscium ' {Ann. xii 63, 2 \ ' odora canum 
vis,' Verg. Aen. iv 132. 

§ 5. super='de.' So in Plautus, Sallust, occasionally in Cicero's 
letters ; not in Caesar, but often in Livy. So Verg. Aen. i 750 
multa super Friamo rogitans, super Hectore multa.' 

petenda : the language of xiii 34, 4 implies that the Romans 
had offered Tiridates the throne of Armenia on condition of 
recognizing the suzerainty of Rome : the Parthians now propose 
that Tiridates shall make that acknowledgement. 

Ch. 6, § I. magnifica, 'as glorious to Rome.' 

pepigisse : the facts certainly point to a compact between the 
belligerents to evacuate Armenia pending the reference of the 
question to Rome (chs. 5, 5 and 6, 2). 

Tigranes : Tacitus does not say what subsequently became of 
him, but Josephus states that his son Alexander married a daughter 


of Antiochus, king of Commagene (cf. xiii 7, i), and was set up as 
king of a small island off Cilicia by Vespasian. 

§ 2. hibernavisae : this was the winter of 61-62 A. D., spent by 
the Roman troops on the eastern frontier of Cappadocia ('cxtrema 
Cappadocia') instead of at Tigranocerta. We may presume the 
compact was made just before winter, and that this passage em- 
bo lies the comments passed at Rome the following spring, 

§ 3. meritae, 'earned,' 'acquired.' (The word does not neces- 
sarily convey the notion of ' merit,' cf. ' vulnera mereri,' Gcrvi. 14, 5; 
'ex eo quod meruerat odio,' Caes. B. G. vi 5, 2.) 

non : cf. xiii 40, 3. 

§ 4. ut rettuli : ch. 3, 2. 

aiiventare audiebatur: Intr. II 33. 

Caesenniiia : cf. xiv 29, i. 

§ 5. legionea : the fourtli and twelfth, given to Caesenius Pactus, 
were not thoje which had seen service wilh Corbulo, but had 
remained in Syria. 

auxilia : the three districts fro:n which these auxiliaries came 
were not occupied by any Roman legions. 

prior : auxiliaries already under arms before the war. 

ex rerum usu, ' in accordance with the requirements of 

§ 6. cui satis, &c., 'whose real deserts would have been satisfied, 
if he were placed next to Coibulo.' For the indicative cf. 'poterat,' 
ch. 10, I and Intr. II 38. 

uaurpatas, &c., ' only in name had he made a practice q' 
storming cities ' ; for ' nomine tenus ' cf. ' ore tenus,' ch. 45, 4. 

pro umbra, iSic, ' instead of a phantom king ' (such as Tigranes 
and others before him). Paetus promises the reduction of Armenia 
to a Roman province. 

Ch. 7, § I. sub idem tempus : in the spring of 62 A.D. 

memoravi : ch. 5,5. 

§ 2. Funisulanua Vettonianus was one of the foremost men in 
the state under Domitian, and an inscription detailing his appoint- 
ments and honours has been found in Pannonia, where he held 
command in 85 A.D. 

Calavius Sabinus, otherwise unknown. He and Funisulanus 
appear to have come out with Paetus, as other legati were 
appointed to the legions in Armenia by Corbulo, ch. 3, i. 

Armeniam intrat : starting from Cappadocia, he would pro- 
bably cross the river near Melitene, and then proceed southwards 
towards Tigranocerta. 

§ 3. nulla palam causa: so in xiv 32, i. 

consularia insignia: a richly caparisoned horre was assigned 
to a dictator or consul, to whom the regal insignia descended ; this 
would not, however, belong to Paetus in his capacity of ' legatus ' ; 
but he would have a horse carrying the ' fasces ' on the march. 

§ 4. hibernaculis : those under construction for the coming 
winter, viz. that of 62-63 A.D. 


BOOK XV. CH. 6, § I — CH. 10, §§ 1-2 

adsistens : i. e. put there to be sacrificed when the work was 

Ch. 8, § I. nuUo . . . provisu : a Tacitean variation for ' re 
frumentaria non provisa' (to ' provisi . . . commeatus,' ch. 4, 4I. 
For the form of the expression here, cf. ' congestu harenae,' ch. 3, 4. 

rapit = ' raptini ducit ' ; taken apparently from Verg. Ae^i. vii 725. 

reciperandis : dative of purpose; cf. Intr. II 11. For the 
evrvcuation of Tigranocerta by the Romans cf ch. 6, 2. 

§ 2. partum, si . . . habuisset : cf Intr. II ;8. 

§ 3. percursando : equivalent to ' dum percursat,' cf. xiv 31, 5, 
XV 4, 4 ; Intr. II 22 b : ' inasmuch as the corn which he had taken 
was spoilt, while he overran in long marches districts which he 
could not hold, and as winter was at hand,' &c. 

hieme = 62-63 A.D. 

rerum vacuas : so Sail. _/;(^. 90, i ' (ager) frugum vacuus.' 

Ch. 9, § I, ponti : the position was probably at Zeugma, where 
it appears that no permanent bridge was kept up, but that the 
means of constructing one were kept ready. 

subiectis : sc. ' fluvio,' 'lying near the river ' ; ablative of place. 

magna specie, ' with imposing c'isplay.' 

naves . . . auctas : floating batteries to protect those working 
at the bridge. 

agit per amnem, 'moves across the river.' 

saxa : these were thrown from ' ballistae ' and spears from 
' catapultae.' 

contrario sagittarum iactu : Intr. II 57. 

§ 2. quintain: from Moesia, ch. 6, 5 ; reliquaB = fourth and 
twelfth, /dir/. 

commeatibus, ' furloughs.' 

donee : this invasion, and the operations down to ch. 17, 4, may 
be ascribed to the beginning of the winter. 1 he seat of war was 
in southern Armenia, where winter sets in much later and with less 
severity than in the northern region, where Corbulo's soldiers had 
previously suftered so severely (xiii 35). 

Ch. 10, § I. accitur, 'is summoned,' i. e. from separate winter 
quarters, to join Paetus, who was encamped with the Fourth Legion 
at a place called by Dio Rhandeia, on the Arsanias, near the 
passes of the Taurus chain and at no great distance from the 
frontier of Cappadocia. 

et unde, &c., ' and the very step by which he had hoped to 
have it reported that his army was increased only betrayed his 

qua : the antecedent is 'infrequentia,' = ' few troops,' abstract for 
concrete. 'Yet even with this meagre force,' &c. 

eliidi, ' to be baffled.' 

tractii belli = 'trahendo bellum,' cf. ch. 3, 4. 

poterat, si . . . fuisset : cf. ch. 6, 6. 

§ 2. ubi . . . firmatus erat : the frequentative pluperfect ; cf. 
chs. 30, I ; 38, 6. ' After receiving sound advice from experienced 


soldiers in face of the difficulties of the situation, he continually 
went over to the opposite and inferior course.' 

§ 3. quasi . . . certaturus : expressing purpose, like the Greek 
u)s with fut. panic. (The intention need not be regarded as 
fictitious, cf. Intr. II 50.) 

§ 4. visendis : dative of purpose; cf. Intr. II 1 1. 

§ 5. quo : the antecedent is 'iugo.' 

§6. Arsamosata: an unimportant 'castellum 'within easy reach 
of Paetus' camp, distinct from the important Armenian city of the 
same name mentioned by Polybius and the elder Pliny. 

§ 7. instantem : sc. ' hostem.' 

nee a Corbulone, &c. : cf. chs. 3, I and 6, 3. 

§ 8. itineri : cf. ' verberibus ' xiii 26, 2 and ' bello ' xiii 9, 6. 

legionibus : ch. 6, 5. 

parem numerum : the auxiliary infantry accompanying a 
legion were usually equal to it in number, so that 'parem' 
refers to the total of legionary infantry together with their ac- 
companying 'alarii,' and denotes about 3800. 

Ch. 11, § I. nihil mutate, &c. : by rapid condensation of expres- 
sion, Tacitus, instead of continuing with rome such words as ' in- 
ceptum iter perrexit,' turns off to a particular account of the events 
of the march, ' sed ' contrasting ' vi ac minis ' with * nihil mutato 

alares : cf. ch. 10, 5. 

legionaries : probably the ' tria milia ' of ch. 10, 5. 

agitabat: see note on xiii 14, i 'agebat.' 

ignium iactu : cf. ' congestu harenae,' ch. 3, 4. 

§ 2. longinqua et avia : sc. * petivere.' 

saevitiam, ' fierceness.' 

gentium : cf. ch. 1,2. 

extellentea, ' exaggerating.* 

facili credvilitate : repeated from xiv 4, 2. 

pavebant : Intr. II 6 b. 

Ch. 12, § I. qua, &c., 'where the most direct route (lay), and 
(there was) no scarcity of provisions.' The neuter adjectives are 
practically equivalent to substantives; cf. Intr. II 2 b. 

Commagenam : here adjective. For the country and its govern- 
ment, cf. xiii 7, I. 

Armenios : Corbulo did not enter Armenia, being met by 
Paetus on the Euphrates at the frontier of Cappadocia (ch. 16, 4). 

§ 2. praeter, &c., 'besides the other (accessories) usual in war.' 

vis : cf. ch. 5, 4, 

frumenti : so in Plautus, 'aulam onustam auri.' The genitive is 
like those with ' plenus,' &c. 

§ 3. Paccium : cf. xiii 36, i. 

plerosque, ' many.' 

redire . . . experiri : cf. ch. 2, 5 and Intr. II 31. 

experiri, ' make trial of,' i. e. throw themselves on Paetus' 


BOOK XV. CH. 10, § 2 — CH. 13, ?§ 1-4 

se, SiC, ' his own forgiveness was to be won only by victory.' 

§ 4. priorum, 'his former victories ' ; xiii 39 foil., xiv 23 foil. 

§ 5. si, &c. : the language is difficult, and ' aspiceretur ' is here 
read as a correction lor Med. ' apisceretur.' The general sense, 
partly obscured by brevity and a rhetorical mode of expression 
(appropriate to a person fond of 'verba magnifica,' xiii 8, 41, is, 
' If a single soldier wins special honours for saving a comrade, 
huvv much greater must the glory be when a whole army saves 
another army as large as itselt.' Translate, ' If individual privates 
received from the emperor's hand the distinction of a crown for 
saving a fellow-citizen's life, how great must that glory be when 
equal hosts were seen bringing and receiving safety.' 

praeeipua : i.e. a gift of special distinction. The honours going 
with a 'civic crown' are given by the elder Pliny: 'accepta licet 
uti perpetuo, ludos ineunli semper adsurgi etiam ab senatu in more 
est. sedendi ius in proximo senatui. vacalio munerum omnium 
ipsi patrique et avo paterno.' 

imperatoria : the ' princeps ' alone could confer this honour at 
this period. 

§ 6. in commune, ' as a whole,' in distinction from the special 
incentives also influencing certain members of the general body; 
cf. xiii 27, 6 ; xv 63, i. 

diu, ' by day,' an archaism. 

Ch. 13, § I. castellum: Arsamosata, ch. 10, 6. 

adpugnare : ' made demonstrations against.' 

si, ' in case that,' implying design or expectation. 

§ 2. contuberniis : ablat. cf. Hor. Sa/. i i, 11 ' rure extractus 
in urbem.' 

extract!, sc. ' sunt.' 

nee aliud qiiam : cf. ' nee amplius quam,' xiii 40, 6. 

propvignabant : so also with accusative, xiii 31, 5. 

exemplis, &c. : the text is emended from Med. 'exemplis caudi 
nenum antineque eandem.' For the disaster inflicted by the 
Samnites on the Romans at the ' Caudine Forks,' 321 B.C., cf. 
Livy ix 1-6. By the 'Numantine disaster' the capitulation of 
Mancinus, in 137 B. C. is meant. 

Italico populo : Tacitus ignores the fact that at that time the 
Romans, as well as the Samnites, were a mere ' Italicus populus,' 
and not a world power. 

ac Partliis : for Med. ' aut poenis.' 

§3. antiquitatem, 'the mighty and glorious heroes of old,' 
abstract for concrete, cf. xiii i, 'dominationibus,' xiii 42, ' subitae 

quotiens, &c., 'whenever fortune pronounced against them.' 
The phrase is analogous to the judicial ' secundum aliquem dare.' 

§4. pro Armeniis : ch. 15, 3 shows they were now on the 
Parthian side, and ch. 6, 6 represents Paetus intending to conquer 
Armenia as being a hostile country. In ch. 27, 4 certain of the 
' megistanes' are called the leaders of revolt from Rome. 


ex aequo : with ' utilcm,' ' peace would be equally advantageous 
to both.' 

Ch. 14, § I. pi'o causa = 'pro re ipsa' (or rather, 'by way of 
making his defence,' ' pleading his rights,' cf. ch. 2, 3 where ' causa ' 
is opposed to 'anna' and used almo.^t as a synonym for ' aecjuitas,' 
and also xiii 37, 5, where it is used of negotiation or legal 
pleading as opposed to ' vis'). 

ilium, (Sic, ' the place in which he was, and that time, had been 
fixed for a consultation as to what settlement of Armenia they 
should arrange.' 

cernerent : the verb is used in the sense of ' decernere,' an 
archaic sense, found in judicial language in Cicero and Livy, and 
also, of decision by combat, in old poets ; cf. also Verg. Ae/!.xn 70S 
' cernere fcrro.' 

dignum, ' a thing worthy of.' Elsewhere Tacitus prefers ablative 
with this adjective, but genitive is found with it in Plautus and Ovid. 

ut : following ' simul' by ' anastrophe,' see Jntr. II 55 b; 
similarly in A fin. xii 49, 3 'ut' is the fifth word in i!s own 

§ 2. Paeto : dative of agent: cf. xiii 20, i ' nox Neroni trahebatur' 
and Intr. II 10. 

§ 3. Lucullos, Pompeios : plurals by rhetorical exaggeration : 
cf. 'gentibus,' xiv 11,2; so also ' saepe,' xiii 6, I ; ' semper,' xv 47, i. 

optinendae : dative of purpose. 

vim, ' real power,' as opposed to ' imaginem,' 'show.' 

^ 4. disceptato: see Intr. II 21 a. 

§ 5. quibus perpetratis : for the irony cf. ch. 25, 2 ' intellecto 
barbarum inrisu, qui peterent quod eripuerant.' 

Ch. 15, § I. Arsaniae. The Arsanias was probably the Murad, 
the principal eastern branch of the Euphrates. It would appear that 
the Roman camp was on its northern side, so that the Parthians had 
to cross it to take possersion of the camp, but the Romans could 
retreat towards Cappadocia without doing so. 

imposuit : sulsject ' Paetus.' 

specie, ' under pretence of preparing this route for his retreat.' 

quasi : denoting a real motive (Intr. II 50). 

per diversuro, ' taking an opposite direction.' Cf. xiii 40, 5 
' ex diverse ' and xiii 57, 3 ' diversa acies.' 

§ 2. aliaex,&c.,' other indignities suitable to (<7r involved in) a dis- 
aster, the semblance of which was employed by the Armenians' : i. e. 
the Armenians treated the Romans as if they had surrendered in con- 
sequence of an overwhelming defeat. Simulacrum is an appro- 
priate word, because the actions of the Armenians gave the 
appearajTce of defeat on the part of the Romans, and it was an 
'empty' semblance because no battle had been fought. For 
' usurpare ' cf. its use with ' expugnatio,' ch. 6, 7, and with ' con- 
saJutatio,' ch. 16, 5. 

§ 3. captiva = 'capta,' 'formerly taken as booty.' Cf ' captivum 
ebur,' 1 1 or. Ep ii i, 193. 


BOOK XV. CH. 13, § 4 — CH. 17, §§ 1-3 

adgnoscentes, 'recognizing as their own.' 

§ 4. retenta, ' were detained ' by the enemy, 

§ 5. caesorum: referring to those killed in the operations 
described in ch. il, i. 

§ 6. insidens : sc. 'rex,' or ' ipse.' 

proximus: an accusative after this adjective is found in Plautus, 
Caesar, and Sallust, and is the common classical usage after both 
' propius ' and ' proxime.' 

Ch. 16, § I. ut horreis, &c.: they preferred to destroy their 
store rather than deliver it to the Parthians according to the terms 
of ch. 14, 5. 

prodiderit : the subjunctive appears to be an error, as there 
is no reason for extending the force of ' ut ' beyond ' inicerent.' 
Tacitus here refers to Corbulo's written memoirs, which were also 
used as material by the elder Pliny (Intr. I 3). 

pabulo attrito, 'their foraging ground being nearly ex- 

relicturos : understand ' fuisse ' (suggested by ' afuisse ' follow- 
ing). Cf. Intr. II 27. 

§ 2. iure iurando, &c., 'that Paetus gave security by oath 
before the standards,' i.e. in the 'principia,' where the standards, 
the effigy of the emperor, and sacrificial altars were kept. 

testiflcando: cf. xiii 11, 2. 

litterae . . . an, ' a despatch, saying whether.' 

§ 3. quae ut, &c., ' admitting that these statements were made 
up (by Corbulo) to increase (Paetus') disgrace, what follows may 
be taken as established, that. . . .' The agreement described in § 2 
is quite credible, so far as the subsequent actions of the Romans 
go, though Paetus ignores any such obligation in ch. 17, i. 

quadraginta : the ordinary day's march of a Roman army was 
twenty miles at ordinary pace, twenty-four at quick march ; any- 
thing more than this was unusually fast (' quidquid addideris iam 
cursus est,' Vegetius). 

§ 4. apud ripam Euphratis : probably at or near Melitene. 

ut diveraitatem, &c., ' to taunt them by the contrast.' 

§ 5. consalutatio : so, of the vanquished troops returning from 
Caudium, 'non reddere salutem, non salutantibus dare responsum' 
(Livy ix 6, 12). 

§ 6. apud minores, ' in the lower ranks,' the rank and file. 

Ch. 17, § I. Integra, &.C., 'nothing was lost for either.' 

§ 2. Corbulo : sc. ' ait.' 

quando = ' quoniam' ; so in A fin. i 44, 5, &c. 

§ 3. sic quoque, &c., 'even as it was he must pray for the best 
of good fortune for his infantry ... to keep pace with.' Corbulo 
was afraid the Parthian cavalry would outstrip him and invade 
Syria before he could get back for its defence. 

alacrem, &;c., 'fresh, and outstripping them by the ease of 
moving over plains ' (or, ' thanks to the easy travelling afforded by 
(he plains'). 

95 R 


§ 4. per, ' in various quarters in.' Mbei-navit : the winter would 
be that of 62-63 A. D. Cf. ch. 8, 3. 

detraheret = ' dirueret.' 

§ 5. diversis, 'hostiHbus.' Cf. xiii 57, 3; xiv 'o, i. 

expostulabat='postul<ibat.' For infinitive cf. Intr II 31. 

sine arbitro, * without interference.' 

Ch. 18, § I. areus : cf. xiii 41, 5. 

integro adhuc, 'while the war was still undecided.* 

neque turn, &c., 'and not even then abandoned, out of regard 
for appearances, despite knowledge of the truth.' This criticism 
is unfair, as the Roman authorities were acting in accordance 
with Paetus' despatches, 'literas quasi confecto bello,' ch. 8, 3, and 
would not get the news of his subsequent failure till the following 

§ 2. dissimulandis, &c.: dative of purpose, 'to hide his anxiety 
about foreign affairs.' The imputation of this motive is wholly 

frumentum plebis : stored for sale at a low price. It was part 
of the ' cura annonae ' to regulate prices by sale from public stores, 
and by compensating merchants for selling below market value in 
times of scarcity (cf. ch. 39, 2). Costs connected with the ' frumentum 
publicum' were formerly borne by the 'aerarium,' especially from 
the revenues of the senatorial provinces, but under Claudius or 
Nero were transferred to the ' fiscus ' (Intr. Ill 25). 

quo, &c., 'to keep up confidence in the abundance of supplies' 
(by producing an impression that there must be ample stores in 

§ 3. portu : Ostia. 

Tiber! subvectas, ' which had passed up the Tiber ' (to the city). 

§ 4. tris, &c.: Augustus had appointed a similar commission in 

6 A. D. 

Ij. Pisonem : cf. xiii 28, 3. 

Dvieeniua Geminus was 'praefectus urbis' under Galba. 

Paulinum: cf. xiii 53, 2. 

vectigalibus publicia : strictly=the indirect taxes payable to 
the 'aerarium publicum,' see xiii 50, i ; but possibly the term is 
here used in a wider sense and includes the tribute of the senatorial 
prqvinces, and in fact the whole revenue of the ' aerarium.' 

priorum : this would best apply to Gaius. 

qui, &c., 'who by their extravagant expenditure had exceeded 
the proper revenue.' 

se, (See, ' whereas he annually made a present of sixty million 
sesterces to the state.' This may refer to the transference of the 
'cura annonae' to the 'fiscus,' or perhaps Nero meant more 
generally that the state expenditure came annually to that amount 
in excess of his revenues from public sources, and that he made up 
the deficit from his own 'res privata.' 

Ch. 19, § I. plerique = ' permulti.' This chapter deals with a 
common device for evading by means of temporary adoptions one 

BOOK XV. CH. 1 7, § 4 — CH. 20, § i 

of the provisions of the 'lex Papia Poppaea' (so called from the 
names of the consuls of the year 9 A. D., when it was carried). 
The law dealt comprehensively with the whole question of marriages 
and wills, and, with the object of encouraging matrimony, contained 
various regulations to the disadvantage of the unmarried and child- 
less ; thus, in elections, a candidate who had children was to be 
preferred to one who had none, and, in the matter of wills, the 
unmarried ('caelibes') could not succeed to property, and married 
but childless persons ('orbi') could only receive half of what was 
left them, unless related to the testator within the sixth degree. 
(The measure failed in its main object, cf. Ann. iii 25, 2, and even 
the ruling authorities set it aside from time to time; thus, 'orbi' 
in many cases received exemption from disabilities, by obtaining 
' ius liberorum ' by special favour from the senate and, later, from 
the Emperor. The disabilities of 'orbitas' and 'caelibatus' were 
abolished by Constantine.) 

inter patres, ' among those who were (really) fathers.' 

soi'titi : applied, by zeugma, to ' praeturas ' in the general sense 
of being elected. Election to other magistracies as well as to the 
praetorship took place in the senate, but the praetorship is specially 
mentioned here as being the most important, as it was the natural 
step to the government of a senatorial province— except Asia and 
Africa, which went to consulars — while the consulship was filled up 
at the will of the princeps (by his ' nomination ') rather than by the 
free choice of the senate. 

§ 2. magna cum invidia, ' with loud reproaches.' Cf. ' precibus 
et invidiae,' xvi 10, 5. 

adeunt : the subject is missing ; the complainants however are 
evidently real parents who suffered by the fictitious adoptions of 
their rivals. 

ius naturae, Sec, 'the right they gained by nature ... as 
opposed to the fraudulent trick of a short-lived adoption.' 

§ 3. honores : here = ' marks of respect ' rather than 'the higher 

§ 4. sine, &c., 'becoming a father without the cares of paternity, 
and childless without the grief of bereavement, attained what had 
long been the aspiration of parents.' 

§ 5. in ulla, &c., ' in anything partaking of the nature of a 
public office,' or ' in any branch of the public service.' 

hereditatibus : cf. note on § i. 

Ch. 20, § I. Cretensis: Crete (with Cyrene) was a senatorial pro- 
vince, and the senate would try cases too important to be settled 
by the proconsul on the spot. 

ut sclent : in sense = ' qualibus obnoxii esse solent.' 

ad iniurias, &c., ' so uplifted as to oppress their inferiors.' 

penetraverat. ' had gone to the length of insulting the senate ' 
(in the person of the proconsul). 

grates agerentur : this was done by a deputation sent to Rome 
on the motion of a 'concilium sociorum' (cf. ch. 22, 2). 


§ 2. Thrasea: cf. xiii 49, i. 

exempla = ' deeds worthy of being taken as an example,' hence, 
as here, ' punishments,' ' honourable measures of exemplary retri- 
bution.' Cf. xiv 44, 7. 

§ 3. licentia, 'wickedness,' 'corruption.' For the Cincian law 
cf. xiii 42, 2. 

lulias: passed by Augustus, 18 and 8 B.C. 

Calpurnia : the 'lex Calpurnia de repetundis,' passed by the 
tribune L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, in 149 B.C., is remarkable as the 
first constitution of a'quaestio publica.' The variation of terms 
here employed (' rogationem,' 'leges,' 'scita') is only rhetorical: 
the enactments named were probably all in form ' picbiscita.' 

nam, &c., ' for the sin precedes its penalty, correction is subse- 
quent to wrong-doing.' A similar sentiment is attributed to Cato 
in Livy xxxiv 4, 8. 

§ 4. fide, 'honour' (in dealing with provincials). 

constantia, 'dignity,' 'self-respect,' the feeling that should keep 
Romans from courting the praise of their inferiors. 

nobis, &c., ' while we may be relieved of any idea that the 
estimation of a man's character depends on anything else than the 
verdict of his fellow-citizens.' 

Ch. 21, § I. privati, &c. : referring to the senatorial privilege 
of travelling on a 'libera legatio.' 

quid, &c. 'to report what was their impression of the loyalty of 
various provincials, and the subject-peoples were anxious as to the 
opinion of individual Romans.' 

§ 3. ostentandi : as the text stands, the idea of ' custom,' ' habit ' 
must be supplied with this gerund, in the same way that a sub- 
stantive is supplied with the gerundial genitives in xiii 26, 4 
and XV 5, 3, though in these latter cases a neuter adjective in the 
clause suggests the requisite word. A good correction proposed is 
that of Madvig, who suggests that 'potentiam' is a corruption of 
'potestas sententiam.' 

laus falsa : on the part of the subjects, malitia, crudelitas, 
' wrong-doing,' ' cruelty,' on the part of the governor. 

§ 4. demeremur, ' seek to oblige.' 

§ 5. inclinat, ' declines,' ' deteriorates.' 

aequabilius atque constantius, ' with more uniformity and 

§ 6. repetundarum : sc. ' quaestionis.' 

ambitio, ' intrigue to win favour.' 

Ch. 22, § I. perfici: cf. xiv 49, i and xiii 49, 2. 

abnuentibvis . . . relatum : sc. ' esse.' ' Abnuere ' has the force 
of ' negare.' (It is possible also that 'relatum' is a substantive; 
cf. Intr. II 51 a.) The consuls were naturally anxious to consult 
the princeps on this question, as it affected his 'legati' as well as 
senatorial governors. 

§ 2. sanxere, (S:c. : Augustus had in 11 A. D. forbidden such votes 
of thanks to be passed by provincials till sixty days had elapsed 

BOOK XV. CH. 20, § 2 — CH. 23, §§ 1-4 

from the governor's retirement. The practice does not appear to 
have been ended by Nero's edict. 

conciliuin sociorum: the 'diet' of the province, which met 
annually, known also as ' commune ' and t6 Koivof. 

pro praetoribus = the ' legati Augusti propraetore,' in the 
Caesarian provinces. 

pro consulibus : the proper title of all governors of senatorial 
provinces, whether of praetorian or consular rank. 

§ 3. gymnasium : see xiv 47, 3. 

§ 4. motu terrae, &c. : this earthquake took place sixteen years 
before the eruption which destroyed the town. 

Cossorum : possibly she was a daughter of the consul of 60 A. D., 
xiv 20, I. 

capta est : the word is appropriate, as in the ritual of her dedi- 
cation the pontifex maximus took the new vestal by the hand, with 
the words ' te (Cornelia), capio.' A vestal virgin was presented by 
her father for the service of Vesta between the age of six and ten, 
and might retire and marry after thirty years. The vestals usually 
however continued in their office till death. 

Ch. 23, § 1. Memmio Eegulo : son of the person mentioned 
xiv 47, §§ I, 2. 

Verginius Rufus was prominent in the events at the end of 
Nero's reign, when he was governor of Upper Germany. He received 
a second consulship from Vitellius, and a third from Nerva, in 
97 A. D., when he died, and was succeeded by Tacitus, who spoke 
his ' laudatio.' 

Augustani : she was called ' Claudia Augusta.' 

date et Poppaeae, &c. : the title of ' Augusta,' conferred on 
Livia after Augustus' death according to his will, was taken by 
Agrippina in the lifetime of Claudius, and, from Domitian onwards, 
was usually borne by emperors' wives. 

(^ 2. Antium : see xiv 3, i. 

§ 3. supplicationes : i.e. a general thanksgiving to all the gods, 
not to be taken with ' Fecunditati.' 

ad exemplar, &c. : i. e. following the pattern of the quinquennial 
festival instituted by Augustus at Nicopoiis in commemoration of 
the battle of Actium. 

Fortunarum : the deity Fortune was specially worshipped at 
Antium in the form of two sister goddesses, thought to represent 
the fortune of war and peace respectively. 

apud Bovillas : Bovillae was situated on the Appian Way about 
ten miles from Rome. The cult of the 'gens Julia' was maintained 
here because the town claimed to be a daughter-city of Alba 
Longa, which referred its origin to lulus the founder of that 
' gens,' 

§ 4. divae; dative, 'to the (now) divine (infant).' 'And again 
rose the voice of flattery, voting her the honour of deification,' &c. 

pulvinar: a sacred couch on which her statue would be laid 
when a ' lectisternium ' was celebrated. 


§ 5. inmodlcua : with genitive of reference ; so ' \ oliiptatum 
modicus,' ii Ti^ 3 (fntr. II 24 c). 

effuse, ' poured out to Antium ' to offer congratulations. 

prohibitum, ' forbidden to present himself.' This occurred 
again, xvi 24, i, and amounted practically to ' renuntiatio ami- 
citiae,' preliminary to a sentence of banishment or execution. 

§ 6. iactaverit, &c. : Nero vaunted this as a proof of clemency ; 
the answer of Seneca implied that the friendship of Thrasea was 
worth more to Nero than Nero's to him. 

egregiis viria : Thrasea and Seneca. 

Ch. 24, § I. legati Parthorum : cf. ch. 14, 5. 

mandata, ' message.' 

super = ' de,' Intr. II 46. 

quamvis potentium, ' however powerful.' 

§ 2. satis, &c., ' his strength had been sufficiently demonstrated ; 
proof had also been given of his clemency.' 

§ 3. reeusatur-um : sc. 'fuisse' (Intr. II 27). 

sacerdotii religione : I'liny says he was a Magian and that it 
was one of his tenets not to pollute the sea by travelling upon it 
(cf. the reluctance of Brahmins to cross the 'black water'). 

iturum, &c. : i. e. he would go to some neighbouring camp, in 
Cappadocia or Syria, and there do homage to the eagles and effigy 
of the ' princeps' in the principia. Cf. ch. 29, 5. 

regnum auspicaretur, ' duly solemnize his accession to the 
throne.' Cf. 'auspiciis' xiii 6, 5. 

Ch. 25, § I. Paetus diversa . . . seribebat, 'letters were coming 
from Paetus to an opposite effect.' 

integris, ' undecided.' 

§ 2. barbarum : cf. xiv 39, i. 

primores civitatis = those forming his usual privy council. 

§ 4. inriti , ' without effecting their purpose,' because Nero refused 
the modified offer which they brought, ch. 24, 3. 

§ 5. exsecutio : for Med. 'excutio.' The civil government is 

C. Cestio: Med. 'citio.' C. Cestius Callus is known from other 
sources as legatus of Syria in 65 A. D. 

Marius Celsus is frequently mentioned in the Hisfor.'es as true 
to Galba, and afterwards to Otho, and as allowed nevertheless by 
Vitellius to hold a consulship to which he had been designated. 

§ 6. tetrarchis : this word had by now lost its original etymo- 
logical significance, and was used generally for such oriental princes 
as were below the dignity of /iaaiXft?. 

regibus : cf. xiii 7. 

praefectis : officers commanding 'cohortes' or 'alae' in the 
lesser provinces. 

procuratoribus : governors of minor provinces. 

praetorum : used generally for provincial governors. 

obsequi : Intr. II 31. 

Cn. Pompeio : by the 'lex Gabinia,' 67 B.C. The parallel is 

BOOK XV. CH, 23, § 5 — CH. 27, §§ 1-4 

not exact, as Pompeius' power under this law was ' imperium 
aeqiiiiin in omnibus provinciis cum pioconsulibus usque ad quin- 
quagesimum miliarium a mari.' The powers conferred upon him 
by the 'lex Manilla,' giving him the command against Mithridates, 
would be a more apt comparison. 

§ 7. ignoaeere, &c., ' that he pardoned him at once, lest one so 
quick to take fright might fall ill, were his anxiety protracted.' 

Ch. 26, § I. quarta at duodecuma : blockaded under Paetus, 
ch. 10, I, 

sextam ac tertiam : cf. ch. 6, 5. Mention is not made of the 
loth legion, which presumably was left in Syria. 

exercitum : this participle which in earlier classic usage = 
'harassed,' is used by Tacitus in the sense of ' exercitatus,' 'prac- 
tised.' The sixth and third legions had served with Corbulo in 
his previous campaigns, xiii 38, 6 and 40, 3. 

§ 2. quintam : cf. chs. 6, 5 and 9, 2. 

quintadeeumanos : ch. 25, 5. recens, adverb, so ch. 6, 5. 

vexilla delectorum, ' detachments of picked troops.' Similarly 
ii 78, 3 'vexillum tironum.' (Not='veterani sub vexillo,' 'reservists.') 
lllyricum is taken in a wide sense as including Pannonia as well as 

quodque, &c., ' and what he had of auxiliary horse and foot,' 
cf. xiii 35, 4. (For omission of 'fuit,' Intr. II 27.) 

regum : ch. xxv, 6. 

Melitene was a town in Cappadocia near the Euphrates, im- 
portant as a station commanding the passage of that river, and 
made in consequence the headquarters of the 12th legion, in 
70 A. D. ; now ' Malatia.' 

§ 3. lustratum : by sacrifice of pig, sheep, and ox (' suovetau- 
rilia '), as the ' piaculum Marti.' 

imperatoris = Nero's. (The campaign would be ' ductu Corbu- 
lonis, auspiciis Caesaris.') 

declinans, ' turning off upon,' 'attributing.' 

multa auctoritate, &c. : i.e. he convinced his hearers by his 
personality as a successful general, as another might by eloquent 

Ch. 27, § I. Lucvxllo : in 6g B.C. Lucullus crossed the 
Euphrates and marched through Sophene and over Mount Taurus, 
and thence, after crossing the Tigris, to Tigranoce.ta. 

penetratum : the phrase is composed on the analogy of ' per- 
gcre iter.' 

vetustas, 'the lapse of time,' 132 years. 

nee enim: introducing the substance of Corbulo's message. 

extreme, ' an internecine conflict.' 

§ 2, doeumento, ' so as to be a lesson' (Intr. II 12). 

I 3. scire : understand ' se' (Intr. II 3). 

I 4. megistanas, ' magnates,' from the Persian ' mehestan,' con- 
taining the same root as /xc-yfu, 'magnus': called also ' primores 
gentium,' ch. i, 2. 



defecerant: so, in ch. 13, 4, Armenia is spoken of as a vassal 
state of the Roman empire. 

Ch. 28, § I. non infensum, &c., 'was not regarded with ani- 
mosity nor with the hatred of an enemy.' 

atrox in siimmam, ' unconcihatory as to the general issue.' 

praefecturis, ' districts,' of Armenia (cf. xiii 37, 2), which Corbulo 
had invaded ; see § 4 of preceding chapter. 

§ 2. tempus propinquum : sc. ' delectum est,' supplied from 

locus : Rhandeia, cf. note on ch. 10, i. 

§ 3. neque, &c., * nor was he distressed about the disgrace of 
Paetus ' ; in fact he took the opportunity to intensify it by sending 
Paetus' son to clear away the tokens of the disaster. 

ducere : infm. after ' imperavit ' ; cf. Intr. II 31. 

§ 4. Tiberius Alexander : an Alexandrine Jew who renounced 
Judaism and became procurator of Judaea 46 A. D. ; he was praefect 
of Egypt 67-70 A. D., and gave valuable help to Vespasian, and in 
consequence was appointed lieutenant-general of the forces under 

inlustris eques : this, as opposed to ' eques modicus,' is the term 
for a person of senatorial census preferring to remain within the 
equestrian rank, for the sake of various honourable and profitable 
appointments from which senators were debarred. 

minister bello, ' a war commissary,' to manage matters of 
finance and provision. 

Vinicianus : son of a man who formed an unsuccessful con- 
spiracy against Claudius, and in consequence committed suicide 
in 42 A. D. 

nondum senatoria aetate : i. e. not yet twenty-five. Hence 
his title 'pro legato,' since the post of ' legatus legionis' could 
properly be held only by senators, usually of praetorian rank. Dio 
mentions that Vinicianus was afterwards sent by Corbulo to escort 
Tiridates to Rome. 

§ 5. uterque: the use of this pronoun with plural predicate, on 
the analogy of collectives, is not found in Cicero, and rarely in 
classical prose. 

miscuere : used .as a variation for the more usual ' iunxere.' 

Ch. 29, § I. praecipitibus, 'desperate counsels.' 

§ 2. tempei'anter, ' modestly.' 

non adversis, &.C., ' though the Parthians had met with no 

§ 3. apud effigiem Caesaris : cf. ch. 24, 3. 

insigne regium : the ' diadema,' cf. § 6. 

osculo : the usual method of salutation between oriental poten- 
tates, adopted by Alexander, and followed also by the Romans in 
the East, cf. ch. 31, i. 

§ 4. insignibus patriis, ' with their national decorations.' This, 
with 'fulgentibus aquilis ' and also ' signis ' and ' simulacris' may 
be regarded as an extension of the use of the ablative of accompani- 

BOOK XV. CH. 27, § 4 — CH. 31, § i 

ment, common in such adverbial expressions as 'magna celeritate.' 
See Intr. II 22 a. 

simulacris, &c., ' with images of the gods, so as to represent 
(i. e. give the place the sanctity of) a temple.' 

§ 6. capiti : dative on the analogy of that with ' adimere,' ' abstra- 
here,' 'deripere' (xiii 57, 7), common with verbs meaning 'take 

exercituum . . . caedes aut obsidio, 'caedes,' ch. 11, i, 'obsidio,' 
ch. 13. 

§ 7. ostentui, &c., 'a spectacle for the world to gaze on' (Intr. 
II 12). 

quanto, &c., 'how little short of being a captive ! ' 

Ch. 30, § I. gloriae : the glorification which Tiridates' homage 
had brought him. 

quotiens . . . adverterat : the pluperfect in a subordinate clause 
expressing repeated action: cf. ch. 10, 2 ' ubi . . . firmatus erat ' 
and ch. 38, 6 'si . . . evaserant.' 

ut, ' as for instance.' 

initia vigiliarum : the beginning of each of the four watches 
into which the night was divided was proclaimed with the ' bucina,' 
a regulation which the ' centurio primipilus' would see carried out 
and would then report to the general. 

augurale : there was on the right of the general's tent, facing the 
'via principalis,' a spot marked off as a 'templum' for taking 
' auspicia,' known as ' auguratorium,' and 'augurale' may be a 
synonym for this. Quintilian however mentions 'augurale' as 
equivalent to the general's tent, the 'praetorium' itse'.f, and it may 
quite well be so taken here. 

aram . . . aceendi : (i) ' fire was kindled on the altar,' cf. the 
expression ' adolere aras,' xiii 30, 3 ; or (2) ' the altar ' (in this case 
a small pyre of combustible materials) ' was set on fire.' 

in maius attollens, ' heightening the importance of,' ' proudly 

adfecit : supply ' eum ' from ' rege ' above. (For similar transi- 
tions from ablative absolute cf. xiv 10, i; xvi 14, 6.) 'He 
impressed him with awe at the antiquity of our customs.' Partftia 
was a comparatively modern empire as contrasted with Rome ; 
cf. note on xiii 9, 2. 

§ 2. spatiuni : sc. ' temporis.' 

Ch. 31, § I. propriis, 'special,' as distinct from the joint 
embassy of ch. 27, i. 

imaginem, 'be made to submit to any tokens of servility.' 

ferrum : the 'acinaces,' always worn by Parthians. Dio states 
that when Tiridates was told to deliver it up before presentation 
to Nero, he refused and nailed it to the scabbard. 

complexu =^ ' osculo,' the salutation due to him as a king; cf. 
ch. 29, 3. 

foribusve, &c., ' or be kept waiting at their doors ' (for an audi- 
ence), like an inferior. 



§ 2. externae superbiae, 'barbaric pomp ' (dative after 'sueto'). 

vis, ' reality.' tramittuntur, ' are passed over,' ' disregarded.' 
With this sentence closes the account of Eastern afTairs in the 
extant books of the A/inals. 

Ch. 32, § I. nationes Alpium maritimarum : hitherto (with 
the exception of the tribes close to the coast) constituting a small 
province under an equestrian procurator, formed by Augustus, 
14 B.C. 

ius Latii : conferring on its possessors * commercium,' i.e. the 
right of commercial dealing with Roman citizens under Roman 
civil law, and also the privilege of obtaining full Roman citizenship 
by holding a magistracy in their own town ; cf. the phrase in 
Pliny, ' per Latium in civitatem venire.' 

§ 2. equitum, &c. : the lex Roscia, 67 B.C., which reserved for 
the 'equites' the 'quattuordecim ordines' next above the orchestra 
(where the senators sat), only applied to the theatre. It appears 
that special seats in the Circus were reserved for the senate 
under Claudius, and since 4 A. D. equites had also had better seats 
than the populace as a matter of custom ; the arrangement was 
now made law for the first time. 

§ 3. plures, ' more than before.' Hitherto Tacitus has only 
recorded the appearance of knights in the arena, and of women 
and members of the great senatorial families on the pantomimic 
stage, xiv, chs. 14 and 15 ; but this passage gives support to 
the statements of Dio and Suetonius, who mention senators, 
knights, and women appearing in the amphitheatre as early as 
59 A. D. 

per arenam : i. e. by their appearance m it. 

Ch. 33, § I. M. Licinio : his father was consul in 27 A. D. ; 
his full name was M. Licinius Crassus Frugi, and he was descended 
through his mother from Pompeius. 

pi'omiscas, ' open to the public ' ; cf. xiv 14, 4. 

Kivenalibus : cf. xiv 15, i, whence also it appears that this 
festival was held in a private theatre, 
«parum celebres, ' not sufficiently well attended.' 

angustos, &c., ' (a) narrow (sphere) for so grand a voice.' Nero's 
courtiers spoke of his ' caelestis vox' (xvi 22, l), but tradition 
makes it feeble and hoarse, ' exiguae vocis et fuscae ' (Suetonius), 
(ip^Xv Km fieXav (pMvrjt^ia (Dio). 

§ 2. Eomae: for his appearance there sec xvi 4. 

quasi, ' ;is being ' ; cf. Intr. II 50. Ncapolis was a colony from 
Cumae, which had itself been colonized from Chalcis, and hence 
Greek institutions were maintained there. 

coronas : those of the great Greek games. 

civium : i. e. the Romans, in contrast with the Neapolitans, who 
were ' oppidani ' ; cf. § 3. 

§ 3. per honorem, &;c.. 'by way of respect or service of various 
kinds.' (For this use of ' honos ' cf. ch. 1 9, 3.) 

milituni : praetorians. 


BOOK XV. CH. 31, § 2 — CH. 35, §§ 1-5 

Ch. 34, § I. triste . . . pi'ovidum : the neuter adjectives are 
used substantivally ; cf. Intr. II 2 b. The meaning of ' pro- 
vidum ' is made clear by ' secundis numinibus,' ' a providential 
circumstance, rather, due to the favour of heaven.' 

§ 2. conpositos, ' carefully elaborated.' 

grates : supply ' agens ' from ' celebrans,' which is applied here 
by zeugma to ' grates ' as well as to ' fortunam ' ; cf. xiii 

traiectus : substantive, ' a place of crossmg.' 

Beneventum : on the Appian way, by which he was journeying 
to Brundisium. It was Vatinius' birthplace. 

§3. cstenta, 'monstrosities.' 

sutrinae tabernae : part of his trade appears to have been the 
manufacture of cheap drinking cups (or else his name was given 
to cups in common use, as boots and bags have been called after 
Wellington and Gladstone) ; cf. Juv. v 46 'tu Benevcntani sutoris 
nomen habentem | siccabis calicem.' 

in contumelias, ' as a butt for jests ' ; ' scurrae,' often selected, 
like the jesters in mediaeval times, for some physical deformity, 
were a regular institution of the Roman imperial court. 

Ch. 35, § I. frequentanti : so also with accusative, xiv 
4, I. 

§ 2. Silanua : his full name was Decimus Junius Torquatus 
Silanus ; he was brother of the Silanus killed in the first year of 
Nero's reign (xiii i), and had been consul in 53 A. D., the year 
of Nero's marriage with Octavia. 

afcavum : Silanus was grandson of Julia the grand-daughter of 
Augustus. Intr. VI (i) A. 

ferebat, ' displayed,' 'claimed.' 

§ 3. prodigum, ' that he had wasted his fortune.' 

quin, &c. : corrected from Med. 'qui ne Innobiles,' which some 
have altered into ' quin earn nobiles ' ; however as the appoint- 
ments mentioned weie still even in the imperial household only 
held by ' liberti,' it is unlikely that 'nobiles' would have accepted 
such posts from a private citizen. The charge against Silanus is 
that he dared to give persons in his household the titles borne by 
the chief freedmen of Caesar. 

a libellis : the freedman who dealt with memorials, reports, and 
petitions made to the Emperor. 

nomina, &c., 'titles of the highest (i.e. imperial) duties, and 
a preparation for them' (i.e. the prelude to an attempt to seize 
the principate). 

§ 4. cum damnatio instaret : for the reasons for thus anti- 
cipating a sentence by suicide cf. xiii 30, 2. 

interscidit : very rare, but natural as a variant for 'abscindere,' 
the more regular verb in this phrase ; cf. ch. 69, 3, and xvi 11, 4. 

§ 5. ex more : cf. Nero's letter about Antistius, xiv 49, 4. 

indicia : as Nero applies this term to himself, Silanus had 
probably been tried beiore him ' intra cubiculum ' (for a similar 


case cf, xiii 23) ; if before the Senate, Nero could have modified 
the sentence by his tribunician power. 

Ch. 36, § I. oniissa . . . Achaia: his intention to go there 
is mentioned in ch. 33 : he actually went there towards the end of 
66 A. D. See Appendix to bk. xvi. 

provincias, &:c., ' contemplating in his inmost thoughts (a visit 
to) the provinces of the East.' 'Imaginatio' is used only here in 
Tacitus, and is not found earlier than Pliny (A^. //.) ; Tacitus 
however u es ' imago,' like Ovid's ' illius tristissima noctis imago,' 
and has a verb ' imaginari ' in ch. 69, 4 of this book. 

§ 2. super = 'de,' ' on the subject of (cf. ch. 5, 5), i.e. to pray 
for a safe journey. 

§ 3. Vestae templum : near the Forum. He probably went 
there to bid farewell to the Penates of Rome. 

cunctas . . . curas, 'all his interests.' 

dictitans, ' giving out,' in another edict. 

§ 4. fortuita, ' chance misfortunes.' 

§ 5. ut, Sec, 'just as in a man's family ties his nearest and 
dearest counted for most.' 

§ 6. volentia = ' quae volebant,' ' welcome.' (So ' volentia plebi,' 
Sail. 7/. 4, 31.) 

voluptatum, &:c. : i.e. they were anxious that the Emperor 
should be there to attend to their requirements, ' panem et 

§ 7. in incerto, &c., ' were doubtful whether he was to be re- 
garded as more terrible when far off or when near at hand.' 

Ch. 37, § I. nihil, &c., ' that he enjoyed no place so much 
as Rome.' 

§ 2. et celeberrimae, <S:c., ' most notorious for its excesses and 
the talk caused thereby was the feast,' &c. 

§ 3. stagno Agrippae : thought to have been in a part of the 
Campus Martius called the ' Campus Agrippae,' lying at the foot 
of the Ouirinal or of the Pincian. 

navium aliarum tractu for ' navibus aliis trahentibus.' Cf. 
Iiitr. II 57. 

§ 5. diversis: here = 'distant,' after Vergil (Ae/i. iii 4). 

atausque : cf. xiii 47, 2. 

Ch. 38, § I. incertum : Tacitus is the only author known to us 
who mentions any doubt as to Nero's guilt. Suetonius gives as 
Nero's motive for the crime the desire to rebuild Rome on a grand 
scale, and Dio charges him with firing Rome in the craze for 
realizing the scene that was witnessed at the fall of Troy. (For 
'incertum' see Intr. II 59.) 

omnibus : the most famous was the conflagration caused by the 
Gauls after the battle of the Allia, 390 B. c. 

§ 2. in ea parte : the north-eastern corner of the Circus. 

tabernas : standing in a colonnade running round the outer 
face of the Circus. 

mercimonium : an archaic word. 

BOOK XV. CH. 35, § 5,— CH. 39, §§ 1-2 

citus: participle, 'impelled,' 'fanned.' 

§ 3. domus, ' palaces,' ' mansions,' with substantial boundary 
walls (' munimenta'), opposed to ' insulae,' ch. 41, i. Temples 
also would have outer walls ('muri'j round the precinct in which 
the actual building stood. 

quid: Intr. 113b. 

§ 4. impetu : modal, 'impetuously,' 'with fury.' (Intr. II 17.) 

plana: governed by ' pervagatum.' 

populando : cf. xiii 47, i ' interpretando,' and xiv 31, 5 ' servos 
appellanda' (Intr. II 22 b.) 

obnoxia, 'from the fact that the city lay at its mercy owing to 
the narrowness of the streets, which bent this way and that.' 
(urbe, ablative absolute ; itineribus, ablative of cause.) 

enormibus, ' built on no regular plan.' In Quintilian, ' enoimis 
toga ' = a badly cut toga. 

vicis = the groups of houses forming streets. 

§ 5. ad hoc, ■ besides.' 

fessa aetate, &c. : the reading in Med. is ' fessa aetate aut 
rudis pueritiae aetas,' which as it stands is doubtless a corruption 
of what Tacitus wrote. In the text adopted, ' aetas ' is cut out, as a 
gloss, and the remaining four words are taken as qualifying 'femi- 
narum,' ' both those of feeble age and those of helpless childhood.' 
Others remove ' aetate,' regarding ' fessa ' as nominative and keep- 
ing 'aetas' ; then the words form another subject to the verb at 
the end of the sentence, ' advanced age or helpless childhood ' ; for 
'aetas' in collective sense cf. xiii 54, 2. 

§6. lateribus aut fronte : local ablative ; Intr. II 14. 

si . . . evaserant : pluperfect in subordinate clause expressing 
frequent occurrence ; cf. ch. 10, 4. 

§ 7. ambigui, 'uncertain.' 

diurni, &c., ' and even (the means of earning) their daily bread'; 
supplying this idea from 'fortunis.' (Intr. II 25.) 

§ 8. esse sibi auctox'em, ' that they had orders.' Tacitus leaves 
it open whether this was an invention or not. Suetonius states 
positively that several consulars found slaves of Nero spreading 
the flames, and dared not check them. 

Ch. 39, § I. Antii : cf. xiv 4, 2. 

domui, &c. : a building (' domus transitoria,' Suet.) carried from 
the Palatium to the gardens of Maecenas | bequeathed by him to Au- 
gustus) on the Esquiline, and rebuilt as the ' domus aurea,' ch. 42, i. 

continuaverat, ' had connected together.' 

haurirentur : so ' Pompei theatrum igne haustum,' iii 74, 4. 

§ 2. monumenta Agrippae : such as the ' septa ' in which the 
tribes voted, the ' diribitorium ' in which the votes were counted, the 
'Thermae,' the ' porticus Vipsania,' and his family tomb, all of 
which were constructed by Agrippa in the Campus Mariius. 

hortos : on the Vatican, xiv 14, 4. 

quin etiam : second in its clause by anastrophe, Intr. II 555. 

utensilia, ' necessaries,' ' food.' 


pretium frumenti : the price here quoted ( = about 6^/.)) which 
evidently was much below the average, was the regular price of 
the ' modius' (about a peck) in the time of Cicero. Pliny (A^. H.) 
gives forty asses as the average price of a ' modius ' of flour or 
meal (equivalent to two 'modii ' of corn), though not of the finest 

§ 3. domeaticam acaenam : cf ch. 33, i. 

cecinisse, &c. : what he sang probably formed part of his 'Troica.' 

Ch. 40, § I. sexto: a votive inscription has the words ' urbs 
per novem dies arsit,' from which it may be taken that the second 
outbreak of § 2 lasted three days. 

prorutis,'' having been demolished.' 

ut, &c., ' so that to its continued raging there might be opposed 
a level space and, so to speak, open sky,' there being no more 
high buildings for the fire to feed on. 

§ 2. necdum : the text here is corrected from Med. ' necdum 
p ' ( = post) ' metus aut rediebat lebis rursum.' 

§ 3. plus infamiae habuit, ' caused greater scandal,' because 
people thought Tigellinus had caused this second outbreak to 
please Nero. 'Aemiliana' appears to be the name of a poor 
quarter of Rome. 

§ 4. tres solo tenvis deiectae : these were probably the districts 
including the Palatine, the Circus, and the Subura. It seems that 
many temples and large buildings escaped, or were capable of 
speedy restoration, even in districts where the private houses were 
totally destroyed. The Circus itself was used in the following 
year, and the ' aedes Cereris ' near it is spoken of at the same 
date, ch. 53, i and 4. On the Palatine the temple of Apo'lo, 
where the Sibylline books were kept (ch. 44, l), and the library 
seem to have been preserved. 

Ch. 41, § I. domuum : palaces or mansions of the rich, insu- 
larum = blocks of buildings let out in flats or single rooms to the 
poorer classes. 

fuerit: potential subjunctive of modest assertion. (Intr. II 39.) 

vetustissima religione : ablative of quality ; sup;)ly ' templa.' 

quod . . . Lunae : this temple was on the Aventine, on the part 
nearest to the Circus, and contained some of the bronze statues 
brought from Corinth by Mummius. 

ara : situated near the northern end or ' carceres ' of the Circus, 
and known as ' Ara Maxima.' Probably it was originally 
erected to the true Italian Hercules, the spirit presiding over the 
homestead and property, the god of good faith, ' dius fidius,' but 
came to be attributed to a Greek worship instituted by Evander 
to commemorate the slaying of Cacus, the stealer of the oxen of 
Geryon. (Verg. Aen. viii 179 and following ; Ovid, Fast, i 543 and 

Statoris : for the story of Romulus' vow to Jupiter, if he would 
'stay ' the flight of the Romans from the Sabines, see Livy i 12, 6. 
The temple was on the Palatine, close to the ' summa sacra via.' 

BOOK XV. CH. 30, § 2 — CH. 43, § i 

Wumae regia et delubrum Vestae : for the site of the latter 
cf. ch. 36, 3. The two buildings were close together, and are often 
mentioned in association; cf. Ovid, 7>-. iii i, 29 'hie locus est 
Vestae, qui Pallada servat et ignem : hie fuit antiqui regia parva 
Numae.' The 'regia,' long the official residence of the Pontifex 
Maximus, was given over to the vestals by Augustus. 

cum Penatibus : images believed to have been brought, with 
the ' Palladium,' from Troy by Aeneas ; preserved in the ' Pene- 
tralia Vestae.' (Cf. the lines from Ovid above.) 

§ 2. opes : precious objects, dedicated by vow or otherwise. 

decora, Sec, ' masterpieces of Greek art,' like the Corinthian 

monumenta tngeniorum, * records of genius ' (works of great 
authors) : ' incorrupta,' free from interpolation or falsification. The 
words seem to refer to losses sustained by the Palatine library, 
which however was not totally destroyed till 363 A. D. 

§ 3. XIIII Kal. Sext. : July 19, the day following the ' dies 

§ 4. totidem annoa, &c. : the space of time would be 454 years 
(reckoned inclusively) = 418 years + 41 8 months + 418 days. 

Ch. 42, § I. usus est, ' profited by,' i. e. he appropriated what 
he wanted of the vacant space caused by the fire ; hence his palace 
is called 'spoliis civium exstructa domus,' ch. 52, 2. So Martial, 
'abstulerat miseris tecta superbus ager.' 

domum : the ' domus aurea ' of Suetonius, who mentions the 
colossal statue of Nero, 120 feet high, at its vestibule, and adds 
the remark of Nero, ' se quasi hominem tandem habitare coepisse.' 
The palace must have occupied the greater portion of the Palatine 
and Esquiline and of the intermediate valley, the pleasure grounds 
stretching away towards the ' agger Servii.' Presumably a thorough- 
fare was left through the grounds so as not to cut off the Via Sacra. 
Part of the site of the palace was subsequently occupied by the 
Flavian amphitheatre (the ' Coliseum ') constructed under Vespasian 
and Titus, and by the baths of Titus. 

ingenium et audacia : Intr. II 54. 

inludere, ' to fool away the resources of an emperor.' 

§ 2. Averno : it seems that there existed a passage lo this lake 
through the Lucrine from the bay of Baiae. {The Lucrine lake 
had been connected with the sea and deepened for a naval basin 
by Agrippa, under Augustus.) 

depressuros, ' that they would dig out.' ' 

squalenti litore, 'along the barren shore.* 

§ 3. neque enim : giving the reason for the folly of the attempt. 

gignendis : to give water to feed the canal (dative of Purpose). 

nee satis causae : the object suggested was to facilitate the corn 
transport by providing a safe passage from the principal Campanian 
harbours (for the dangers of this coast cf. ch. 46, 3), as well as to 
drain the Pomptine marshes into the canal. 

Ch. 43, § I. quae domui supererant, ' such parts of the city as 


the palace left space for,' an ironical reference to the huge size of 
the ' domus aurea ' described in the last ch., in the same vein as 
a contemporary epigram quoted by Suetonius, ' Roma domus fiet ; 
Veios migrate, Ouirites, | si non et Veios occupet ilia domus,' and 
Martial's 'Unaque iam tota stabat in urbe domus.' 

dimensis, &c., ' with rows of streets regularly measured out.' 

cohibita: the limit fixed is not known. The height of buildings 
in Rome generally seems nevertheless to have still been regarded 
as excessive ; cf. Juv. iii 269. Under Trajan a limit of sixty feet 
was fixed. (Such regulations would presumably apply only to 
new buildings.) 

areis : court-yards inside the 'insulae,' which would help to 
prevent the spread of fire from one portion to another. 

§2. pui-gatas areas, 'the building-sites, cleared of rubbish.' 
(' Sua pecunia ' applies to ' purgatas ' as well as to ' exstructurum.'j 
With 'exstructurum ' and ' traditurum,' 'se' is to be understood. 

§ 3. intra quod: to be taken with the ablative absolute ef- 
fectis; 'a time within which they must finish the mansions or 
blocks of buildings to claim the grant.' 'Cf. *unde hausta/ &c., 
ch. 44, I. 

§4. ruderi : here = ' rubbish,' * debris.' 

aedificiaque, &c., ' and that the buildings themselves should in 
certain specified parts' (probably the foundations and supports to 
the different floors), ' avoiding timber, be strongly constructed out 
of Gabine or Alban stone.' 

aqua: that flowing into Rome by the aqueducts. 

custodes, 'keepers,' 'conservators.' The force of 'destinabat' 
extending over the whole passage, 'custodes' may be (i) direct 
object, co-ordinated with the subjunctive clause ' et . . . haberet,' 
as 'paludes' above is co-ordinated with the subjunctive clause 
immediately following it (ct. Intr. II 64 g) ; or (2) nominative, 
'essent' having been lost from the MS. in copying or boldly 
omitted by Tacitus himself. 

communione parietum : abstract for concrete = ' communibus 
parietibus' (cf. 'libidines principis' = 'principem libidinosum,' 
xiii 22, 3 and Intr. II 57). 

quaeque : sc. ' aedificia.' Common walls had always been for- 
bidden ; the Twelve Tables enjoined a space of 2i feet round each 
'domus' or 'insula' ('ambitus parietum sestertius pes esto '). 

§ 5. ex utilitate accepta, 'approved of as practically ad- 

vapore, ' heat.' Cf. xiv 64, 3. 

Ch. 44, § I. dia, 'for the gods,' i.e. to win their favour; cf. 
'deum placamentis ' below. 

Sibullae libri : kept in the temple of Apollo on the Palatine. 

Volcano, &c. : he was naturally propitiated as being the fire- 
god. The temple of Ceres and Proserpina was near the spot wheie 
the fire had broken out, but the supplication to them may well have 
rested on some more general reason, as at other times the Sibylline 

BOOK XV. CH. 43, § I — CH. 44, §§ 1-5 

books ordered special sacrifices to them to expiate prodigies, e. g. 
Livy xxxvi ^J, 4. 

apud. proximum mare : i. e. at Ostia, where invocation was 
made and whence iustral water was brought to wash her 'cella' 
and statue in the Capitol. 

sellisternia : these answer in the case of goddesses to the 
' lectisternia ' in honour of gods, the distinction being founded on 
the Roman custom, by which women sat on ' sellae ' at dinner, while 
men reclined on couches. (The word is very rare, ' lectisternium ' 
being commonly used for this mode of honouring goddesses as 
well as gods.) 

pervigilia : nightly festivals {nnvvvxi^a) were an ancient custom 
in Greece, but a late introduction at Rome, though common under 
the Empire. 

§ 2. quin . . . crederetur, ' so that it was not believed,' epexegetic 
to ' infamia decedebat.' Freely, 'could the scandal be removed by 
securing disbelief that the fire had been commanded.' 

§ 3. subdidit : used of fraudulent substitution, or false sug- 
gestion; cf. xiv 40, 2 'subdidit testamentum.' This expression, 
and the words 'forte, an dolo principis ' ch. 38, i, show that 
Tacitus did not consider the Christians really guilty of the fire. 

quaesitissimis, &.C., ' punished with a refinement of cruelty.' 

per flagitia, ' by reason of their abominations.' So the younger 
Pliny, writing from his province to Trajan about the Christians, 
speaks of ' flagitia cohaerentia nomini.' Crimes such as infanticide, 
cannibalism, and incest were attributed by the pagan world to the 
early Christians. 

Christianos: the term is said to have originated at Antioch, 
Acts xi 26. The formation is in accordance with silver Latin 
usage, cf. 'Augustiani' from 'Augustus,' xiv 15, 8, but may 
equally well be attributed to the Greek of the Asiatics of that time. 

§ 4. Chx-istus : given by Tacitus, and also by Pliny (in the letter 
mentioned above) as a proper name, probably the only name of 
our Lord known to them, and here of course appropriate as ex- 
plaining ' Christianos.' This passage is the earliest record of the 
Crucifixion in any non-Christian writer. 

Pentium Pilatum : not mentioned elsewhere by any Roman 
historian. Josephus says he was procurator of Judaea, 27-37 A. D., 
and was recalled by Vitellius, legatus of Syria. 

superstitio : any foreign religion, not Greek, would be so termed, 
exitiabilis =' pernicious,' because of the * flagitia' supposed to be 
involved in it : so Christianity is called by the younger Pliny ' super- 
stitio prava immodica,' and by Suetonius ' malefica.' 

quo, &c., ' into which pour all the horrible and foul rites from 
every land and there find a following.' The reference is to 
foreign orgies such as those of Isis. 

§ 5. igltur : returning to the main subject. 

qui fatebantur, ' who admitted (their Christianity) ' ; not of 
course that they had caused the fire. 

in s 


multitudo ingena : a rhetorical expression which we have no 
means of reducing to a numerical estimate. 

odio humani generis : this impression was probably produced 
on the pagan world by the Christians' abstinence from social 
gatherings and popular amusements, in which of course they could 
not participate without taking part in some act of pagan worship. 
The ablative may be regarded as following 'in'; cf. ' in hoc scelere 
convictus,' Cic./;v SuU. 30, 83. 

§ 6. tergis, ' hides.' 

aut . . . atque : the Med. text is here given as it stands, but is 
not satisfactory. Either * interirent ' must be supplied after ' adfixi ' 
and 'flammandi,' or these words are attributes to the subject of 
'urcrentur.' For the burning of criminals in the 'tunica molesta,' 
a covering of inflammable materials, cf. Juv. i 159 and viii 235. 

§ 7. hortos SUDS : on the Vatican. These included a circus ; cf. 
xiv 14, 4. 

curriculo : cf. xiv 14, i. 

§ 8. sontes : guilty of the 'flagitia' practised by Christians, or 
perhaps guilty of incendiarism in the spectators', not Tacitus' 

novissima, &;c., 'deserving exemplary punishment of the utmost 
severity.' So ' exemplum ' = ' punishment,' in Caes. B. G. i 31, 12, 
' omnia exempla cruciatusque edere ' (cf. ch. 20, 2). 

tamquam, ' from the feeling that.' Cf. Intr. II 50. 

utilitate publica : Intr. II 19. 

in saevitiam iinius, ' to gratify a single man's ferocity.' 

Ch.45, § I. conf<?rendis pecuniis : dative, 'for contributions of 
money ' ; i.e. for the new palace and the work described in ch. 43, 
§§ 2-3. 

provinciae, &c. : in this enumeration we may regard ' provinciae ' 
as = the tribute-paying provinces (' stipendiarii ') ; ' socii populi ' = 
the ' civitates foederatae ' ; and ' quae . . . vocantur ' = the ' civitates 
liberae' and those called 'liberae et immunes': or else 'socii populi' 
and 'liberae civitates' may be taken as a specific description of 
'provinciae,' referring respectively to the unprivileged and privileged 

eversae, ' were ruined.' 

§ 2. inque earn, &c., 'to this plundering even the gods must 

triumphis . . . votis, 'on occasions of triumphs or vows.' The 
ablative here is the simple ablative of time ; Intr. II 15. 

prospere aut in melu, ' in success or panic,' as though it were 
' rebus prosperis aut in metu.' 

§ 3. simulacra : Pausanias says that Nero took 500 statues 
from Delphi alone, and specifies others taken by him from Olympia. 
Pliny also gives a long list of statues, the finest of which had been 
pillaged by Nero for the Golden House, and were afterwards given 
by Vespasian to various temples built by him. 

Aerate : mentioned also in xvi 23, i. 

BOOK XV. CH. 44, § 5 — CH. 47, §§ 1-3 

Secundo Carrinate : probably son of the rhetorician of that 
name who was exiled by Gaius (Juv. vii 207). 

§ 4. ore tenus (cf. ch. 6, 6 ' nomine tenus '), ' an adept in the 
verbal profession of Greek philosophy.' 

§ 5. oravisse : this passage implies that his former request for 
retirement from the court had not been granted (xiv 52-56) and 
that he was still one of Nero's ' concilium.' 

aeger nervis, ' having a muscular complaint ' (rheumatism or 
goutj. fegresaus : the use of the accus. governed transitively by 
this verb originates with Caesar and Livy.j 

§ 6. dum . . . tolerat: see Intr II 37. 

persimplici : ott. dp. Intr. II 51, c. 

agrestibus pomis, ' fruit growing wild,' as distinct from highly 
cultivated garden produce : so Germ. 23, I ' cibi simplices, agrestia 

profluente, ' from a running stream.' 

Ch. 46, § I. gladiatores : evidently kept at Praeneste in a 
training-school. Praeneste = Palaestrina, about twenty-three 
miles east of Rome. 

adesset : so Med., but the subjunctive is inexplicable without 
supplying some such participle as ' ibi locato ' or 'existente' to 
' praesidio,' 'a military force being stationed there to be a guard on 
the spot.' Such an ellipse would be exceedingly harsh. An 
inferior MS. reads 'aderat,' and * adest ' has been suggested for 

Spartacum : the war of Spartacus, B C. 73-71, began with the 
outbreak of only seventy-four gladiators from the school of Capua. 

§ 2. immota pax: the war in the East was virtually over. 

classem : the 'classis praetoria' which had Misenum as its station. 

non exceptis, ' without making any allowance for.' 

§ 3. Formiis : on the coast of Latium. 

movere : intransitive, see Intr. II 29, 

Africo : ' creber procellis Africus,' Verg. Aen. i 86. 

Cumanis : Cumae lay some six miles north of Cape Misenum. 

passina : cf. xiv 15, i. 

Ch. 47, § I. vis: so in ch. 5, 4, &c. 

semper expiatum : a rhetorical exaggeration (like ' saepe ' in 
xiii 6, i), only one other comet having been mentioned by Tacitus 
before this, viz. that of xiv 22, i. sanguine inlustri applies in 
this case to the executions following the detection of the conspiracy 
of Piso, and in the case of the previous comet to the exile and 
death of Rubellius Plautus and Cornelius Sulla. 

§ 2. abiecti in publicum, ' were publicly exposed.' 

gravidas hostias : such sacrifices were called ' hordicidia ' 
('horda ' = 'praegnans vacca'), and are mentioned in Ovid as paid 
to Tellus and to Faunus. 

§ 3. Placentino : of Placentia, on the Padus, a colony founded 
220 B. C. after the conquest of the Insubres. 

esaet: the subjunctive is variously explained (l) as practically 


sub-oblique, natiis being regarded as = 'natus esse ferebatur,' or 
(2) as a kind of consecutive use, ' born in such a way as to have its 
head attached,' &c. 

repressum, ' distorted.' 

aut = 'et rursus.' So in Ajin. vi 51, 3 'tolerans aut dechnans,' 
'beating, and then avoiding.' 

Ch. 48, § I. coepta, (Sec: the tense of 'dederant' shows that 
these participles are to be taken in a past sense, ' after a conspiracy 
had been set on foot, and had at once gathered strength.' The plot 
was in existence a considerable time: it began towards the end of 
62 A. D. (see xiv 65, 2), and in ch. 50 one of the conspirators is 
mentioned as on the point of killing Nero amid the confusion 
caused by the fire of 64 A. D. It was detected and suppressed 
towards the end of April, 65 A. D. ; cf, ch. 53, i ; 70, i. 

nomina dederant: cf. xiv 15, i. 

Pisonem : the parents of this C. Calpurnius Piso are unknown. 
He was exiled under Gaius, but returned and held a consulship 
under Claudius. 

§ 3. tuendis civibus, ' in defending fellow-citizens,' in the law 

et ignotis quoqiic, &c., 'and even towards strangers (was) 
courteous in speech and demeanour.' Instead of contmuing the 
construction of ' exercebat ' with ' comitatem,' Tacitus substitutes 
the ablative of quality, comi sermone. 

fortuita, &c., ' he had also the accidental advantages of a tall 
frame and a handsome face.' 

§ 4. gravitas : the term expressing the Roman ideal of a dignified 
and virtuous character, ' true worth.' 

parsimonia, 'moderation.' 

§ 5. idciue, &c., ' a fact satisfactory to the majority, who amid 
the fascinations of vice do not wish the head of the State to be 
too strict or austere.' 

perseverum : cf^. ' perfimplex,' ch. 45, 6. 

Ch. 49, § I. ipsius : sc. ' Pisonis.' 

memoraverim : potential, cf. 'fuerit,' ch. 41, i, and Intr. II 39. 

Xiucanua Annaeua : the author of the PJiarsa/ra, only twenty- 
six years old at the time of his death, according to the Life prefixed 
to his works. On his father, a brother of Seneca, see xvi 17. 

Plautius Lateranus : nephew of Plautius Si'.vanus, the first 
legatus of Britain. 

intiilere, ' brought into the plot.' 

§ 3. premebat, &c., ' tried to suppress his fame as a poet and 
had forbidden him to display his talent' (by publication or recita- 

vanus adsimulatione, ' vainglorious in his comparison ' (of 
himself to Lucan). The substantive is rare, but its meaning here 
may be illustrated by the use of ' adsimulantcm,' ch. 39, 3. Some 
read ' aemulatione,' ' foolish in his rivalry,' i. e. out of petty 


BOOK XV. CH. 47, § 3 — CH. 51, § i 

§ 4, Scaevinus: see ch. 53, 3. For Quintianus see ch. 56, 4 ; 
70, 2. 

contra, &c., ' affected the lead in this daring crime despite their 
poor reputation.' 

§ 5. vita, «See, ' his hfe was one of lethargic sloth and indolence.' 

Ch. 50, § I. fessis, &c. : Verg. Acn. xi 335 ' consulite in medium 
et rebus succurrite fessis.' 

iaciunt, ' drop hints.' 

§ 2. ex quibus : these words extend their force to * Natalis ' and 
' ceteris ' as well as to Senecio. Senecio and Natalis had special 
reasons for joining, the one as exposed to danger from the conspira- 
tors themselves on the ground of friendship to Nero, the other as 
being intimately connected with the head of the conspiracy ; the 
rest were on an equal footing, hoping to profit by a revolution. 

Senecio: mentioned in conjunction with Otho (xiii 12) as 
helping Nero in his amour with Acte. The other knights here 
mentioned are previously unknown. 

e praecipua familiaritate = ' e praecipuis familiaribus,' abstract 
for concrete ; cf. xiii 42. 

§ 3. militares manus : in apposition to the names following. 
' Manus ' is used figuratively for practical ability or force (cf. 
xiii 6, s), 'the soldierly energies of Gavius Silvanus,' &c. 

Silvanua : mentioned on an inscription found at Turin as having 
served with distinction in the campaign in Britain under Claudius. 

§ 4. Faenio Rufo : cf. xiii 22, i and xiv 51, 5. 

vita famaque laudatum : cf. the similar combination in ch. 37, 
2 ; ' highly spoken of for his life and good reputation ' [or possibly, 
taking the words as a kind of hendiadys, ' highly spoken of in the 
fame (won by) his (upright) life']. See Intr. II 20. 

in animo, ' in the emperor's favour.' 

adulterum : Faenius Rufus had become ' praefectus annonae ' 
through Agrippina's influence, xiii 22 : a charge of adultery was the 
obvious one for a man like Tigellinus to make under these circum- 

§ 5. in partes descendisse, 'had joined their side' (cf. 'ducem 
et partes,' xiii 18, 3). 

^ 6. ardente dome : cf. ch. 48, I, note. 

§ 7. hie . . . ibi, ' in this case ... in that.' 

exstimulaverant, nisi . . . retinuisaet : cf. note on xiii 2, I, 
and Intr. II 38. 

Ch. 51, § I. cunetantibus : cf. ch. 30, i and Intr. II 21, c. 

sciscitata: the word denotes interested inquiry, hence as the con- 
text implies that such interest on her part was unexpected, we should 
expect ' quam ob causam ' rather than ' quonam modo ' : accord- 
ingly the suggested alteration to ' suscitata ' is approved by Madvig. 

pertaesa : this participle is not elsewhere used personally with a 

primores, 'officers'; so 'primores castrorum,' Hist, iii 31. 

labefacere, ' sap the allegiance of.' 


§ 2. navarchua: the term properly seems to apply to the captain 
of a Miburnica' ( = ' biremis "), as contrasted with 'trierarchus,' 
though the distinction is not always preserved in literature. 

§ 3. recens : adverb, so ch. 6, 5. 

inpelli, &c., ' that he could be won over, and bring more besides 
to the cause.' 

§ 4. plura : sc. ' dixit.' 

neque senatui . . . manere : emended from Med. * neque se- 
natui quid manere' (which others emend to 'neque sancti quid 
manere '). 

§ 5. everaae rei public ae : perhaps referring to curtailment of 
the senate's prerogatives. 

accingeretur : cf. Verg. Georg. iii 46 ' accingar dicere pugnas.' 

partes : cf. ch. 50, 5. 

ij 6. quamvis : here denoting a fact ; Intr. II 40. 

§ 7. composita, ' confronted,' a metaphor from the arena. 

§ 8. liaud falsa, &c., ' suspecting that the story might not be 
false, even though it was not proved to be true.' 

Ch. 52, § I. oniissis, Sic, 'dispensing with a guard and the 
cumbrous accessories of his rank ' ; mole, like oy/cos : fortunae, 
as in xiv 53, 3. 

§ 2. sacra mensae : cf. xiii 17, 3. 

qvialiscumque, ' however wicked.' 

in ilia . . . dome : cf. ch. 42, i. These words as put into Piso's 
mouth are probably an invention of Tacitus, as the building of the 
new palace could only just have been commenced, and Nero was at 
this time residing in the Servilian gardens, ch. 55, i. 

§ 3. in commune, ' before all,' to the general body of the con- 
spirators (in contrast to ' timore occulto ') ; cf. ch. 63, i. The phrase 
has more generally the sense of 'communiter,' as in xiii 27, 6 and 
XV 12, 6. 

Silanus : L. Junius Silanus Torquatus, son of the M. .Silanus 
who was killed by Agrippina (xiii i), and the last surviving male 
descendant of Augustus with the exception of Nero. On his 
death see xvi 7, 2 and foil. 

C. Cassii : see xiii 41, 5. 

disciplina : with ' sublatus,' ' and by his training under C. Cas- 
sius . . . rendered capable of the highest distinction.' 

daturis : sc. ' imperium ' ; * while those would readily grant it to 
him who stood outside the conspiracy, and who would pity Nero,' 
&c. This sentence represents Piso's thought, ' dabunt qui . . . sunt, 
quique miserabuntur,' the latter becoming imperfect subjunctive on 
the principle that when a compound sentence in future time is 
reported in indirect construction, only the main verb requires a 
future form. 

§ 4. ne, &c., ' lest he might head a rising in favour of a republic ' 
(an unfamiliar use of ' orior '). 

aui niunei'is, 'a matter of his bestowal'; cf. Hor. Od. iv 3, 21 
'totum muneris hoc tui est' (Inir. II 25). 

BOOK XV. CH. 51, § 2 — CH. 54, §§ 1-3 

§ 5. super eo crimine, 'in that charge.' Cf. Ann. iii 17, 6 
'biduum super hac imagine cognitionis absumptum.' 

vetus odium : cf. ch. 68, 3-5. 

Ch. 53, § I. circensium : these games to Ceres took place April 

egressu : supine. For rarus cf. xiv 56, 6 ' rarus per urbem.' 

laetitia, 'amid the merriment occasioned by the show.' 

§ 2. ordinem, 'the details,' cf. ' ordine indicii,' .\iii 20, I. 

eomposuerant, ' had arranged.' 

animi: Intr. II 24 c. 

§ 3. tribuni, &c. : i. e. those who had joined the plot. 

ut quisque audentiae habuisset : a Graecism, like <uf rdxovi 
elxt'' inncTTOi (Intr. II 66). 'Audentia' differs from 'audacia' in 
being used only in a favourable sense. 

Salutis sive . . . Fortunae : probably the same goddess is 
meant, the names being synonyms for the Tuscan ' Nortia,' men- 
tioned in Juv. X 74. 

Ferentino : not the old Latin town but another of the same 
name in Etruria, known as the birthplace of the emperor Otho. 

detraxerat : the dagger had probably been dedicated as a 
votive offering. Scaevinus himself gave a different account of it, 
ch. 55, 3. 

§ 4. aedem Cereris : near the Circus Maximus. Both buildings 
seem to have been restored since the fire. 

Antonia : daughter of Claudius by Aelia Paetina. She was put 
to death soon after the time at which the Annals end, perhaps on 
the charge of being involved in this plot. 

C. Plinius : cf. xiii 20, 3 and Intr. I 3. 

§ 5. quoquo modo, 'whether truly or falsely.' 

commodavisse : properly with ' nomen.' ' associated her name 
with this hopeless project and (ran) the risk.' 

notum amore: Intr. II. 20. 

nisi si : suggesting a motive that might make such an act 

Ch. 54, § I. diversi generis : sc. ' homines.' (' Diversi ' applies 
to ' ordinis ' and ' aetatis ' as well as to ' generis.') 

multo sermone, ' having held a long conversation.' (Intr. II 22.) 

supra: ch. 53, 3. 

asperari, ' to be sharpened.' The word is poetical, and is oftener 
used by Tacitus metaphorically. 

ardeseere : implying healing by friction (Intr. II. 52). 

Milicho : a slave name, denoting quality (/ieiV t;^os), like 
'Pudens,' ' Modestus,' and others. 

§ 2. adfluentius solito, ' on a more lavish scale than usual.' 

I 3. manifestus : so with genitive, ch. 66, 3; xiv 29, i, &c. 
(Intr. II 24 c.) 

vagis, ' desultory,' i. e. ranging from one subject to another with 
forced vivacity, an unusual sense for the word ; perhaps ' variis ' 
should be read, cf. ' vario sermone,' Verg. Aen. vi 160. 


§ 4. vulneribus: dative, cf. Intr. II 9 b. 

ut plerique, &c., ' as most authorities have declared in their 
account of (' de ') the sequel.' 

§ 5. simulque, &c., 'and at the same time he saw before him 
boundless wealth and power' ; 'obversari' applying here to mental 
vision (but to actual sight in xiv 10, 5). 

§ 6. uxoris, &c., 'from his wife he took a woman's base counsel.' 

metum intentabat, ' brought fear' (of discovery) ' to work upon 
him.' With the following clauses a verb of speaking is readily 

viderint : the tense, primary though following an historic tense, 
adds vividness to the language. 

Ch. 55, § I. hortos Servilianos: these are mentioned in 
a passage of Suetonius as lying between the Palatine and the Porta 

Epaphroditum : he seems to have succeeded Doryphorus 
xiv 65, i) in the post ' a libellis.' He helped Nero to his death, for 
which he was himself put to death by Domitian. He was a friend 
of Josephus, who dedicated to him his AtUiquities, and is known 
to have owned Epictetus as his slave. 

graves, ' formidable.' 

audierat coniectaverat : asyndeton, cf. Intr. II 48. 

§ 3. cviius argtieretur, ' on which the charge was grounded * • 
Intr. II 24 a. 

dim, &c., ' had long been treated with reverence in his family.' 
Scaevinus denies what is said of the dagger in ch. 53, 3. 

incustodita observatione, &c., 'without any particular attention 
to the dates ' (on which he did so). His defence is that he often 
revised his will, and that on this last occasion there was no particular 
significance in the act. 

§ 4. libertates, ' grants of freedom.' 

teatamento diffideret : slaves manumitted by will would be sold 
to satisfy the creditors, unless the deceased's estate was sufficient 
to meet outstanding debts. Scaevinus might evade this by giving 
them freedom in his lifetime. 

§ 5. duris iudicibus, ' severe critics.' 

palam : to be taken adjectivally with 'cetera,' 'since the other 
charges resting on patent facts had nothing in them ' (Intr. II 49). 

§ 6. constantiam, ' an unshaken demeanour.' 

intestabilem, 'detestable' (in old legal phraseology=disqualified 
from making or witnessing a will in consequence of misconduct). 

securitate, ' self-possession.' 

labaret indicium, 'the informer's story was falling to the 
ground.' Cf. .xiii 43, 5 ' labare defensio.' 

conlocutum : ch. 54, I. 

Ch. 56, § I. diversi, 'separately.' 

§ 2. tormentoruin : under the Republic torture was only applied 
to slaves, but was inflicted (according to Suetonius) on Roman citi- 
zens even of high rank by Tiberius in trials for ' maiestas,' and 

BOOK XV. CH. 54, § 4 — CH. 58, §§ 1-3 

Claudius carried on the practice in spite of an oath at his accession 
to abstain from it (Dio) ; it would still be regarded as a tyrannical 
innovation, though in later times jurists recognized its legality. 
(For ' maiestas ' see xiv 48, 2.) 

arguendi peritior, ' more of an adept in accusation.' 

infensus: cf. xiv 52, 2. 

§ 4. excusarent : to show that their reluctance to disclose was 

Aciliam : according to the anonymous Life of Lucan she was 
a na'jve of Corduba and daughter of Aciliui Lucanus, one of the 
famous orators of that place. 

Galium . . . Pollionem: both exiled, ch. 71,6. The latter married 
the daughter of Soranus (xvi 30, 4), who was forced to commit 
suicide on a charge of plotting in the interest of Rubellius Plautus. 

Ch. 57, § I. attineri, ' was in custody,' so xiii 15,4. 

§ 2. eo acrius, &c., ' increasing her pains, so as not to be defied 
by a woman.' 

pervicere, (Sic, ' broke down her denial of what she was taxed 

contemptus: explained by ' spernerentur ' above = ' was disre- 
garded,' ' proved fruitless.' primus dies : pregnant for ' tormenta 
primi diei' (Intr. II 61). 

§ 3. gestamine sellae : so xiv 4, 6. 

dissolutis, 'dislocated,' from the rack. 

vinelo fasciae . . . restricto, ' tying the band.' ' Fascia,' a band 
worn by women over the breast. 

arcum sellae : the arched frame of the chair. 

clariore, «S:c., ' showing an example all the more noble, freed- 
woman as she was, in shielding strangers and persons almost 
unknown to her, in spite of such frightful pressure.' ' Clariore 
exemplo ' is an adverbial adjunct to the action of the preceding 
verb, and so far maybe regarded as a kind of ablative absolute ; at 
the same time, owing to its position, it may also be regarded as 
ablative of quality with ' libertina mulier.' protegendo = ' dum 
protegit,' cf. ' percursando,' xv 8, 3. (See also Intr. II 22.) ' Cum' 
introduces the contrast to ' clariore,' which here has the force of 
' eo clariore.' viri has its distinct force, answering to ' mulier,' 
as ' ingenui ' to ' libertina.' 

§ 4. passim, ' one after another.' 

Ch. 58, § I. maii: at Ostfa. amne : the landing-places along 
the river. 

§ 2. Germanis : horsemen of this nation had been included in 
the imperial bodyguard as early as the reign of Augustus. Some 
had formed part of Agrippina's retinue, xiii 18, 4. 

quasi externis, ' as being foreigners ' ; ' quasi ' = a)y : cf. ch. 33, 2. 

§ 3. eontinua, &c., ' afterwards there were incessant groups of 
chained prisoners being led along and kept waiting at the gates of 
the (Servilian) gardens.' 

ubi . . . introisseat : frequentative, cf. Intr. II 41. 


laetatum, &c. : sc. ' esse aliquem,' ' the fact of having smiled on 
meeting a conspirator.' This is a correction for Med. ' latatum ' 
(for which another suggestion is ' hieta turn verba erga coniuratos'). 

§ 4. adnuenti, ' making signs (to ask) whether.' For Subrius 
Flavus cf. ch.- 49, 2. 

cognitionem, 'the investigation,' used of a trial before the prin- 
seps or in the senate. 

reniiit, ' shook his head.' 

infiv git impetum, ' checked his impulse.' 

Ch, 59, § I. hortarentur : with infinitive, cf. Intr. II 31. 

studia . . . temptare, ' work upon the feelings of.' 

§ 2. integroa, ' those not yet implicated.' 

magnamque, &c. : sc. 'fore,' 'the movement, once started, 
would be magnified by rumour, which had the utmost effect on the 
course of a revolution.' 

§ 4. ardua, 'too difficult,' 'too impracticable.' 

in tot. Sec, 'considering the number of conspirators whose minds 
and bodies could be worked upon ' (the former by rewards, the 
latter by torture). 

sperare : sc. ' eum.' 

§ 6. dum amplectitur, &c., ' throwing in his lot with the state,' 
' invoking the general aid to the cause of Liberty.' .So Cic. pro 
Mil. 27, 72 ' nimis amplecti plebem.' 

§ 7. stipendiis recentes, ' who had recently begun service.' 
The opposite, ' veterem stipendiis,' occurs Attn, ii 66, 3. For 
similar ablative (of respect) cf. ' freciuens ordinibus,' ,\iv 34, 3 ; 
'rarus egressu,' xv 53, i. 

favore: sc. 'in Pisonem' (ch. 48, 2-3). tamquam (Intr. II 50) 
is now mually read for the ' quamquam ' of the MSS., which 
however could be explained as = 'although imbued with affection 
(for Nero),' emphasizing the groundlessness of his fear. 

§ 8. foedis adulationibus : ablative of quality, ' full of disgust- 
ing flattery.' 

amori dedit, 'made ... as a concession to his affection.' Cf. 
Ann. i 7, 10 ' dabat et famae,' ' he made (this) concession also to 
public opinion.' The expression ' das aliquid famae .' ' ( Hor. Sat. 
ii 2, 94) seems to show the usage from which the expression is 

degenerem, ' of low birth.' 

§9. patientia, 'complaisance,' i. d connivance at her adultery 
with Piso before divorce. 

Ch. 60, § I, Laterani: his end is cited as an instance of the 
dangers of wealth by Juvenal in Sat. x 15. 

illud breve, &c., ' the necessary short interval for a choice of 
death,' or perhaps 'the usual' interval given by Nero to his victims 
for the opportunity of anticipating the executioner. 

§ 2. locum : the ' Sessorium,' outside the Ksquiline gate. 

Statii : ch. 50, 3. 

§ 3. non qtiia, &c. : cf. xiii I, I. 

BOOK XV. CH. 58, § 3 — CH. 63, § i 

coniui-ationis manifeatum : Intr. II 24 c. 

quando, &c., ' since the poisoning had not succeeded.' Tacitus 
here gives as a fact what he had before stated as a rumour, ch. 45, 6. 

hactenus, 'only this much,' cf xiv 3, 2. 

^ 5. salutem,&c., 'his own safety rested on Piso's preservation.' 

^ 6. nosceret, ' admit,' for the more usual ' adgnosceret ' 
(Intr. II 28). 

§ 7. prudens : aware of the impending conspiracy. 

suburbano rure, 'his suburban country seat,' cf. xiv 53, 6. 

§ 8. Pompeia Paulina : daughter or sister of Pompeius Paulinus, 
mentioned as legatus of Lower Germany, xiii 53, 2, and as a consular 
in XV 18, 4. 

Ch. 61, § I. rationem, &c., ' pleaded in excuse the regard which 
he had to pay to his health.' 

§ 2. privati : i.e. any one but the emperor. 

^ 3. nee sibi, Sec. : Seneca also makes this boast in i/e Clei)i. ii. 
2, 3 'maluerim veris offendere quam placere adulando.' Cf. his 
words in ch. 23, 6. 

gnarum = ' notum,' this passive use of the word is almost peculiar 
to Tacitus (Intr. II 51 fin.). 

^ 4. intimum, &c., ' innermost circle of advisers.' 

§ 6. Fabiua Rusticus : see xiii 20, 3 and Intr. I 3. 

quo venerat: cf. Intr. II yj. 

fatali, &c., ' with the cowardice all were fated to display.' 

§ 7. scelera: i.e. Nero's. ' He added to the crimes, to avenge 
which he had conspired.' 

pepercit, ' spared his tongue ' the degradation of the message. 

qui, (Sic, ' to announce that he must die ' ; cf. ' accepto . . . 
supremae necessitatis nuntio,' Hist, i 72, 5. 

Ch. 62, § 1. tabulas : the tablets on which his will had been 
written, to which he wished now to make some additions or altera- 
tions. The centurion would not sanction the delay this might cause. 

bonarum, &;c. (i) 'they would win the reputation of noble 
accomplishments as the fruit of their loyal friendship.' fructum 
is conjectured for Med. 'ta' ( = 'tam'). (2) Reading 'tam,' and 
putting comma at 'artium' instead of at 'essent,' 'if they remained 
mindful of his noble accomplishments, they would win the glory 
of so devoted a friendship.' 

§ 2. modo, &c., ' now by ordinary talk, now in the more earnest 
tones of reproval.' 

meditata ratio, ' the principles thought out.' 

§ 3. ignarara = ' ignotam ' ; cf. 'gnarum,' ch.6l, 3. 

matrem. fratremque interfectos : it is curious that no reference 
to the murder of Octavia is made as well. 

educatoris praeceptorisque, ' master and teacher.' ' Educator' 
technically = 7raiSayQ)7oy (xiii 15, 6), denoting a position inferior to 
that held by Seneca. 

Ch. 63, § I. velut in commune : (i) ' as though addressing his 
friends in general,' i.e. not merely the limited audience then 


present ; (2) 'as though to the genenil body of those present,' con- 
trasting his particular injunctions to his wife (cf. ch. 52, 3). 

adversua praeaentem fortitudinem : (i) so Med. 'in a spirit 
somewhat in contrast to the courage he was showing ' ; or (2) 
adopting ' formidineni,' the reading of some inferior MSS. for 
' fortitudinem,' ' in view of the terrors immediately before him.' 

§ 3. vitae delenimenta, 'means of soothing life.' 

exemplo, ' so noble a deed.' Cf. xiii 44, 8. 

§ 5. senile cor-pus : Seneca was at this time about seventy. 

^ 7. pleraque, &.C., ' he dictated at considerable length a com- 
position which I refrain from adapting, as it has been published in 
his own words.' Dio alludes to this treatise, but it is not extant. 

Ch. 64, § I. invidia crudelitatis : so ' invidia sacrilegii,' ch. 

45. 5- 

premunt = ' reprmiunt,' cf. xiv 5, 2 (Intr. II 28). 

iacertum an, &ic., ' when she was perhaps unconscious.' * In- 
certura an ' usually suggests a probability, and here Tacitus treats 
the belief that she wished for life as a vulgar calumny. (For the 
syntax cf. Intr. II 59.) 

§ 2. ad deteriora promptum, 'ready to accept the worse 

blandimentis, ' attractions.' 

laudabili memoria : Intr. II 22. 

in eum, &c., ' blanched to such paleness as would give proof.' 

§ 3. tractu, &€., 'as the lingering protraction of his end con- 

fide . . . arte : cf. xiii 29, 3 ' experientia probatos.' Intr. 
II 20. 

venenum : hemlock, Kwftiou, 'cicuta.' 

frigiduB, &c. : to take effect the poison required an active circu- 

§ 4. stagnum, ' bath ' ; the object was to promote the flow of blood 
by restoring circulation or to stimulate the action of the hemlock. 

libare, &c. : after the fashion of the Greeks at the end of a feast, 
when libation was made to Zein ^wrijp. Here the attribute ' liberator,' 
fX(vd(jjios, is appropriately substituted. 

§ 5. baineo : a hot vapour bath ; cf. xiv 64, 3. 

I 6. etiam tum praedives : this implies that much of Seneca's 
vast wealth had passed away from him before his death. Dio says 
that he resigned his property to Nero as a contribution towards 
rebuilding Rome after the fire. 

Ch. 65, § I. Subrium Flavum : first mentioned in ch. 49. 

insontibus : sc. ' coniurationis.' The case is dative of agent, 
with ' delccto.' 

claritudine : Intr. II 19. 

§ 2. non referre dedecori, ' it made no difference as to the dis- 
grace.' 'Refert' is found with dative of the thing concerned in 
Plautus, 7'ruc. ii 4, 40, and the construction may be defended as 
natural to Tacitus' use of the dative, see Intr. II 9 a. On the other 

BOOK XV. CH. 63, § I — CH. 69, § i 

hand, Uie correction 'dedecoris' is easy, as the final j might readily 
be lost owing to the next word being ' si.' 

tragico ornatu canebat : meaning the performance of ' mimes' 
on tragic themes, in which pieces were siing in character by the 
chief actor, who was supported by other actors in dumb show, and 
probably also by a chorus (cf. xiii 19, 4). 

Ch. 66, § I. inquisitorem, 'judge' ; he was one of those who 
conducted the examination of the accused, cf ch. 58, 3. 

§ 2. ultro, with ' redderet,' ' urged him to repay the favour of so 
good a monarch of his own accord,' by confessing his share in the 

§ 3. praepediens, ' halting in his utterance.' Elsewhere ' prae- 
pedire' is used of what hinders utterance, as ' singultu medios 
praepediente sonos,' Ovid, 7>. i 3, 42. 

Ch. 67, § I. consociaturum : sc. 'fuisse' (Intr. II 27). 

amplexus, 'seizing upon,' 'catching at.' 

§ 3. parricida : the term denotes the murderer of any near rela- 
tive, cf. ' parricidam liberum,' Livy iii 53, 5. Dio's version makes 
Flavus cite only Nero's chariot-driving and singing in public as the 
crimes that roused his detestation. Cf. the enumeration of Nero's 
crimes in Juv. viii 211 and foil. 

§ 4. nee minus, &.C., ' and yet the soldier's unpolished and 
forcible sentiments were equally well worth knowing.' 

§ 5. nihil . . . gravius, ' the bitterest reproach that reached his 

^ 6. ex disciplina, ' according to regulation.' 

^ 8. sesquiplaga, ' a blow and a half.' An expression coined on 
the analogy of ' sesquipes,' ' sesquimodius,' and noticed by Tacitus 
for its brutal humour. 

Ch. 68, § I. subveniri : Dio's version oti aWats aoi jiorjdricrai 
ovK i]hmiixT^v indicates that Asper meant that the only service he 
could do Nero was to save him from his crimes by killing him ; 
'that nothing else could be done for his countless abominations.' 

§ 2. degeneravere, ' disgraced themselves.' 

§ 3- opperiebatur : followed by ' ut ' also in Livy (xlii 48, 10). 

insociabilem, ' unmanageable,' ' incompatible.' 

§ 4. ferociam = 7roppr)o-iai'. 

inlusus, &c., 'the butt of his rough jests, such as leave a bitter 
memory, being based mainly on the truth.' 

§ 5. repens = ' recens.' 

Statiliam Messalinam : subsequently married to Nero after the 
death of Poppaea. She was descended from Statilius Taurus, 
praefectus urbis under Augustus. 

Ch. 69, § I. exiatente, 'making an appearance.' 

speciem induere : so too in Livy, ' percussoris speciem induit ' ; 
the more usual phrase being ' personam induere.' 

ad vim, &c., ' resorting to a tyrant's violence.' 

velut arcem, 'his citadel, as it were.' Nero's way of referring 
to the position of Vestinus' house 



§2. dissimulando metu : dative of purpose. (For its co- 
ordination with participle cf. Intr. II 64 g.) 

§ 3. medicus : probably sent by Nero, who, according to Suet., in 
dealing with his victims, ' ne quid morae interveniret, medicos ad- 
movebat, qui cunctantes curarent (ita enim vocabatur venas mortis 
gratia incidere).' 

§ 4. omissi sunt, * were left free to depart.' 

ex, ' after.' 

imaginatus, ' picturing to himself.' The word is not found else- 
where in Tacitus, but occurs several times in Pliny ma. and Quint, 
(cf. ch. 36, I ' imaginatio '). 

Ch. 70, § I. ab extremis, 'from the extremities.' 

fervido : literally, 'though his breast remained warm and in 
possession of intelligcn e.' The phrase illustrates the Roman con- 
ception of the ' cor' as the seat of intelligence. Cf. 'vecors,' 'socors,' 
' cordatus.' 

carmen : here = 'a passage ' of his poetry, perhaps Phars. iii 635 
and foil. 

per, &c., 'by a form of death similar to it.' The expression 
comes from Vergil, ' plurima mortis imago,' Aen. ii 369 (cf. Thuc. 
iii 81 Trnira Ihia KmifTTi] Qnvi'nnv), 

§ 2. Senecio, &c. : persons named in chs. 49 and 50. 

ex, ' in accordance with.' 

Ch. 71, § I. domum : sc. '.suam quisque.' For the custom cf. 
Juv. vi 79. Reference is also made to the public rejoicings on this 
occasion in Juv. x 65 and foil. 

§ 2. Natalia : cf. ch. 56. For Proculus, cf. ch. 66. 

§ 3. Milichus : cf. ch. 54. The surname he adopted would be 

§ 4. veniam . . . eorrupit, ' frustrated (spoilt, cancelled I the 
pardon which he had accepted from the Emperor by the vain- 
gloriousness of his end,' i.e. by a vainglorious suicide. His case 
was different from that of Silvanus, who refused acquittal on being 
tried in the ordinary way : suicide, after pardon solicited and 
accepted, did not shew true spirit but vainglory. 

§ 5. quasi, ' on the ground that' (Intr. II 50). 

existimarentur : for Aled. ' extimarentur.' 

§ 6. per amieitiam Senecae : to be taken with 'data exilia.* 

§ 7. Gallus and his N\'ife were banished to Andros, where an in- 
scription records them as patrons and benefactors. 

§ 9. Verginium Flavum : teacher of Persius, and mentioned 
with respect by Quintilian. 

Musonium : cf. xiv 59, 2. 

§ 10. Cluvidieno, &C. : these persons are wholly unknown. 

velut in, &c., ' as it were to complete the mass and list.' 

§ II. Caesennius Maximus : a friend of Seneca. 

reos fuisse, &c., ' learning that they had been prosecuted only 
by the announcement of their sentence.' 

§ 12. dissimulata, 'was ignored.' 

BOOK XV. CH. 69. § 2 — CH. 73, §§ 1-4 

Ch. 72, § I. ex modo annonae, 'according to the market 
price'; cf. ch. 18, 3; 39, 2. The change here described applies 
to the praetorians, who hitherto had the price of their rations 
stopped out of their pay, which accordingly was higher than 
that of the ordinary legionaries (cf. Ann. i 17), who had received 
free corn rations since the time of Augustus. 

§ 2. Turpiliano : cf. xiv 29. 

iS'ervae : subsequently Emperor, in succession to Domitian, 
96 A.D. At this time he was about thirty-three years old. He 
and Turpilianus probably received these honours as being members 
of the Emperor's privy council ; cf. ch. 25. 2. 

§ 3. qm quia : Med. reads ' nymphidio quannc,' emended in 
older editions to ' de quo quia nunc' Probably a larger gap exists, 
as Tacitus usually gives two names when mentioning a person for 
the first time. (Ritt. suggests 'Nymphidio Sabino. Ue Nym- 
phidio, quando nunc,' &c.} 

pars . . . erit, ' will be prominent in the massacres at Rome.' 
The expression is suggested from Verg. Aen. ii 6 ' quorum pars 
magna fui,' and the words indicate that the story of his attempt 
to make himself emperor after Nero's death (68 A.D.) and his death 
at the hands of the soldiers would be included in the narrative, now 
lost, at the end of this book. 

§ 4. principum, ' of the imperial family.' 

ex Gaio Caesare : Plutarch discredits this story, and says 
Nymphidius' father was Martianus, a gladiator. 

habitu : here = personal appearance. According to Suet. Cal. 50, 
Gaius was 'statura eminenti, corpore enormi, . . . oculis et tem- 
poribus concavis, fronte lata et torva.' 

inlusit : here probably is lost a further description of Nymphidius' 
early life, including his promotion to the post of colleague with 
Tigellinus in command of the praetorians, in succession to Faenius 

Ch. 73, § I. sed: resuming the narrative after the digression. 

conlata, &c. : the conspirators had not been tried (as was usual 
under Tiberius) in the senate, but privately before the princeps at 
his Servilian villa (ch. 58, 3). Hence he published this record of 
the proceedings to show that the conspiracy was real. 

§ 2. tamquam : Intr. H 50. 

§ 3. adultam, 'matured.' 

revictam, 'brought home to its perpetrators,' = ' convictam.' 

§ 4. Gallionem : the proconsul of Achaia mentioned in Acts 
xviii 12. He was originally named Annaeus Novatus, but changed 
his name on being adopted by the Gallio o{Ann.\\ 3, i. According 
to Jerome, he was forced to commit suicide in the year following this. 

Clemens: otherwise unknown. 

liostem et parricidara : the same words are used by the 
senators against Catiline (Sail. Cat. 31), and by the followers of 
Otho against Vitellius, Hisf. i 85. The words allege participation 
in the conspiracy. 



ne, &c.: this clause ^ives the substance of the arguments urged 
by the ' patres.' Cf. xiii 53, 4. 

composita, ' set at rest' ; cf. 'compositis bellis,' A7in. iii 56, 8. 

Ch. 74, § I. apud circum = ' in circo.' The sun would naturally 
be worshipped here, as being the great charioteer. Tertullian writes 
'circus soli principaliter consecratur, cuius aedes medio spatio et 
effigies de fastigio aedis emicat' (de Sped. 8). 

occulta coniurationis : cf. Intr. II 23. 

Cerealium : see ch. 53, I. 

Neronis cognomentum : April is called ' Neroneus ' in xvi 

12, 3- 

templum, &c.: the expression is obscure, as the place from 
which Scaevinus had taken the dagger was already a temple,, see 
ch. 53. Perhaps some words are lost, showing that a new temple 
to 'Salus' was to be built in Rome as well as some monument at 

§ 2. ipse : Nero. So Vitellius dedicated the sword by which 
Otho committed suicide CSuet. Vif. 10). 

arma, ' the rising,' of Vindex. See Appendix to book xvi. 

trahebatur, 'was interpreted.' 

§ 3. in commentariis senatus : see Intr. I 3. 

pro sententia, ' in giving his opinion.' 

Cerialem Anicium: for his death see xvi 17, 8. 

templum, &c. : it would have been an innovation to found a 
shrine at Rome to a living emperor; such shrines, under the early 
empire, were allowed in the provinces alone. Divine titles might 
be applied by courtiers, but formal deification by the senate was not 
solemnized till an emperor's death: hence Tertullian's 'maledictum 
est, ante apotheosin deum Caesarem nuncupare' [Apol. 34). 

§ 4. venerationem, iSzc. : restored by conjecture from Med. ' et 
veneratio ite merito quorunda ad omia dolum sui exitus uerte- 
retur.' The use of sui indicates that some sentence has been 
lost in which Nero stood as subject and his reason for refusing the 
honour was explained. 



Ch. 1-13. Remaining events of the year. 

1-3. Delusion propagated by Caesellius Bassus respecting a 
treasure in Africa. 4, 5. Recurrence of the Neronian festival : 
Nero appears on the stage of the public theatre : constant 
presence and applause exacted from the audience ; peril of Ve- 
spasian. 6. Death of Poppaea, and honours paid to her. 7-9. C. 
Cassius and L. Silanus impeached by Nero before the senate : 
the former exiled ; the latter removed to Barium and killed there. 
10, II. L. Vetus, his daughter Pollitta, and mother-in-law Sextia, 
forced to suicide. 12. P. Gailus exiled. The months of May 
and June to be called Claudius and Germanicus. 13. Storms in 
Campania and pestilence at Rome : levy of troops in provinces, 
and bounty of Nero to the people of Lugdunum. 

A. U. C. 819, A. D. 66. C. Suetonius Paulinus, C. Tjueciua 
Telosinus, coss. 

Cli. 14-20. Various persons put to death. 

14-16. P. Anteius and Ostorius Scapula accused of astrology by 
Antistius Sosianus : their deaths. Excuse of Tacitus for record- 
ing the general want of spirit. 17. Deaths of Rufrius Crispinus, 
Annaeus Mela (brother of Seneca and father of Lucan). and 
Cerialis Anicius. iS-20. Death and character of C. Petronius, 
who taunts Nero in writing with his secret excesses : this leads 
to the exile of Silia. Minucius Thermus sacrificed to the enmity 
of Tigellinus. 

Ch. 21-35. Crowning iniquity of the deaths of Thrasea Paetus 
and Barea Soranus. 

21, 22. Speech of Capito Cossutianus against Thrasea, respecting 
his conduct in the senate and subsequent absence trom it. 
23. Ostorius Sabinus, a knight, impeaches Soranus for his conduct 
as proconsul of Asia. 24-26. Thrasea forbidden to meet Nero 
on his entry into Rome with Tiridates. He demands to know 
the ground of offence, and consults with his friends whether he 
should meet the charge or anticipate it by death. 27-29. The 
senate surrounded by soldiers : letter of Nero read : speech of 
l-^prius Marcellus against Thrasea, Helvidius Priscus, Paconius 
Agrippinus, Curtius Montanus. Consternation in the senate. 
30-32. Charges of Ostorius against Soranus and his daughter 
Servilia, wife of the exiled Annius Poilio, and their defence : 
baseness of P. Egnatius the Stoic in bearing witness against him. 
33. Constancy of Cassius Asclepiodotus, a friend of Soranus 
Sentence passed, that Thrasea, Soranus, and Servilia be permitted 
127 T 


to commit suicide ; Helvidius and Paconius to be banished from 
Italy ; Montanus to be excluded from public life : the accusers 
rewarded. 34, 35. Last hours of Thrasea. 

Ch. L § I- vanitatem, 'credulity'; so in xiv 22, 4. 

Eassi: Suetonius omits the name, but styles the person 'eques 

turbida, 'disordered ' ; so ' turbidus animi,' said of Gaius, Hist. 
iv 48, 2. 

emercatus : by bribing the ' ianitores.' Cf. Juv. iii 184. 

non, &c., 'not coined into money, but in rude and antique 
masses' (the ablative is that of quality). Notice the bold 
omission of a participle with in formam ; and for the expression 
cf 'in faciem,' xiii 38, 2. 

§ 2. lateres, ' ingots,' ' Columnae,' a grandiloquent word for 
upright bars. 

occulta : sc. ' fuisse.' 

augendis : dative of purpose. 

§ 3. ut coniectura dsmonstrabat : parenthetical, abdidisae 
depends on ' expromit.' 

Dido : accusative. 

reges Numidarum : such as larbas, Verg. Aen. iv 36. 

alias, ' otherwise.' Usually in Tacitus it means ' at other times.' 

Ch. 2, § I. fide: used strictly with 'auctoris,' and more loosely 
with 'negotii ' ; 'the credibility of the informant and the intrinsic 
likelihood of the matter.' 

nosceret : Intr. II 28. 

velut paratam, 'lying as it were ready to hand.' So also 
' praeda parata' in Ovid, Her. viii l2. 

§ 2. delectum remigium, ' picked oarsmen.' 

nee aliud, &c., 'and throughout those days nothing else was 
discussed, with credulity on the part of the people, but with lan- 
guage of far different import on the part of the thoughtful.' For 
this use of ' diversus ' cf. ' diversa simulatione,' xiv 10, 4 ; for ' ferre ' 
cf XV 46, I. 

§ 3. quinquennale ludicrum : instituted in 60 A. D. ; xiv 
20, I, 

ab oratoribvisque : Med. has ' auaratoribus oratoiibusque ' ; 
Ritt. reads ' [ab oratoribus] oratoribusque," considering the former 
words interpolated from a marginal note explaining the dative of 

praecipua : sc. ' haec,' ' this was taken up as a special theme of 
eulogy upon the emperor.' 

§ 4. confusum, &c.: (i) taking ' metallis ' as ablative of place, 
'in mines'; 'confusum,' 'mixed with other substances,' or (2) 
taking ' metallis ' as ablative of instrument, ' gold commingled 
with (other) ores.' As the text stands, (i) seems best; but in 
favour of (2) is the consideration that 'ahis' might easily have 
dropped out after 'metallis' in copying. 

BOOK XVI. CII. 1, § I — CH. 4, §§ 1-4 

provenire, ' was fruitful ' ; the word more properly applies to 
the produce itself, as xiii 57, 2. 

obvias, ' freely presenting themselves,' ' unsought.' 

quaeque alia, &c., 'and other flatteries they invented, highly 
eloquent and servile in the extreme, confident of his ready ac- 
ceptance of them.' (fingebant, strictly standing in the relative 
clause, may be understood as verb also to the principal clause 
commencing with 'securi.') 

Ch. 3, § I. luxuria, ' his extravagance.' Suetonius connects 
with this expectation the costly buildings mentioned by Tacitus 
earlier, xv 42-43. 

inde, ' out of this treasure,' by anticipation. 

largiebatur : Tacitus puts the amount squandered in indis- 
criminate largesses at 2,200 million sesterces (about ^i8,coo,ooo), 
H. i 20, 2. 

paupertatis publicae, ' exhaustion of the public funds.' In 
Suet. Ner. 32, we are told that his extravagance at this period 
made Nero ' ita iam exhaustus et egens ut stipendia quoque 
militum et commoda veteranorum protrahi ac differri necesse 

§ 2. circum : an attribute. Cf. ' dites circum terras,' Ann. iv 
55, 8; Intr. II 49. 

admirans, ' protesting with astonishment.' 

in locum, ' to make up for.' 

gazae : a Persian word, used especially of royal treasure. 

Ch. 4, § I. lustrali certaniine : cf. xiv 20, i. 

dedeeus : the scandal of his appearance on the stage. 

facundiae, * of eloquence.' This prize is offered to Nero in 
virtue of his poetic gifts, of which he proceeds to give proof by 
reciting a poem of his own. 

ludici-a deformitas, 'the degradation of the public stage.' Cf. 
'deformia,''xiv 15, 3. 

§ 2. nihil arnbitu, &c., 'he had no need of any senatorial in- 
fluence or authority (over the judges), but would meet his rivals 
on equal terms and only gain the honour as awarded by the con- 
scientious verdict of the judges.' 

carmen : part of the ' Troica,' according to Dio. 

in scaena : in the great theatre of Pompeius, cf. xiii 54, 4. 

publicaret, ' that he would make exhibition of all his accom- 

ingreditur : after reciting as a poet he left the stage, and on 
pressure from the people re-entered as a harper. Suetonius says 
that he sang the part of Niobe. 

citharae legibus, ' the etiquette of the harper's profession.' 

§ 3. genu : accusative of respect (Intr. II 4). 

§ 4. iuvare, 'to stimulate' by applause. For the 'histriones' 
cf. xiii 19, 4. 

certis modis, ' in regular cadence ' ; composito, ' regulated, 
modulated.' So too Dio speaks of the people in the time of 
129 -12 


Commodus (180-193 A.D.) as practising a harmonized style of 
applause, (vpiSfxuis cKl-ioav. 

Ch. 5, § I. municipiis: the following words show that this 
means the Italian country towns, more usually termed by Tacitus 
' municipia et coloniae.' For the contrast of life in these towns 
with that of Rome cf. Pliny, £/>. i 14, 4 'patria est ei Brixia ex 
ilia nostra Italia, quae multum adhuc verecundiae frugalitatis atciue 
etiam rusticitatis antiquae retinet.' 

antiqui moris retinente : so'avtae nobilitatis retinens,' ^;z«. 
ii 38, 9. 

lascivia inexpert!, ' inexperienced in profligacy.' So ' bonis 
inexpertus ' in Livy, and ' bellis inexpertus,' Tac. //. i 8, 2. 

officio . . . utilitate : cf. ' publica utilitate,' xv 44, 8 ; Intr. II 19. 

turbarent gnaros : sc. ' plaudendi,' ' threw out the trained ap- 

irrpari, ' ill-regulated,' ' out of time.' 

§ 2. dum . . . enituntur, 'fighting their way through,' either to 
reach their places in the auditorium or to get out. 

sedilibus : ablative of place. 

§ 3. metus, si : cf. An^!. i 11, 5 ' patres, quibus unus metus si 
intellegere viderentur,' meaning that the consequence of detection 
rather than detection itself was dreaded. 

palam, ' many being there openly '; Intr. II 49. 

I 4. redditum, ' paid off.' 

I 5. Vespasianum : not mentioned in any other extant portion 
of the Afuials (except iii 55, 5), but his name must have occurred 
in the account of the campaigns of Plautius in Britain, and of the 
Jewish rebellion, when he was appointed commander in Palestine, 
66 A.D. 

tamquam : Intr. II 50. 

Phoebo: otherwise unnoticed by Tacitus. Dio describes how 
Vespasian subsequently dismissed him with a contemptuous re- 

mox ; he retired into obscurity till his appointment in Judaea. 

maiore fato, ' owing to his grander destiny,' i. e. because he was 
to be emperor. 

Ch. 6, § I. ictu calcis: Suetonius adds that his burst of passion 
was caused by her reproaching him for coming late from the circus. 

venenum : sc. ' fuisse.' 

obnoxius, Sic, 'dominated by love of his wife' (cf. xiii 45, 3). 

§ 2. Romanua mos ; cremation, according to the elder Pliny, 
was not an old Roman custom, but was first instituted for disposing 
of the dead in distant wars, and won its way slowly at Rome, 
Sulla being the first of the Cornelia gens to be cremated. 

conditur (from ' condio '), ' was embalmed.' differtum odori- 
bus expresses the process. 

tumulo luliorum: the mausoleum of Augustus in the Campus 

§ 3. tamen : though she was not burnt. 

BOOK XVI. CH. 4, § 4 — CH. 9, §§ 1-2 

divinae infantis, 'a child which had been deified'; of. 
XV 23. 

Ch. 7, § I. recordantibus, 'to those who thought upon (her 
past).' Her 'saevitia' was shown in her conduct towards Octavia, 
xiv 59-64 ; cf. also xv 61, 4. 

complevit, ' crowned.' ' Mortem ' should be regarded in a 
pregnant sense, as =' invidiam mortis.' 

Cassium: cf. xiii 41, 5. The prohibition to attend the funeral 
would be a 'renuntiatio amicitiae,' cf. xv 23, 5. 

§ 2. dilatum est : sc. ' malum.' 

Silanus : cf xv 52, 3. 

§3. mis3a oratione : i.e. by sending a letter introducing a 
* relatio,' cf Juv. x 71. 

removendos a re publica, ' must be removed from public life,' 
i.e. banished. 

C. Cassi: the conspirator against Julius Caesar. The effigies 
of Brutus and Cassius, though not shown publicly at funerals, were 
allowed by Augustus to be kept in the houses of their descendants ; 
and even at this time their birthdays were kept as festivals by men 
of republican sentiments, such as Thrasea and Helvidius (Juv. 

duci partium, ' to the leader of the cause ' (cf. ' partes,' xv 
50, 5)- 

§ 4. praeruptum, * reckless.' The word is not elsewhere used 
of persons. 

queni, &c., ' to display (as leader) for a revolution.' 

Ch. 8, § I. isdem quibus patruum : cf. xv 35, 3. 

inania, &c., ' charges as false as they were frivolous' (accusative 
in apposition to the clause introduced by ' tamquam,' which gives 
the substance of Nero's accusation ; see also Intr. II 6 a). 

intentior, Slc, ' was the more careful through (the general) fear, 
and alarm at his uncle's destruction had put him on his guard 
(against this particular offence).' 

§ 2. inducti, &c., ' then were brought before the senate, as 
nominal informers, persons to bring a false charge,' &c. Among 
these would be the Stoic Heliodorus, named by the Schol. on Juv. 
i 33 ' magni delator amici.' 

Lepidam : sister of Junia Calvina, cf. xiv 12, 5. 

diros, 'magical.' P'or passages illustrating ideas about witch- 
craft in the Augustan age cf. Verg. Ed. 8; Hon Od. i 27, 21, 
Epod. 5, Sat. i 8. (For ' diros sacrorum ritus' see Intr. II 57.) 

§ 3. Calpurnius Fabatus : a recipient of letters from the 
younger Pliny, who married his grand-daughter Calpurnia His- 

distentum, 'engrossed.' For circa='in relation to,' 'in the 
matter of,' cf Intr. II 46. 

minores, ' beneath notice.' 

Ch. 9, § I. de Lepida : her fate is not known. 

§ 2. senectus, &c., ' his age was left to do its work ' ; however 


he survived Nero and returned under Vespasian, dying a natural 
death. (Med. has ' senatus eius': for the correction cf. Afin. xi 
26, 2 'ut senectam principis opperirentur.') 

Barium: on the Adriatic; ' Bari moenia piscosi,' Hor. Sat, 
i 5, 96. 

§ 3. suadenti abrumpere : cf. Intr. II 31. 

remittere : corrected in Med. by a later hand for the first 
reading 'peremittere.' 'He would not excuse his assassin from his 
glorious task' (ironical). ' Se' omitted, cf. Intr. II 3 a. 

§ 4. premi = 'opprimi,' ' to be overpowered ' (Intr. II 28), 

§ 5. a centurione : as though 'caderet ' = ' interficeretur.' For 
the mood see Intr. II 40. 

adversis, ' in the front of his body.' 

Ch. 10, § I. Vetus : governor of Upper Germany, xiii 53; 
father-in-law of Rubellius Plautus, whom he advised to resist the 
death-sentence, xiv 58, 3. 

Pollitta: corrected as being a known Roman name, from the 
Med. ' polutia.' Her gentile name was Antistia, xiv 22, 5. 

tamquam, &c., 'as though by merely living they reproached 
him with the murder of Rubellius Plautus.' 

§ 2. praebuit : sc. ' principi.' 

interversis, ' after having embezzled.' 

Asiae pro consule : Vetus was proconsul of Asia for the year 
preceding these events. 

§ 3. componi, &c., 'were matched against each other on an 
equal footing' ; a metaphor from the arena. Properly, a freedman 
could not bring a criminal accusation against his patron. 

rormianos, &c., ' to his estate at Formiae.' 

§ 4. super, ' besides,' ' irrespectively of.' 

atrox, ' exasperated.' 

cervicem : he had been beheaded, xiv 59, 4. 

sanguinem et vestes respersas : hendiadys, = 'vestes san- 
guine respersas.' 

inpexa, ' unkempt ' ; cf. Tac. Dial. 20, 3 ' tristem et inpexam 
antiquitatem.' (Med. has ' In plexa,' probably a corruption due to 
'amplexa' above.) 

luctu . . . alimentis : Intr. II 22 a. 

§ 5. egressus obsidens : lit. 'laying siege to his goings-out,' 
waiting for him to come out and then, as we might say, besieging 
him with her appeals. ' Egressus ' can denote the action quite as 
well as the place of exit, and in this sense best corresponds with 
' aditu.' 

collegam : he was colleague with Nero in his first consulship, 
55 A.D., xiii II. 

inmobilem . . . iuxta : ' obdurate alike to entreaty and protests' 
'Invidia' is similarly used in xv 19, 2. 

Ch. 11, § I. nuntiat . . . abicei-e : Intr. II 31. 

uti necessitate, ' make the best of the inevitable,' i. e. die with 


BOOK XVI, CH. 9, § 2 — CH. 13, §§ 1-2 

cognitionem : the technical term for trial before senate (ch. 
30, 3) or princeps. 

trucem sententiam : sentence of death, cf. § 6. 

§ 2. heredem Caesarem : Tiberius did not always accept such 
legacies, Ann. ii 48, I ; Nero, according to Suet., insisted on them, 
and even enacted 'ut in^ratorum in principem testamenta ad 
fiscum pertinerent,' and Pliny calls Domitian ' unus omnium, nunc 
quia scriptus, nunc quia non scriptus, hares.' 

nepotibus : the children of Rubellius Plautus are mentioned in 
xiv 59, I. One of them, Rubellius Blandus, is addressed in Juv. 
viii 39- 

§ 3. proxime libertatem, ' in nearly Republican style.' (For 
the accusative cf. xv 15, 6.) 

novissimo, ' at the last moment.' 

§ 4. proper! : adverbial (Intr. II 2 b). 

certatim, &c., 'each praying eagerly for a speedy end (i.e. to be 
the first to die), so as to leave their own kindred surviving, though 
doomed to perish.' et= 'et tamen,' cf. xiv 65, 2. 

§ 5. seniores, &c., ' the (two) elder died first, then she who was 
in her earliest years.' ' Cui prima aetas ' would however apply better 
to a child, than to a young wife and mother ; and this gives force to 
the suggestion that ' prima' may be a corruption of ' proxima' and 
that for 'seniore,' the reading of Med., the right correction is 
'senior,' 'the old man died first, then the women in order of 

§ 6. more maiorum : see xiv 48, 4. 

sine arbitro, ' without interference,' i. e. without sending a cen- 
turion to see the death-sentence carried out. 

Ch. 12, § I. Faenio Rufo : xv 50, 4. 

aqua atque igni prohibitus : the usual phrase is 'alicui aqua 
atque igni interdicere.' The sentence involved exile and loss of 
property, but was not so severe as ' deportatio,' as it allowed some 
choice of residence. 

§ 2. liberto et accusatori=Fortunatus, see ch. 10. 

viatorea: xiii 27, 2. 

§ 3. Claudii . . . Germanici : chosen as names borne by Nero 
himself ; so Domitian gave the names ' Germanicus ' and ' Domi- 
tianus' to September and October, in his own honour; and the 
various names of Commodus were given by his courtiers to five 
successive months. 

mutantur : used as though ' nomina mensium ' were subject. 

transmissum. : (i) 'transmuted,' sc. 'in nomen Germanici,' an 
unprecedented use of the word (but quite possible), or (2) ' was 
allowed to pass into oblivion,' ' was dropped.' 

duo Torquati : xv 35, 2 and xvi 8-9. 

Ch. 13, § I. nulla, &c., ' without there being any visible blight in 
the air.' (For the subjunctive cf. Intr. II 41.) A plague is assigned 
' morbo caeli,' in Verg. G. iii 478. 

§ 2. dum deflent : the rapidity of the style omits some such 


phrase as 'eodem morbo correpti moriebantur et,' required by the 
sense before ' eodem rogo cremabantur.' 

§ 3. promiaci : * indiscriminate,' as common as those of ordmary 

§ 4. dilectus : enrolment by conscription of Roman citizens in 
the provinces named. Ordinarily the legions were recruited by 
voluntary enlistment. 

lUyricis : the term covers the legions in Pannonia and Delmatia 
(perhaps also those in Moesia). 

§ 5. cladem . . . casibus : according to Seneca fjTjz^. 91, 14) Lug- 
dunum was burnt down in the hundredth year from its foundation 
as a colony by Plancus in 43 B.C. This would bring the date of the 
fire to 58 A.D., which gives rise to the following difficulties: — (l)the 
'consolation' sent to Lugdunum by Nero is offered some seven 
years after the disaster ; (2) it is unlikely that the inhabitants could 
have sent so large a sum as four million sesterces to Rome after the 
Great Fire of 64 A. D. (indicated by ' urbis casibus') so soon after 
their own heavy losses; and (3) 'ante' most naturally means 
'before they suffered their own disaster.' It is probable, there- 
fore, that the date given by Seneca for the burning of Lugdunum is 
erroneous, and that it should be ascribed to some time after the 
fire at Rome. The alternative is to take 'cladem Lug:dunensem' 
as a second disaster otherwise unknown ; but it is unlikely that if 
such a thing had happened twice within ten years Tacitus would 
not have said more about it. 

amissa urbi, ' what their city (i. e. Lugdunum) had lost.' 

urbis casibus: for Med. 'turbis casibus,' emended in some old 
editions to ' turbidis casibus,' and taken as referring to troubles in 
the time of Claudius or Gaius. 

Ch. 14, § I. C. Suetonio : the famous general Suetonius 
Paulinus, xiv 29, 2. He had probably been consul suffectus some 
time before. 

Luccius TelesinuB is mentioned by Philostratus among the 
philosophers exiled by Domitian. 

ut dixi : xiv 48, i. 

occasionum, 'not slow to seize opportunities' : for similar geni- 
tive of reference cf. ' laborum segnes,' xiv 33, 4. 

eiusdem loci: the place of Antistius' exile is not specified. 

Chaldaeorum : astrologers, arte: for the abl. cf. Intr. II 20. 

§ 2. ventitai'e . . . ratus, 'thinking that it was not without a 
purpose that messengers were always coming to consult him.' 
' Nuntioset consultationes,'hendiadys, as though = ' nuntios qui eum 
consultarent.' A charge of conspiracy could be grounded on con- 
sulting the future in reference to the emperor, cf. ch. 30. 

P. Anteio: cf. xiii 22, 2, 

§ 3. uescium, passively, 'unknown.' (Intr. II 51 d, ad fin.). 

Agrippinae : objective gen. 

pi'aecipuas ad, ' were specially adapted for.' 

§ 4. dies genitalis: referring to the casting of his horoscope. 

BOOK XVI. CH. 13, § 2 — CH. 16, §§ 1-3 

secretis : abl. of place, ' in Pammenes' private receptacles.' 

Ostorii Scapulae : see xiv 48. 

inminere rebus, ' were menacing the empire.* 

§ 5. liburnicae = biremes. 

obsignaret : seven Roman citizens were required as witnesses to 
the signature of a will ; all feared to stand as witnesses to Anteius' 
will, not daring to acknowledge themselves as his friends. (Subj. 
after ' ut,' but imperf. like ' ibatur,' xiii 2, i, of an incomplete 
tendency: Intr. II 38.) 

nisi, &c., 'had not Tigellinus authorized them to do so, from 
having first recommended Anteius not to delay in making his last 

§ 6. hausto veneno : Intr. II 21 c. 

Ch. 15, § I. apud finem, 'on the boundary of; cf. 'ad finem 
Campanum,' Livy ix 6, 10. 

§ 2. multa militari fama : abl. of quality. 

civicam coronam, iSic. : by saving a fellow-citizen's life in his 
father's victory over the Iceni, circ. 47 A.D. {Ann. xii 31, 7j. 

coniuratione : that of Piso. 

§ 4. hactenus, 'only to this extent,' cf xiv 3, 2. 

iugulo : ablative, 'he met (the point) with his throat.' 

Ch. 16. The general argument of this chapter is as follows : 
' This catalogue of tyrannical executions grows tedious, and the 
lack of spirit shown by the victims might incline the historian to 
pass contemptuously over any record of their death. I do not 
however avoid such record : these horrors were due to the wrath of 
Heaven, and the victims deserve pity not condemnation. The 
historian must record evil as well as good ; here I have to describe 
not a single calamity suffered by the whole body of the state and 
capable of narration in a single passage, but one that was distributed 
over a multitude of persons who, owing to their distinguished 
position, require individual mention.' 

§ I. tanta casuum similitudine, ' all attended by such uniformity 
of painful detail.' 

meque : the apodosis begins here, and ' meque ' is answered by 

aspernantium, 'disliking' fcf. xiv 42, 2). quamvis, &c., 'who, 
however noble those deaths might be, would dislike the unending 
tale of misery.' 

§ 2. nunc, ' as the case is.' 

maestitia restringvmt, ' oppress,' ' paralyse ' the mind with grief. 
Perhaps, however, ' maestitiam ' should be read ; then ' restrin- 
gunt'='bind fast,' 'suppress.' Madv. suggests 'restinguunt ' = 
'quench,' which, if we may adopt 'maestiiiam,' gives much the 
same meaning. 

neque, &c., ' and I shall not demand from my readers any further 
excuse, except that I need not show hate for those who died so 
tamely ' (by omitting to record their deaths). 

§ 3. ira ilia, &c. : cf. 'fatali omnium ignavia,' xv 61, 6. 


captivitate, ' occupation by an enemy,' cf. xiii 25, 2. 

semel edito, ' after a single mention of the fact,' cf. Intr. II 21 a. 

§ 4. posteritati, 'the future,' i.e. their posthumous renown: cf. 
' sola posteritatis cura,' H. ii 53, 3. 

promisca, ' ordinary,' i.e. without ' imaginum pompa,' ' laudatio,' 
and public attendance invited by proclamation. 

supremorum, ' of their end,' cf. ' ad suprema,' ch. II, 3. 

Ch. 17, § I. Cerialis Aniciua : xv 74, 3. 

C. Petronius: see next ch. 

equites . . . dignitate senatoria : knights with senatorial census 
(i.e. possessing at least 1,000.000 sesterces), 'equites illustres.' 

§ 2. praefectiis praetorii : he had been removed from this 
position through Agrippina's influence, Ann. xii 42, i. For his 
banishment see xv 71, 8. 

§ 3. Gallic : xv 73, 4. 

parentibus : xiv 53, 5. 

praeposteram, lit. ' wrong side foremost,' i. e. 'peculiar,' ' eccentric' 
The ' equites illustres ' might hold such important posts as those of 
praefectus praetorii, vigilum, annonae, and Egypti, and so might 
become superior in influence and wealth to senators. 

administrandis : dative of purpose. 

§ 4. rem familiarem : Lucan must have been wealthy, from the 
allusion to his ' horti marmorei,' Juv. vii 79, and evidently his 
property had not been confiscated after his suicide. 

requirit, ' calls in ' from his debtors. Romanus may have been one. 

§ 5. mixta, &c., 'the charge was invented that the father shared 
his son's complicity in the plot.' 

adsimilatis, ' forged.' 

ad eum, 'to Mela,' by way of denunciation of his guilt. 

$ 6. Capitonem : xiii 33, 3. 

I 7. additur, &c. : the actual addition to his will begins at ' se 
quidem,' ' tamquam . . . scripsisset' being a parenthetical explana- 
tion of the assignable reason for such an insertion, ' as though he 
had so written in complaint of the injustice of his death.' (With 
the alternative reading, ' scripsisse,' we must translate 'he is made 
to have written in addition,' «S:c., and take ' codicillis ' as abla'.ive, 
' in his will.') 

§ 8. composita, ' to have been invented,' by Nero's creatures. 
(If 'scripsisse' is read in § 7 the invention would be Mela's.) 

proditam . . . coniurationem : the circumstances are not known. 

Ch. 18, § I. Petronius is believed to be the author of the Satirae, 
of which considerable fragments remain, written in the form of the 
narrative of the experiences of a Greek 'libertus' in various towns 
in S. Italy. The longest of these fragments, known as the ' Supper 
of Trimalchio,' describes an entertainment given by a vulgar 

pauca, &c., 'a slight retrospect must be made.' 

profligator, ' spendthrift'; cf. 'profligare opes,' Nep., and Intr. 


BOOK XVI. CH. IG, § 3 — CH. 19, §§ 1-5 

haurientium='exhaurientium' (Intr. II 28). 

erudito luxu : ablative of quality, ' a man who had made an art 
of luxury.' 

§2. Bolutiora, 'more free from all restraint'; cf. ' solutius,' 
xiii 47, 2. 

Bui neglegentiam, ' carelessness,' ' disregard of consequences.' 

in speciem, &c., ' as displaying a sincere nature ' ; the language 
of this section indicates that he took a free tone with Nero, as well 
as disregarded all moral restraint. 

§ 3. consul : suffectus, in some year unknown. 

§ 4. revolutus . . . imitatione : for similar co-ordination of 
participle and ablative cf. xiii 47, i, and Intr. II 64 f. 

inter paucos familiarium, ' among his few most intimate friends,' 
i.e. ' as one of his most intimate friends.' Cf. ' inter paucas memorata 
populi Romani clades ' (Liv. xxii 7, i), ' spoken of as among few,' 
i.e. 'equalled by few,' 'one of the worst.' 

elegantiae arbiter, ' the authority on taste,' not a formal title, 
though it describes his position at Court, and may well have been 
applied to him as a kind of nick-name, and substituted humorou.sly 
by himself for his real cognomen in the title of his book, given in 
AISS. as ' Petronii Arbitri Satirae.' An alternative supposition in 
regard to the latter point is that 'arbitri' was inserted in the MS. 
by some grammarian who wished to mark the identity of the satirist 
with the courtier described by Tacitus. 

adfluentia : causal ablative, ' owing to abundance,' ' in his satiety.' 

adprobavisset : frequentative, cf. Intr. II 41. 

§ 5. adgreditur, ' addresses himself to,' ' proceeds to work upon.' 

Scaevini : cf. xv 49, 4. 

adempta: i.e. no opportunity being given for it. 

Ch. 19, § I. Cumas usque: Nero had probably gone to Baiae 
or Neapolis, and Petronius was on the way to join him. 

attinebatur, 'was detained,' cf. xiii 15, 4. 

timoris aut spei moras ; cf. ' cunctantibus prolatantibusque 
spem ac metum,' xv 51, i. 

§ 2. praeceps: adverbial, cf. 'properi,' ch. 11,4. 

ut libitum, 'as the humour took him.' 

§ 3. audiebatque, &c.: a contrast to the conduct of more serious 
persons, who sought the consolations of philosophy before death ; 
cf. xiv 59, 2 ; xvi 34. 

levia . . . faciles, ' frivolous . . . playful ' ; carmina, ' lyrics ' ; 
versus, hexameters or iambics. 

§ 5. quern: Intr. II 3 b. 

sub nominibus, ' giving the names,' to show Nero that the details 
of his vices were not secrets. 

ne mox, &c. : so that it should be impossible to implicate other 
persons by documents forged over his signature, as had been done 
in the case of Lucan, ch. 17, 5. Pliny also states that Petronius 
broke a valuable cup, ' truUam murrinam trecentis millibus emptam 
fregit,' to keep it out of Nero's clutches. 


Ch.20, §i. noctium suarum ingenia/ the ingenuities of his noc- 
turnal vices.' So in xiv 3, 5 ' ingenium' = 'inventiveness,' of a person. 

offertur, ' occurred to him." 

tamquam, ' on the ground that.' proprio odio : causal ablative, 
' out of personal hatred,' as contrasted with his reason for destroying 
Thernius, in the next section. 

§ 2. quaedam . . . detulerat, 'had brought some incriminating 
information against Tigellinus,' with disastrous consequences to 
himself and his master ; for a similar instance of the danger of 
attacking a favourite of the emperor, cf. xiii t,'^, 4. 

Ch. 21, § I. Thrasea : cf. xiii 49. 

Barea Soranus is mentioned A?in. xii 53, 2, as consul designatus 
and voting a reward to the freedman Pallas, probably under pressure 
from Agrippina, as the elder Pliny says the measure was carried 
'iubente Agrippina.' His son-in-law Annius Pollio had already 
been exiled as sharing in Piso's conspiracy, xv 71, 6. 

ut memoravi ; xiv 12, 2. 

luvenalium : see xiv 15, i. 

parum spectabilem, &c., ' had been backward in giving his 
services at the Juvenalia,' in the way of applauding Nero, or, as the 
following sentence suggests, as a performer. 

cetastis : so Med. Possibly the word is a corruption for ' cetariis,' 
and the festival was held by persons connected with the tunny fisheries 
of the Adriatic, from which Patavium (Padua) is not far distant. 
The correction is supported by the existence of an inscription found 
near Patavium to a ' lusor epidixib(us) et cetaes ' (which latter word 
is taken as a Greek dative to ' cetae,' ' -aes' for ' -ais '), and of the 
word ' cetariis ' in a letter of Pomponius Secundus to Thrasea 
quoted in Charisius. 

Antenore : traditional founder of Patavium (Liv. i I, 2 ; Verg. 
Aeti. i 247). 

habitu tragico eecinerat: cf. xv 65, 2. 

§ 2. Antistius : xiv 48. 

damnabatur: cf. 'decernebat,' xv 74, 4. 

deum honores Poppaeae : not previously mentioned. 

§ 3. concidiBset, 'had been condemned,' cf. xiii 33, 3. 

Ch. 22, § I. sollemne iua iurandum : the oath maintaining the 
'acta' of the princeps and his predecessors, cf. below § 5, and 
xiii II, I, which together with the 'sacramentum in nomen 
principis' was renewed annually on January i. 

votorum, 'vota pro incolumitate reipublicae' were taken on 
January I, and those ' pro incolumitate principis' on the 3rd. All 
the priestly colleges took part in them. 

quindecimvirali : the ' quindecimviri' kept the Sibylline books, 
and had special charge of the ' ludi saeculares.' The ' collegium,' 
at first consisting of two, was raised to ten when opened to plebeians, 
and to fifteen by Sulla. 

qui, &c., ' who took a prominent part in supporting or opposing 
quite ordinary matters before the House' (cf. xiii 49, i). 

BOOK XVI. CH. 20, § I — CH. 22, §§ i-io 

non introisse : such non-attendance might under the Republic 
be punished with a fine, and Dio mentions that Augustus and 
Claudius enforced this; the language of Nero, ch. 27, 2 (unless 
applying to Thrasea only) would show that attendance in the senate 
had again become lax. 

Silanum et Veterem : chs. 7, 3 and 11,6. 

privatis, &;c., ' had preferred to give his time to the private 
affiiirs of his clients,' by appearing in their support in the law- 

§ 2. id: this use of the neuter pronoun, where its gender would 
more classically be attracted to that of the noun referred to, is 
common in Tacitus. The usage appears first in Vergil, as ' nee 
sopor illud erat,' Aen. iii 173. 

partes, ' a formation of parties,' as though Thrasea was heading 
a Republican party against Nero and the Imperialists (cf. xiii 


Catonem : quoted as the leading representative of the republican 
opposition to Julius Caesar, 

te, Nero, et Thraseam . . . loquitur. Cf. ' Pharsaliam . . . loque- 
bantur,' //. i 50 3. 

§ 3. sectatores, &c., ' a following, or rather a retinue ' : the first 
word applying to the followers of a republican politician, the latter 
to the bodyguard of a potentate. 

sententiarum : opinions given in the senate. 

quo, &c., ' so as to reproach you with wantonness.' 

§ 4. etiam . . . non : for ' ne . . . quidem,' so xiii 3, 6. 

in acta, &c. : the 'acta' of Gaius and Tiberius were omitted 
from the annual oath, which therefore at this time mentioned only 
those of Julius, Augustus, Claudius, and Nero himself. The name 
of Claudius is dropped here as less acceptable to Nero than the 
other two. 

§ 6. diuma: the daily Gazette (sc. 'acta'), giving the minutes 
of procedure in the senate and the law courts, and other official 
information (Intr. I 3). 

quid . . . non fecerit, ' what Thrasea has abstained from,' in 
public life. 

§ 7. ilia inatituta : i. e. the republicanism desired by Thrasea. 

ista secta : i. e. Stoicism. 

Tuberones et Pavonios, ' men like Tubero and Favonius ' ; 
rhetorical plurals: cf. xv 14, 3. Q. Aelius Tubero, a nephew of 
the younger Africanus and an opponent of the Gracchi, is mentioned 
by Cicero as a Stoic of high character, but of too rigid austerity 
and 'perversa sapientia.' M. Favonius, one of the ' optimates ' 
prominent in resistance to Julius Caesar, was taken prisoner at 
Philippi and put to death. 

§ 9. nihil scripaeris, ' send no mandate ' (cf. ch. 7, 3). 

diaceptatorem : in its capacity of criminal high court, cf. Intr. 
Ill 8. 

§ 10. extollit = ' incendit.' 



ira promptum : cf. ' audacia promptus,' xiv 40, 3. For 
Capito's enmity to Thrasea cf. ch. 21,3. 

Mai-cellum Eprium : cf. xiii 33, 4. 

acri eloquentia, ' a man of biting eloquence.' 

Ch. 23, § I. ex pi'oconsulatu, 'for matters arising out of his 
proconsulship.' Soranus was consul in 52 A.D., and proconsul 
61-62 A. D. Rubellius Plautus retired to Asia in 60 A. D. and 
was put to death there in 62 A. D. (xiv 59). The mention of 
Acratus therefore seems to be either an error, as his mission to 
Asia is placed after the great fire of 64 A. D. (xv 45, 3), or 
else he was originally sent fully two years before that date and 
perhaps sent out a second time after it. 

poi'tui Ephesiorum aperiendo : it was silting up owing to the 
dejjosits from the Cayster. 

$ 2. anibitio, &c., ' courting popularity so as to win over the pro- 
vince to the hope of a revolution.' (conciliandae, dative of purpose.) 

§ 3. Tix'idates . . . adventabat : cf. xv 29-31 and Appendix to 
this book. 

lit, (Sic, 'that the atrocity at home might be less noticed through 
the general talk turning on foreign affairs.' With ad externa we 
may supply the idea of such a participle as ' versis ' : so in Ann. xi 
23, 3 'exempla ... ad virtutem et gloriam,' ' examples in respect 
of (as though 'spectantia ad') 'valour and renown.' 

regio : i. e. like the normal conduct of an oriental king. 

Ch. '24, § I, ad excipiendum : Nero met Tiridates at Naples 
and escorted him to Rome. Some interval may be understood to 
elapse between Capito's denunciations in ch. 22 and the formal 
accusation in § 3 of this chapter. 

codicillos, ' a memorial,' ' petition.* 

requirens, ' requesting to know.' 

expurgaturum : sc. ' se.' Cf. ch. 9, 3. 

§ 3. Bpiritus, ' high spirit' (cf. xiii 21, 9). 

Ch. 25, § I. proximos, ' his most intimate friends.' 

esse: sc. 'se.' Cf. ch. 24, i. 

§ 2. supremis : cf. 'ad suprema,' ch. 11, 3: circumdare, 
' throw a veil of privacy over their end.' 

morti obvium, ' looking death in the face.' 

ipso miraculo, ' by the very miracle ' of such courage. 

Ch. 26, § I. domui : so Med. This form of 'domi ' is also read 
in many good MSS. of Cicero. 

eadem : understand from the context a verb -^ ' they said.' Cf. 
Intr. II 27. 

§ 2. manus, &c., ' would raise their hands in violence against 
him.' 'Manus ictusque' may be regarded as hendiadys. inge- 
sturi sint is a correction for Med. 'augusti' (without 'sint')- An 
emendation nearer to the MS. is to read 'ictusque parent. Im- 
manitatem Augusti etiam bonos metu sequi ' ; but it is very 
unusual to find 'Augusti' used of the emperor in ordinary lan- 


BOOK XVI. CH. 22, § lo — CH. 27, § i 

§ 3. detraheret= 'averterct.' 

quein perornavisset : (i) 'of which he had been through life 
the ornament,' cf. ' perviguere,' Atirt. iv 34, 6 ; or (2j 'of which he 
had been the highest ornament,' giving 'per' a superlative force, 
cf. 'perornatus' in Cic, and Intr. II 51c. 

§ 4. ut, (S:c., ' the hope by which they were prompted, the hope 
that Nero, &c., was futile.' ' Ut ' depends on ' spe ' (and naturally 
so, since 'hoping' and 'praying' are close together in meaning); 
cf. 'in spem induxit ut,' Cic. Off. ii 15, 53. 

pignora: properly of children, but also generally of near rela- 
tives, cf. XV 36, 5 ; 57, 3. 

§ 5. quorum . . . finem, 'let him seek his end with (i.e. win- 
ning) the glory of those in whose footsteps and teaching he had 
ordered his life'; 'gloria,' ablative of accompaniment; Intr. 
II 22 a. Or, taking 'gloria' as pregnant, for ' glorioso exemplo,' 
'according to the noble example of,' &c. Madvig's suggestion is 
ingenious, that a stroke above the line (=m) has been misplaced, 
and that the true reading is ' gloriam peteret fine,' 'he should by 
his end seek the glory of those,' &c., referring to the Stoic recom- 
mendation to suicide under certain circumstances, of which Cato's 
death at Utica was an approved example. 

§6. Rusticus Arulenus: praetor 69 A.D. {H. iii 80, 3), He 
sutfered death under Domitian for his biography of Thrasea. 

flagrans, ' ardent.' 

intercessurum : under the Empire the intercessio of a tribune 
was only exercised on sufferance {Ann. i "]"], 3), and might subse-. 
quently be fatal to the tribune, as in the case of Junius Otho, Ann. 
vi 47, and as Thrasea anticipates on this occasion. (See also 
Intr. Ill 3.) 

spiritua : cf. ch. 24, 3. 

et . . . non : cf. ch. 34, 3 ' -que . . . non.' 

§ 7. actam : cf. ' Vixi, et quern dederat cursum fortuna, peregi,' 
Verg. Aen. iv 653. 

continuum, &c., ' the unbroken tenour of his life.' 

Integra, &c., ' his future was unaffected,' not yet compromised. 
Cf. 'integra utrique cuncta,' xv 17, i. 

§ 8. multum, &c., ' let him weigh well beforehand what course 
of political action he would adopt in such times.' 

Ch. 27, § I. armatae, ' in full panoply.' Usually in the city they 
wore the toga (cf. 'globus togatorum ' below), even when on duty 
and though armed with sword and spear. 

templum Genetricis Veneris : in the centre of the forum of 
Julius Caesar (north-east of the old forum). The goddess was wor- 
shipped under that title as ancestress, through Aeneas and lulus, 
of the Julian gens. 

globus . . . gladiis, ' the way to the senate-house was beset by 
a band of soldiers in undress, with swords significantly visible.' 

fora : the forum Romanum, lulii, and Augusti. 

basilicas: such as the 'basilica Aemilia ' and the 'basilica 


lulia.' They were public buildings used as courts of justice or 
Exchanges for business men, and, in their division by columns into 
nave and aisles, were the architectural ancestors c/ Christian 

ciinei, 'detachments.' 

§ 2. curiam : built by Augustus on the site of the old house 
close to the Forum. It had escaped the late fire, but was burnt 
down under Titus. The troops, then, were thus disposed : a body 
of ' togati ' at the entrance of the ' Curia,' other detachments in 
places closely adjoining, and a large imposing force occupying like 
a fortress the neighbouring temple and precinct. 

oratio : cf. ch. 7, 3. 

per quaestorem eius : the two quaestors 'commended' for 
election by the ' princeps' were attached to him in his proconsular 
capacity. Cf Intr. Ill 2. 

nemine : this abl. occurs in H. ii 47, 6, as well as in a passage of 
Plautus, in a fragment of Cicero, and in several places in Suetonius. 

§ 3. haud veniri : those whose absence is thus palliated are 
knights, neglecting their judicial duties in Rome to ply their busi- 
ness as ' negotiatores' or ' publicani ' all over the empire. 

plerique = 'permulti.' The charge is however clearly pointed at 

hortorum, (ic, 'preferred to give all their energies to the beauty 
of their gardens' (i.e. to beautifying them), so 'inservire artibus,' 

Ch. 28, § I. faciente: aoristic (Intr. II 42). 

summam rem publicam agi, 'that the highest interests of the 
state were affected.' 

deminui, ' was being impaired,' i. e. that Nero was being forced 
to adopt severe measures. -^ 

§ 2. desciscentem : cf. ' secessionem iam id et partes,' ch. 22, 2. 

Helvidius Priscus is fully described in H. iv 5. He was quaestor 
of Achaia under Nero (Schol. on Juv. v 36), and shortly afterwards 
married Thrasea's daughter Fannia. After returning from the 
exile to which he was condemned by Nero, he was prominent in 
attacking Eprius Marcellus, and became praetor in 70 A.D. He was 
a second time banished by Vespasian, and subsequently executed 
(Suet. Vesp. 151. 

Paconium Agrippinum ; a famous Stoic, son of M. Paconius 
{Ann. iii 67, i) who, it is supposed, was one of those who perished 
on alleged complicity with Seianus and whose fate was related in 
the lost portion oi Ann. v. 

Curtium Montanum : prominent in the senate at Vespasian's 
accession, H. iv 40, 2. In ch. 29 the libellous character of his 
poetry is denied, and it is asserted that he was disliked by Nero 
simply as a rival poet. 

eludere, ' mock.' 

§ 3. requirere, 'miss the presence of,' i.e. call him to account 
for neglect of duty (cf, the charges against Thrasea in ch. 22, i). 

BOOK XVI. CH. 27, § I — CH. 30, § i 

nisi, &c., 'unless Thrasea had openly assumed the character of 
a traitor.' Some such expression as ' proditoris partes induisset ' 
might be expected as more usual ; cf. ' femina . . . munia ducis . . . 
induit,' Anti. i 69, 2 ; but the construction is assimilated to that 
of ' agere senatorem ' immediately following. 

contra, ' in defiance of,' cf. xiv 43, i. 

§ 4. agere senatorem : cf. xiii 14, i ; 46, 5- 

obtrectatores : such as Antistius (xiv 48). 

§ 5. pacem, &c. : at the end of hostilities in Armenia, peace 
throughout the empire had ensued, cf. xv 46, 2 ; and Nero 
closed the temple of Janus, a fact commemorated by inscriptions 
on coins of the time. 

victorias: referring to Tiridates' submission, xv 27-31. 

pro solitudjne haberet, 'regarded as a desert '; the multitudes 
that flocked to such places were nothing to him ; he avoided 
scenes of public interest as if they contained nothing he cared 
to see. 

qui minitaretur, ' one who threatened his own exile ' ; i.e. so 
haughty that he acted as if he thought that his exile would be 
Rome's loss, not his own. 

§ 6. illi: dative of Agent, 'were not seen by him,' 'he avoided 
the sight of.' 

abrumperet vitam : an echo of Vergil's ' nequeo crudelem 
abrumpere vitam,' Aen.yim 579. 

Ch. 29, § I. per, &c., ' throughout a speech to this effect.' 

ardesceret : by zeugma with ' voce ' and ' voltu ' ; cf. xv 4, 4, 

celebritate fso Med.) = ' frequency.' This is the only instance 
of the word being used in this sense. 

manus et tela = 'tela in manibus,' cf. 'non occultis gladiis,' 
ch. 27, I. 

§ 2. obversabatur, ' was before them,' in their mind's eye ; 
Thrasea was not present (cf. xiv 63, 2). 

§ 3. tristem patria fortunam : see ch. 28, 2. 

§ 4. enimvero : laying stress on a still stronger case, ' as for 
Montanus,' &c. 

famosi, ' slanderous.' 

quia, &c., ' because he gave evidence o his talent,' and so pro- 
voked Is^ero's jealousy. 

Ch. 30, § I. interim : before the vote was taken on Thrasea's 

ingreditur : sc. ' curiam.' Ostorius was not a senator, so would 
only come in to deliver his accusation. 

quodque, >S:c., literally, ' and that he had carried out his procon- 
sulate of Asia in a way rather adapted to himself in accordance 
with renown,' i.e. so as to redound to his own glorification. 

alendo seditiones civitatium : referring to his sympathy with 
Pergamum against Acratus ; see ch. 23, l. For the ablative cf. 
XV S> 3> ' percursando,' 



§ 2. recena, &c. : the sense is ' sed hoc, quod (filia) . . . dilargita 
esset, erat crimen recens et quo (accusator) . . . conectebat.' 

magis : the term ' magi,' sometimes confused with 'Chaldaei' 
( = astrologers), properly denotes dealers in philtres, spells, and in- 
cantations. Servilia would be accused not only of trying to divine 
the future, but also of seeking to bind the emperor by spells. 

§ 3. acciderat : sc. ' id.' 

non tamen aliud consultaverat : a short way of expressing 
'consultaverat, non tamen aliud quaesiverat ' (cf. xv 13, 2). 

cognitio : cf. 1 1 , i . 

nihil atrox, ' no extreme penalty.' 

§ 4. diversi, ' separated from each other.' 

tribunal consulum : the expression strictly applies to the con- 
sular seat of judgement in the comitium, but is used here, though 
the trial was in the senate, because the consuls would be presiding. 

in exilium pulso : cf. xv 7 1 , 6. 

onerasse, ' to have aggravated.' videbatur : sc. ' sibi.' 

Ch. 31, § I. cultus dotales, 'the ornaments given at her mar- 

longo fletu et silentio : cf xv 54, i ' multo sermone.' 

altaria et aram : a statue and altar of Victory stood in the 
Curia Julia. 'Altaria,' when distinguished from 'ara,' sometimes 
means a superstructure placed upon the permanent ' ara ' to 
receive burnt or other offerings, and so may also indicate the 
offerings themselves, as in Quint. {Dec/. 12, 26) ' aris imponere 
altaria,' and Luc. iii 404 ' structae diris altaribus arae ' ; sometimes, 
on the other hand, ' altaria ' is explained as a grander kind of altar 
than 'ara,' and in a fragment of Pacuvius, 'exanimis altaribus,' 
the sense has been given, agreeing with the derivation from ' altus,' 
of a raised threshold or step. The alternative renderings therefore 
will be (l) ' the altar with its ofiferings,' or, (2) ' the altar-steps and 
the altar.' 

nullos . . . invocavi, ' I have appealed to no powers of evil, 
have laid no curse on any one, and have sought nothing else in my 
wretched prayers,' &c. 'Invocavi' has a different sense with 
'nullos impios deos' and with 'aliud,' and from it must be supplied 
an appropriate verb such as ' imprecata sum ' with ' nullas devo- 
tiones.' (For other instances of zeugma, see Intr. II 60.) 

tu, Caesar: this direct address to the 'princeps' does not 
necessarily mean that he was present. Cf. ch. 22, 2. 
§ 2. quo modo : sc. ' dedissem.' 

I 3. viderint isti, 'let them (i. e. the ' magi ') see to it,' i. e. it is 
their concern if the rites were unholy ; I only paid them to tell me 
the future. 

Ch. 32, § I. excipit, ' interrupts,' 

separarent, ' let them distinguish between the case of one who 
was on her trial only for too great devotion to him and his own 

§ 2. ruebat, nisi : cf. xiii 2, i ; Intr. II 38. 

BOOK XVI. CH. 30, § 2 — CH. 34, §§ 1-2 

P. Egnatius: his cognomen was Celer. His impeachment by 
Musonius Rufus and banishment, in 70 A. D., are described in H. iv 
10, I ; 40, 4. Juvenal gives a vigorous denunciation of him in 
Sat. iii 116, and foil. 

§ 3. imaginem, ' outward show.' honesti : neut. 

exercitus : cf. ' Graeca doctrina ore tenus exercitus,' xv 45, 4. 

quae, &c., 'and since these qualities were revealed in him by a 
bribe, he gave us warning to be on our guard not only against 
those wrapped in wickedness and stained with crime, but also 
against those who under a mask of virtue are decei:ful an I false 
in their friendship.' ' amicitiae ' genitive of reference with ' faliaces,' 
cf. Intr. II 24 c. 

Ch. 33, § I. idem . . . dies: cf. the similar personification in 
xiv 41,1. 

Ca&sii Asclepiodoti : he returned from exile under Galba (Dio). 

celebraverat, ' had honoured.' 

exutusque : sc. ' est.' 

aeqvJtate, iS:c. : causal (Intr. II 191, ' through the indifference of 
Heaven to examples of good and evil conduct.' The sentiment is 

§ 3. Helvidius : returned under Galba (Schol. on Juv. 

§ 4. patri concessus est, ' was forgiven for his father's sake ; 
so ' precibus alicuius concedere' in Ann. ii 55, 2; iv 31, i. His 
father was a noted gourmand, and boon companion of Nero, and 
subsequently of Domitian. 

praecTicto, 'injunction being given'; the participle is not else- 
where thus used in ablative absolute. (See also Intr. II 21 b.) 

ne, &c. : i. e. that he should not continue in the service of the 
state, hold any magistracy. 

quinouagiens, duodeciens : understand ' centena millia ' with 
each. These enormous rewards, in excess of the minimum sena- 
torial census, must have been more than one-fourth of the pro- 
perty of the accused, which was the amount the accusers could 
legally expect. 

quaestoria insignia : i e. the ornaments of a senator of the 
lowest grade. Hitherto Ostorius' rank was that of 'eques,' ch. 
23, I- 

Ch. 84, § I. quaestor consulis: in old times each consul had 
attached to him one quaestor, and, from 38 B. C, two. These 
remained in the same department of office throughout the year, 
notwithstanding change of consuls. As the consuls presided at 
the trial (ch. 30, 4), one of their quaestors would be the proper 
person to communicate the sentence to the condemned ; probably 
also he had to see it carried out, g1. ch. 35, 2. 

§ 2. egerat ='coegerat' (Intr. II 2t;'. 

Demetrius is mentioned by Seneca with much admiration in 
several passages. Philostratus, who speaks of him teaching at 
Corinth, calls him avvo avviCKr](^iii nav to iv KwikJ] icpiiroi. In 



H. iv 40, 5 he appears defending Egnatius Celer fch. 32, 2), and in 
71 A. D. he was exiled by Vespasian with other philosophers. 

erat : for 'licebat ' ; cf. ' ex quo est coniectare ' (Gell. vi 6, 11). 
This Graecism, though frequent in poets, is very rare in prose; it 
occurs in Liv. xlii 41, 2 and Tac. G. 5, 4 (Intr. II 66j. 

intentione, ' from the earnestness.' 

§ 3. facessere = 'abire.' For this infinitive and 'miscere'cf. 
Intr. II 31. 

Arriae matris : Arria, wife of Caecina Paetus, voluntarily 
shared her husband's death when he was condemned for his share 
in the conspiracy of Camillus Scribonianus against Claudius in 
42 A. D. She stabbed herself first, and handed the dagger to her 
husband with the words, ' Paete, non dolet ' (Pliny, Ep. iii 16, 6; 
Martial i 14). 

filiae = Fannia, married to Helvidius Priscus : she was accom- 
panied into banishment by her mother, and eventually returned 
with her in the time of Nerva. 

-que . . . non : so ' et . . . non,' ch. 26, 6. 

Ch. 35, § 2. porrec'is: i.e. to the physician, to cut (cf. Schol. on 
Juv. V 36 'secandas venas praebuit'). 

hnmum super: anastrophe. Cf. Intr. II 55. 

libanius, &c.: cf. the action of Seneca, xv 64, 4. 

§ 3. iuvenis : addressed to the quaestor, who need not have 
been more than twenty-five. 

obversis : probably followed by ' oculis.' One of his last sayings 
is given in a fragment of Dio, 6 Nepcav anoKTilvM \ikv /ne ^vvmm, 
HTXoKiaai hi ov dvvnTci'. 

Printed in England at the Oxford University Press 


15 C: